Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

420 results found
Article

Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the main blood vessel in the abdominal cavity that transmits oxygenated blood from the thoracic cavity to the organs within the abdomen and to the lower limbs. Summary origin: continuation of descending thoracic aorta at T12  course: descends anterior and slightly to th...
Article

Aberrant left pulmonary artery

Aberrant left pulmonary artery, also known as pulmonary sling, represents an anatomical variant characterised by the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery and passing above the right main bronchus and in between the trachea and oesophagus to reach the left lung. It may le...
Article

Aberrant right subclavian artery

Aberrant right subclavian arteries (ARSA), also known as arteria lusoria, are the commonest of the aortic arch anomalies 2.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.5-2%. Clinical presentation They are often asymptomatic, but around 10% of people may complain of tracheo-oesophageal symptom...
Article

Accessory appendicular artery

The accessory appendicular artery (or artery of Seshachalam) is a branch of the posterior caecal artery, which in turn arises from the ileocolic artery, and runs in the mesoappendix. The exact prevalence of this accessory artery and its impact upon the risk of appendicitis varies among studies....
Article

Accessory hemiazygos vein

The accessory (or superior) hemiazygos vein forms part of the azygos system and along with the hemiazygos vein, it is partially analogous to the right-sided azygos vein. It drains the left superior hemithorax.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The accessory hemiazygos vein is formed by the con...
Article

Accessory middle cerebral artery

The accessory middle cerebral artery is a variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that arises from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). It is different from a duplicated middle cerebral artery, in which the duplicated vessel originates also from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (...
Article

Accessory renal artery

Accessory renal arteries are a common variant and are present in ~25% (range 20-30%) of the population. Their proper identification is of utmost importance for surgical planning prior to live donor transplantation 3,4 and renal artery embolisation for various reasons 5. The term extra renal art...
Article

Accessory right inferior hepatic vein

An accessory right inferior hepatic vein is the most common variation of the hepatic veins.  It is present in up to 48% of the population and drains the posterior part of the right lobe (mainly segments 6 and 7) directly into the inferior vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy are pa...
Article

Adrenal arteries

The adrenal glands are supplied by three adrenal (suprarenal) arteries:  superior adrenal artery: arises from ipsilateral inferior phrenic artery middle adrenal artery: arises from lateral side of abdominal aorta inferior adrenal artery: arises from the ipsilateral renal artery
Article

Adrenal veins

The venous drainage of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands is typically comprised of a single vein draining each adrenal gland. Like the gonadal veins each side drains differently: left suprarenal vein drains into the left renal vein 1. right suprarenal vein drains directly into the inferior vena ...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Angular vein

The angular vein drains the anterior region of the scalp 1. It is formed by the union of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins and becomes the facial vein 1,2,3. Gross Anatomy The angular vein is formed at the medial canthus as the supratrochlear vein and supraorbital vein unite 1,2. The a...
Article

Anomalous course of coronary arteries

Anomalous course of a coronary artery is a type of congenital coronary artery anomaly. It may represent a benign and incidental finding, but can also be a malignant course predisposing patients to life-threatening myocardial ischaemia or arrhythmias, depending on where the artery runs.  Clinica...
Article

Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
Article

Anterior cardinal veins

The anterior cardinal veins are paired transient embryologic venous vessels which deliver venous return to the heart starting at about 4 weeks of gestation 1. Embryogenesis The anterior cardinal veins begin their embryological development as symmetric venous channels draining blood from the cr...
Article

Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
Article

Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
Article

Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
Article

Anterior ethmoidal artery

The anterior ethmoidal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinus, the lateral nasal wall and the nasal septum (see nasal cavity). Course It traverses the anterior ethmoidal foramen with the anterior ethmoidal nerve (which ...
Article

Anterior humeral circumflex artery

The anterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. It is smaller in size relative to the posterior humeral circumflex artery.  Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm location: proximal arm...
Article

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
Article

Anterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of posterior and anterior intercostal arteries. Gross Anatomy The 1st to 6th anterior intercostal arteries arise directly from the lateral aspect of the internal thoracic artery. The 7th to 9th arise from the musculophrenic artery, a branch of the i...
Article

Anterior interosseous artery

The anterior interosseous artery is one of the two branches of the short common interosseous artery (from the ulnar artery). The artery courses deep in the anterior compartment of the forearm on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane along with the anterior interosseous nerve (from th...
Article

Anterior jugular vein

The anterior jugular vein is a paired tributary of the external jugular vein. Gross anatomy Location It arises beneath the chin in the region of the hyoid bone or suprahyoid neck. Origin and course The anterior jugular vein has its origin as the confluence of several small superficial subma...
Article

Anterior lateral malleolar artery

The anterior lateral malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior medial malleolar artery, supplies the lateral aspect of the ankle.  Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery runs posterior to the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to th...
Article

Anterior medial malleolar artery

Anterior medial malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior lateral malleolar artery, and supplies the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery arises approximately 5 cm proximal to the ankle passes posterior to the tendons of exte...
Article

Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
Article

Anterior superior iliac spine

The anterior superior iliac spine is an important bony surface landmark and is the prominence is the most anterior part of the ilium. It can be palpated at the lateral end of the inguinal fold. Attachments include the inguinal ligament, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius. Clinically, as an easi...
Article

Anterior temporal artery

The anterior temporal artery is usually a branch of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that curves out of the Sylvian fissure and runs over the temporal lobe to supply the anterior third of the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri.  Variant anatomy The temporopolar arter...
Article

Anterior tibial artery

The anterior tibial artery is the main arterial supply of the anterior compartment of the leg.  Gross anatomy The anterior tibial artery arises from the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa and continues distally as the dorsalis pedis artery. Course The popliteal artery usually divides at...
Article

Anterior tibial vein

The anterior tibial veins, continuations of the venae comitantes of the dorsalis pedis artery, leave the anterior compartment between the tibia and fibula and pass through the proximal end of the interosseous membrane. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein at the ...
Article

Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

The anterior ulnar recurrent artery is a recurrent branch of the proximal ulnar artery that ascends in the anterior medial aspect of the elbow, anterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus to anastomose with the inferior ulnar collateral artery (from the brachial artery) and contribute to th...
Article

Aorta

The aorta, the great artery, is the largest artery of the human body and carries oxygenated blood ejected from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation. It is divided into: thoracic aorta ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta abdominal aorta It has branches from each section a...
Article

Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. It is at the level of the sinus of V...
Article

Aortic arch

The aortic arch represents the direct continuation of the ascending aorta and represents a key area for a review of normal variant anatomy and a wide range of pathological processes that range from congenital anomalies to traumatic injury. Summary origin: continuation of the ascending aorta at...
Article

Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
Article

Aortic hiatus

The aortic hiatus is one the three major apertures through the diaphragm and lies at the level of T12. Strictly speaking, it is not a real aperture in the diaphragm, but an osseoaponeurotic opening between it and the vertebral column.  The hiatus is situated slightly to the left of the midline ...
Article

Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
Article

Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root lies between the junction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. It has several subparts 1: three aortic valve leaflets and leaflet attachments three aortic sin...
Article

Aortic spindle

Aortic spindles are an anatomical variant of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. It occurs just distal to the aortic isthmus and has a circumferential smooth bulging appearance.  Differential diagnosis ductus diverticulum: not circumferential aortic pseudoaneurysm thoracic aortic aneurysm
Article

Appendicular artery

The appendicular artery is a branch of the ileal or posterior caecal branch of the ileocolic artery, which is from the superior mesenteric artery. It courses posteriorly to the terminal ileum in the free wall of the mesoappendix to supply the appendix.
Article

Arc of Barkow

The arc of Barkow is formed by the anastomosis of the right gastroepiploic (a branch of the gastroduodenal artery) and left gastroepiploic (a branch of the splenic artery) arteries. The arc of Barkow supplies the transverse colon via multiple ascending branches. 
Article

Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan (AOR), also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterio-arterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superio...
Article

Arterial anastomosis of the elbow

The peri-articular arterial anastomosis of the elbow consists of several arteries that supply the elbow joint and its supporting structures. It functions to allow blood to flow around the elbow joint no mater which position the joint is in. The arteries that contribute include:  from the brachi...
Article

Arterial supply of the head and neck

The arteries of the head and neck are branches of the common carotid and subclavian arteries. common carotid artery carotid body carotid bifurcation internal carotid artery (segments) caroticotympanic artery persistent stapedial artery ophthalmic artery supraorbital artery lacrimal arte...
Article

Arterial supply of the lower limb

The arterial supply of the lower limbs is via vessels arising from the external iliac artery.  The common femoral artery (CFA) is the direct continuation of the external iliac artery. It begins at the level of the inguinal ligament. It terminates as it gives off the profunda femoris and continu...
Article

Arterial supply of the upper limb

The arterial supply of the upper limb is derived from the subclavian artery. The right subclavian artery originates from the brachiocephalic artery, which is the first branch of the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery originates directly from the aortic arch, being the third branch. The sub...
Article

Arterial supply to the foot

Arterial supply to the foot can be divided into plantar and dorsal components. Plantar arterial supply Medial plantar artery branch off the posterior tibial artery smaller calibre vessel supplies the medial side of the foot, abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis. provides the arter...
Article

Arterial supply to the hand

The arterial supply to the hand is comprised of a complex vascular network formed from the branches and distal continuations of the radial and ulnar arteries. This rich vascular network can be divided into palmar and dorsal components. Palmar arterial supply The palmar arterial supply can be d...
Article

Artery of Adamkiewicz

The artery of Adamkiewicz, also known as the great anterior radiculomedullary artery or arteria radicularis anterior magna, is the name given to the dominant thoracolumbar segmental artery that supplies the spinal cord. Gross anatomy Origin The artery of Adamkiewicz has a variable origin but ...
Article

Artery of Percheron

The artery of Percheron is a rare variant of the posterior cerebral circulation characterised by a solitary arterial trunk that supplies blood to the paramedian thalami and the rostral midbrain bilaterally. Gross anatomy The term is used to refer to a solitary arterial trunk that branches from...
Article

Artery to the ductus deferens

The artery to the ductus deferens (deferential or vesiculodeferential artery) is a branch of the superior vesicle artery, which in turns arises from the internal iliac artery via the umbilical artery. Gross anatomy origin: superior vesical artery main branch: no named branches course: accomp...
Article

Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta is the first part of the aorta, and begins at the aortic valve, located obliquely just to the left of the midline at the level of the the third intercostal space. It terminates as it exits the fibrous pericardium where it becomes the aortic arch, in the plane of Ludwig, a hor...
Article

Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a small artery that ascends medial to the phrenic nerve on the prevertebral fascia. It contributes many small spinal branches into the intervertebral foramina of ...
Article

Ascending lumbar communicant vein

The ascending lumbar communicant vein is a communication between the left ascending lumbar vein and the left renal vein. Because of its retroperitoneal location, when dilated, it may be mistaken for a lymph node on non-contrast studies with thick collimation. The image shows the left renal vein...
Article

Ascending lumbar vein

The ascending lumbar vein is a paired structure which forms a part of the venous drainage of the lumbar vertebral column. Summary location: near midline on the side of the vertebral column in the lumbar region origin and termination: continuation of the lateral sacral veins; joins the subcost...
Article

Ascending pharyngeal artery

The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid artery, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the stylopharyngeus. Summary origin: a branch of the external carotid artery course: vertical...
Article

Axillary artery

The axillary artery represents the continuation of the subclavian artery and is a major artery of the upper limb. Summary origin: continuation of the subclavian artery as it passes under the midpoint of the clavicle on the outer edge of the first rib  termination: continues as the brachial ar...
Article

Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (thoracoacromial) artery (from 2nd part) L: lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part) S: subsca...
Article

Axillary vein

The axillary vein is one of the major veins of the upper limb. It is formed by the union of the paired brachial veins and the basilic vein and contributes to the drainage of the axilla, arm and superolateral chest wall. Summary origin: formed by the union of the paired brachial veins and the b...
Article

Azygos anterior cerebral artery

An azygos anterior cerebral artery is uncommon to rare variant of the circle of Willis where the two A1 segments of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) join to form a single trunk. As a result, there is no anterior communicating artery. This organisation is similar to that seen in lower primates ...
Article

Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava

Azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava (also known as absence of the hepatic segment of the IVC with azygos continuation) is an uncommon vascular anomaly and is a cause of a dilated azygos vein. Epidemiology Azygous continuation of the IVC has a prevalence ~1.5% (range 0.2-3%) 1. Clini...
Article

Azygos vein

The azygos vein is a unilateral vessel that ascends in the thorax to the right side of the vertebral column, carrying deoxygenated blood from the posterior chest and abdominal walls. It forms part of the azygos venous system.  Gross anatomy Origin The azygos vein is formed by the union of the...
Article

Azygos venous system

The azygos (venous) system is a collective term given to the H-shaped configuration of the azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos veins and left superior intercostal vein. It is responsible for draining the thoracic wall and upper lumbar region via the lumbar veins and posterior intercostal v...
Article

Basal vein of Rosenthal

The basal veins, also known as the veins of Rosenthal, are paired, paramedian veins which originate on the medial surface of the temporal lobe and run posteriorly and medially. It passes lateral to the midbrain through the ambient cistern to drain into the vein of Galen with the internal cerebra...
Article

Basilar artery fenestration

Basilar artery fenestration (or more simply, basilar fenestration) is the most common intracranial arterial fenestration. It refers to duplication of a portion of the artery. Its reported prevalence is highly variable depending on the technique used: ~0.5% (0.3-0.6%) at angiography (presumably ...
Article

Basilar venous plexus

The basilar venous plexus lies between the endosteal and visceral layers of the dura on the inner surface of the clivus. It connects the: inferior petrosal sinuses cavernous sinuses intercavernous sinuses superior petrosal sinuses internal vertebral venous plexus marginal sinus (around the...
Article

Basilic vein

The basilic vein, along with the cephalic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm, and contributes to the formation of the axillary vein. Summary origin: ulnar aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum ...
Article

Batson venous plexus

Batson venous plexus (or Batson veins) is a network of veins with no valves that connect deep pelvic veins draining the bladder, prostate, and rectum to the internal vertebral venous plexus 1. These veins are important because they are believed to provide a route for spread of pelvic cancer meta...
Article

Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (19...
Article

Bovine arch

Bovine arch is the most common variant of the aortic arch and occurs when the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery shares a common origin with the left common carotid artery.  A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent. ...
Article

Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the main supply of arterial blood to the arm, forearm and hand.  Summary origin: continuation of the axillary artery distal to teres major location: medial upper arm supply: muscles of the arm, forearm and hand main branches: profunda brachii terminal branches: radia...
Article

Brachial vein

The brachial vein is a component of the deep venous system of the upper limb. After forming from the radial and ulnar veins1, the brachial vein travels from the cubital fossa superiorly to become the axillary vein. Summary origin: union of the ulnar and radial veins in the cubital fossa1 loca...
Article

Brachiocephalic trunk

The brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) is a major vessel that supplies the head, neck and right arm. The BCT has previously been known as the innominate artery.  Gross anatomy The BCT is the first of the three main branches of the aortic arch, which originates from the upward convexity. It measures 4...
Article

Brachiocephalic vein

Brachiocephalic veins (BCV) drain the head, neck, upper limbs and part of the thorax and mediastinum. Gross anatomy Origin In the root of the neck, the internal jugular and subclavian veins unite to form the brachiocephalic veins posterior to the medial ends of the clavicles. Course The lef...
Article

Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA Mnemonic A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterior communicating artery (C7) S: superior hypophyseal artery (C6) C: caroticotympanic artery (...
Article

Branches of maxillary artery (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
Article

Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
Article

Bronchial artery

The bronchial arteries are responsible for only 1% of the lung blood flow but they are the major high-pressure oxygenated blood supplier to the supporting structures of the lung parenchyma including pulmonary arteries. The classic pattern described below of two bronchial arteries on the left and...
Article

Bronchial vein

The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries and drain the bronchi, hilar structures and the mid-portion of the oesophagus. Gross anatomy There is typically a single bronchial vein at each hilum, formed from the superficial bronchial veins with deep bronchial veins draining i...
Article

Buccinator artery

The buccinator artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It runs obliquely forward, between the medial pterygoid and the insertion of the temporalis, to the outer surface of the buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery a...
Article

Calcarine artery

The calcarine artery, named according to its course in the calcarine fissure, is a branch of the posterior cerebral artery, usually from the P3 segment. It may also arise from the parieto-occipital artery or posterior temporal branches.  It courses deep in the fissure, giving branches both to th...
Article

Callosomarginal artery

The callosomarginal artery (also known as median artery of corpus callosum) is the largest branch of the pericallosal artery. It runs in or posteriorly to the cingulate sulcus and runs a course parallel to the pericallosal artery where it divide to give two or more cortical branches to supply th...
Article

Calot triangle

Calot triangle is a small (potential) triangular space at the porta hepatis of surgical importance as it is dissected during cholecystectomy. Its contents, the cystic artery and cystic duct must be identified before ligation and division to avoid damaging them during the operation. Gross anatom...
Article

Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
Article

Carotid bifurcation

The carotid bifurcation is the point at which the common carotid artery terminates. As it does so, it forms the internal and external carotid arteries which go on to supply the head and neck. It is closely related anatomically to the carotid body, a small group of chemoreceptors and supporting ...
Article

Caval variants

Many caval abnormalities exist, due to the complex embryology of the venous system. These are important for a number of reasons:  not to confuse them with pathology suggest the presence of frequently associated other abnormalities planning of vascular intervention or surgery Types superior ...
Article

Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus (CS) is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. The normal lateral wall should be either straight or concave.  ...
Article

Central artery of the retina

The central artery of the retina or central retinal artery (CRA) arises from the ophthalmic artery.  Gross anatomy The central artery of the retina courses anteriorly and inferior to the optic nerve, It then pierces the dura and the arachnoid of the optic nerve. It then runs in the centre of t...
Article

Cephalic vein

The cephalic vein, along with the basilic vein, is one of the primary superficial veins that drain the upper limb 1. It courses through both the forearm and arm and terminates by draining into the axillary vein.   Summary origin: radial aspect of the superficial venous network of the dorsum of...
Article

Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
Article

Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...
Article

Cerebral venous system

The cerebral venous system, somewhat unlike the majority of the rest of the body, does not even remotely follow the cerebral arterial system. The cortical veins lie superficially, unlike cortical arteries, and are adherent to the deep surface of the arachnoid mater so that they keep the sulci o...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.