Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

271 results found
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3D ultrasound

Three dimensional (3D) ultrasound is a technique that converts standard 2D grayscale ultrasound images into a volumetric data set. The 3D image can then be reviewed retrospectively. The technique was developed for problem solving (particularly in obstetric/gynecologic exams) and potentially to r...
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Abdominal opacities

An opacity projecting over the abdomen has a broad differential. Possibilities to consider include: foreign bodies ingested, e.g. coins, batteries, bones, etc. artifacts, e.g. object attached to the cloth of the patient like a safety pin or button iatrogenic, e.g. haemostatic clips, gastric ...
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Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns

Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns on CT scan can be grouped under five categories: white enhancement gray enhancement water halo sign fat halo sign black attenuation The first three patterns are seen on contrast studies. White enhancement It is defined as uniform enhancement of th...
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Abnormal ductus venosus waveforms

Abnormal ductus venosus waveforms can arise in a number of conditions ranging from aneuploidy to vascular malformations and fetal tumours.  Pathology Abnormal waveforms in fetal ductus venosus flow assessment can occur in a number of situations: aneuploidic anomalies Down syndrome: around 80...
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Acromiohumeral interval

Acromiohumeral interval (AHI) is a useful and reliable measurement on AP shoulder radiographs and when narrowed is indicative of rotator cuff tear or tendinopathy.  Pathology Measurements of the AHI in the following intervals are suggestive of pathology 1-2: >12 mm: shoulder dislocation; i...
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Acute pelvic pain

Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department and radiologist. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches are usually the first line imaging modality. Clinical presentation non-cyclic pain pain of <3 months duration Patients also often ...
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Adult chest radiograph common exam pathology

Adult chest radiograph common exam pathology is essential to consider in the build up to radiology exams.  The list of potential diagnoses is apparently endless, but there are some favorites that seem to appear with more frequency. When dealing with the adult chest radiograph in the exam settin...
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Adult chest radiograph set-pieces

There are a number of adult chest radiograph set-pieces. These are based on common patterns of disease that are seen on chest radiographs. Make sure that you have relevant differentials for these appearances and a quick aural set-piece for them when they come up. Pulmonary parenchyma lobar col...
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Ageing blood on MRI

The imaging characteristics of blood on MRI are variable and change with the age of the blood. In general, five stages of haematoma evolution are recognised: hyperacute intracellular oxyhaemoglobin isointense on T1 isointense to hyperintense on T2 acute (1 to 2 days) intracellular deoxyh...
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Air space nodule

An air space nodule is a small (few millimeters to 1 cm), ill-defined, nodular opacity that is often centrilobular in location and is non-specific, seen in many conditions. Commonly it represents a focal area of consolidation or peribronchiolar inflammation, and can indicate endobronchial spread...
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Alpha angle: developmental dysplasia of the hip

The alpha angle is a measurement used in the ultrasonographic assessment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The angle is formed by the acetabular roof to the vertical cortex of the ilium and thus reflects the depth of the bony acetabular roof. This is a similar measurement to the acet...
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Amniotic fluid index

The amniotic fluid index (AFI) is an estimate of the amniotic fluid volume in a fetus. It is part of the fetal biophysical profile.  Technique uterus is divided into four imaginary quadrants with linea nigra and umbilicus acting as the vertical and the horizontal axis respectively the deepest...
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Amniotic fluid volume

Amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Physiology Change in volume through gestation The AFV undergoes characteristic changes with gestation. It progressively ri...
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Amsterdam wrist rules

The Amsterdam wrist rules are validated clinical decision rules for determining which patients require radiographic imaging (wrist radiography) for acute wrist pain following trauma. The initial study evaluated 882 patients and were published in 2015 1. The decision rules assessed different clin...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
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Anembryonic pregnancy in the exam

Getting a film with anembryonic pregnancy in the radiology fellowship examination is one of the many exam set-pieces that the candidate must be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound shows a uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is 25mm in TV st...
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Ankle: AP view

Ankle AP view is part of a three view series of the distal tibia, distal fibula, proximal talus and proximal metatarsals. Patient position the patient may be supine or sitting upright with their leg straighten on the table the foot is in dorsiflexion the toes will be pointing directly toward...
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Antenatal features of Down syndrome

Antenatal screening of Down syndrome (and other less common aneuploidies) should be available as a routine component of antenatal care. It allows families to either adjust to the idea of having a child with the condition, or to consider termination of pregnancy. For a general description of Dow...
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Anterior cord syndrome

Anterior cord syndrome (also known as Beck's syndrome or anterior spinal artery syndrome) is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes, due to ischaemia/infarction of the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord, typically sparing posterior third. Clinical presentation Patient present wi...
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Aortic nipple

An aortic nipple is seen in about 10% of PA chest x-rays on the lateral surface of the aortic arch/aortic knob. It represents the left superior intercostal vein. When prominent, superior vena cava obstruction should be considered (the left superior intercostal vein might be a collateral pathway).
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Apical zone

The apical zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones and an important location for missed diagnoses when reporting a frontal chest radiograph and makes up one of the "check areas". It is sometimes thought of as a subdivision of the upper zone.  Radiographic appearance Plain radi...
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Approach to a solitary pulmonary nodule

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several radi...
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Approach to diffuse pulmonary nodules on HRCT

A number of differentials must be kept in mind while approaching diffuse pulmonary nodules. Interpretation is easier if nodules are the only abnormality. These differentials can be narrowed down based on the several criteria: Based on appearance  miliary nodules   miliary tuberculosis silic...
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Assessing NG tube position (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists NG tube placement is commonly assessed using a chest radiograph although local protocol may dictate that pH assessment of NG aspirate be used in the first instance to confirm position of the NG tube. There are recognised l...
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Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic / colloid nodule / nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroi...
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Assessment of thyroid lesions (ultrasound)

Ultrasound along with nuclear medicine, is an important modality for assessment of thyroid lesions, and it is also frequently used to guide biopsy. Diagnostic criteria for thyroid nodules continue to evolve with improving ultrasound technology. Radiographic features Ultrasound Calcification ...
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ATA guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules

The American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules are meant to improve inter- and intra-reader consistency during assessment of thyroid nodules on ultrasound, and to facilitate communication with referring endocrinologists. The 2015 guidelines stress the import...
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AXR (summary approach)

Abdominal radiographs can be challenging examinations to look at. It is always best to approach radiographs in a systematic way. Bowel gas pattern Gas within the bowel forms a natural contrast with surrounding tissues since it has a very low density. Bowel can only be seen if it contains air/g...
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Barium swallow

Barium swallow is a dedicated test of the pharynx, oesophagus, and proximal stomach, and may be performed as a single or double contrast study. The study is often "modified" to suit the history and symptoms of the individual patient, but it is often useful to evaluate the entire pathwa...
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Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound

Benign and malignant characteristics of breast lesions at ultrasound allow the classification as either malignant, intermediate or benign based on work published by Stavros et al in 1995. Radiographic features Ultrasound Malignant characteristics (with positive predictive values) sonographic...
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Big rib sign

The big rib sign is a sign to differentiate right and left ribs on lateral chest radiographs.  It exploits a technique of magnification differences on lateral projections between right and left ribs. For example, on right lateral projections the left ribs appear larger than right ribs.  This s...
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Bimastoid line

The bimastoid line has been described and used to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal skull plain film and coronal recontructed CT image. The bimastoid line is drawn between right and left tip of mastoids. The tip of  the odontoid process of C2 normally projects less than or equal to 10 mm...
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Blumensaat line

Blumensaat line is the line drawn alone the roof of intercondylar notch of the femur as seen on lateral radiograph of the knee joint. It can been used for: indicating the relative position of the patella as normally this line intersects the lower pole of the patella suggesting ACL injury as th...
Article

Böhler angle

Böhler angle, also written as Bohler angle or Boehler angle, is also called as calcaneal angle or tuber joint angle 1, is the angle between two lines tangent to the calcaneus on the lateral radiograph. These lines are drawn tangent to the anterior and posterior aspects of the superior calcaneus....
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Breast calcifications (an approach)

Breast calcifications are relatively frequently found on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is i...
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Breast density

Breast density on mammography can significantly vary between individuals. The density is a function of the relationship between radiolucent fat and radiodense glandular tissue. Breast density varies with age and generally younger women have denser breasts (i.e. more glandular tissue relative to...
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Breast echotexture: BI-RADS categories

Breast echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon is usually classified into three categories 1: homogenous: fat homogenous: fibroglandular heterogenous See also breast density parenchymal patterns in breast imaging
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Breast MRI

Breast MRI is a rapidly growing field, especially in the assessment of high risk women.  Editorial board note: this article is probably outdated, lacks structure and is in need of a major rewrite. If you are interested in refining it you are more than welcome. Sequences used T1 T2 T1 C+ (Gd...
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Breast MRI enhancement curves

Following administration of Gadolinium there can be three possible enhancement kinetic curves for a lesion on breast MRI (these are also applied in other organs such as prostate MRI). These are sometimes termed the Kuhl enhancement curves. type I curve: progressive enhancement pattern typicall...
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British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules

British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules were published in August of 2015 for the workup of pulmonary nodules seen on CT.  They supersede previous Fleischner Society guidelines in the United Kingdom. They are based initially on identifying whether the nodule being dealt with is...
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Bronchogenic cyst vs oesophageal duplication cyst

Bronchogenic cysts and oesophageal duplication cysts are embryological foregut duplication cysts and are also differential diagnosis for a cystic mediastinal mass. Differences Symptoms asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst symptomatic oesophageal cyst in case of peptic ulceration Plain radiograph ...
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Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart (or cardiac CT) is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease, to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac funct...
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Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy and pathology. Advantages Main advantages of cardiac MRI in comparison with other techniques are: a better definition of soft tissues use of different types of sequences improves diagnostic accuracy avoid ionising radiation neverthel...
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Cardiac silhouette

Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease. Radiographic features From the frontal projection, t...
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Cardiothoracic ratio

The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) aids in the detection of enlargement of the cardiac silhouette, which is most commonly from cardiomegaly but can be due to other processes such as pericardial effusion.  Radiographic features The CTR is measured on a PA chest x-ray, and is the ratio of maximal ho...
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Cases in radiology - video tutorials

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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Caudate–right lobe ratio

Caudate-right lobe ratio (C/RL) is used in the assessment of livers, usually in the setting of cirrhosis, in which there is atrophy of the right lobe with hypertrophy of the caudate lobe.  Method for measuring image: axial slice immediately below the bifurcation of the main portal vein line 1...
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Causes of perfusion defects on a VQ scan

There are several causes leading to a perfusion defect on a VQ scan with an acute pulmonary embolus being only one of them: Vascular causes acute pulmonary embolus previous pulmonary embolus (including fat embolism, thromboembolism, air embolism, tumour) vasculitides affecting the pulmonary ...
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Cerebroplacental ratio

Cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is an important obstetric ultrasound tool used as a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcome and is calculated by dividing the Doppler pulsatile indices of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by the umbilical artery (UA). The index will reflect mild increased in placenta...
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Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs with a good...
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Chest radiograph zones

The chest radiograph zones are useful when describing the location of pathology on a frontal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is a 2D representation of a 3D structure. Since the interfaces between the lobes are orientated obliquely, it is often not possible to determine which lobe patholo...
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Chest radiography: lines and tubes

Lines and tubes are an important component chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric (NG) tube See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-oesophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bronc...
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Chest x-ray (basic) - an approach

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Chest radiographs are frequently performed and a fantastic tool for making diagnoses of acute and chronic co...
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Computed tomographic (CT) colonography

Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called virtual colonoscopy (VC), is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening. Indications screening test for colorectal carcinoma colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful conventional colonoscopy assessment ...
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Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography

Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography, also called virtual gastroscopy (VG), is a non invasive procedure for the detection of gastric abnormalities. Advantages rapid and non invasive exam offers information about local tumor invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis in cases of gastric can...
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Computed tomography of the chest

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a  cross sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs and the mediastinum. Two key methods of image acquisition includes routine CT with 5 mm slice thickness for mediastinum and gross evaluation of lungs high resolution CT (HRCT) with thin section...
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Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex

The nipple areolar complex is a major aantomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inverstion enlarged nipple Be...
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Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest radiographs in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnos...
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Coracoclavicular distance

The coracoclavicular (CC) distance is an indicator of the integrity of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. Radiographic features The CC distance is assessed on a frontal radiography of the shoulder or clavicle or the coronal projection or a CT or MRI as the distance between the superior cortex...
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Coxa magna

Coxa magna is the asymmetrical, circumferential enlargement and deformation of the femoral head and neck. Definitions in the literature vary but enlargement with asymmetry >10% in size is a reasonable cut-off for diagnosis 1.  Pathology Aetiology Legg-Calve-Perthes disease transient synov...
Article

Coxa profunda

Coxa profunda refers to a deep acetabular socket. On pelvis x-rays it is seen as the acetabular fossa being medial to the ilioischial line. It should be differentiated from protrusio acetabuli, where the femoral head is seen additionally medial to the ilioischial line. Coxa profunda is much more...
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Crohn disease vs ulcerative colitis

Due to the overlap in clinical presentation of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), imaging often has a role to play in distinguishing the two. Distinguishing features include: bowel involved CD: small bowel 70-80%, only 15-20% have only colonic involvement UC: rectal involvement 9...
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CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
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CT enterography

Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Advantages  evaluates the entire thickness of the bowel wall offers information about the surrounding mesentery, the mesenteric vasculature and the perienteric fat useful in the assessm...
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CT head (an approach)

CT head review will likely be performed differently by the majority of radiologists. So, this is just a proposition of one way to read a CT head.  What it does do is make use of windowing to maximise pickup rate. With PACS, windowing appropriately is simple and there is no excuse for not window...
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CT head review (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT investigations are performed for a variety of reasons. There are a number of ways to read and look at these scans, and these pages should give some help for what to look for. There is a lot to take in, with scans includ...
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CT head: subdural window

The subdural (blood) window can be used when reviewing a CT brain as it makes intracranial haemorrhage more conspicuous, and may help in the detection of thin acute subdural haematomas that are against the calvarium. It is a wider setting than the standard non-contrast window, and there are a nu...
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CT perfusion in ischaemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischaemic stroke has become established in most centres with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional imaging of the brain with a non-contrast CT scan.  Its advantage is that it is able to delineate ischeamic areas of the brain wh...
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Cystography

Cystography is a fluoroscopic study that images the bladder. It is similar to a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), and the difference between the studies is primarily one of emphasis; a cystogram focuses on the bladder and a VCUG focuses on the posterior urethra. The study has been adapted to CT w...
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Deductive echocardiography

Deductive echocardiography is a step-by-step approach in diagnosing and differentiating congenital heart disease. Parameters assessed position of heart  levocardia dextrocardia viscero-atrial situs solitus inversus ambiguus ventricular loop D-loop L-loop conotruncus normal transpos...
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Deepest vertical pocket method

The deepest (maximal) vertical pocket (DVP) depth is considered a reliable method for assessing amniotic fluid volume on ultrasound 1-2. It is performed by assessing a pocket of maximal depth of amniotic fluid which is free of umbilical cord and fetal parts. The usually accepted values are: &l...
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Definition of abnormal ultrasound findings in rheumatological diseases

The OMERACT ultrasound group published a consensus in 2005 of widely accepted definitions of abnormal ultrasound findings in rheumatological diseases: erosion: an intra-articular discontinuity of the bone surface that is visible in two orthogonal planes joint effusion: abnormal hypoechoic or a...
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Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI and risk fa...
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Describing a fracture (an approach)

Describing a fracture is a basic requirement when making an assessment of a plain radiograph. There are many ways to approach the assessment of the radiograph; this is just one approach. I: Describe the film What film (or films) are you looking at? Check the who, what, why, when and where. II...
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Determination of atrial situs

Atrial situs refers to the relative position of cardiac atria in relation to abdominal viscera and the midline. Pathology Identification of atrial situs is an important initial step in the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of cardiac structural and situs anomalies. Radiographic features Basi...
Article

Differential diagnosis of osteolytic lesions with septations and trabeculations

Differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions with septations and trabeculations include  benign lesions unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst giant cell tumour non-ossifying fibroma intraosseous lipoma fibrous dysplasia Brown tumour ameloblastoma adamantinoma haemophilic pseudotum...
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Differential diagnosis of enlarged sella turcica

Enlargement of sella turcica can be seen in situations including the following. empty sella syndrome slight globular enlargement of the sella with no erosion, destruction or posterior displacement of dorsum sellae intracranial hypertension enlargement with erosion of anterior cortex of dorsu...
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Differential diagnosis of solitary well defined osteolytic lesion

Well defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be seen with following conditions subchondral geodes or cysts intraosseous ganglion intraosseous tophus(gout)  unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst glomus tumour enchondroma epidermoid inclusion cyst chondroblastoma non ossifying fibrom...
Article

Differential diagnosis of subcutaneous calcification

Subcutaneous calcification can be associated with a number of disorders. The list includes: dermatomyositis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome pseudoxanthoma elasticum basal cell nevus syndrome subcutaneous lipodystrophy venous thrombosis as a manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus varicose v...
Article

Diffuse pulmonary nodules

Diffuse pulmonary nodules are usually seen as multiple pulmonary nodular opacifications on a HRCT chest scan. They can signify disease processes affecting either the interstitium or the airspace. They can range from a few millimetres to up to 1 cm and when very small and numerous there can be so...
Article

Digastric line

The digastric (or biventer) line has been described and used to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal skull plain film and coronal recontructed CT image.  The digastric line is drawn between right and left digastric grooves. The tip of the odontoid process and atlanto-occipital joint normall...
Article

Elbow radiograph (summary approach)

Elbow radiographs are common plain films that are obtained frequently in the emergency department. Summary approach alignment anterior humeral line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle 1/3 of the capitellum if it doesn't, think distal humeral fracture ...
Article

Empyema vs pulmonary abscess

Distinguishing between an empyema and a peripherally located pulmonary abscess is essential. Lung abscesses are usually managed with prolonged antibiotics and physiotherapy with postural drainage whereas an empyema usually requires percutaneous or surgical drainage. Radiographic features Plai...
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Endometrial polyp in the exam

Getting a film with endometrial polyp in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound images in a lady with post-menopausal bleeding show an anteverted uterus with focal increased endometrial thickness to 1...
Article

Endoscopic ultrasound

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a procedure combining the range of endoscopy with the diagnostic abilities of ultrasound. The procedure has applications in both the respiratory system as well as the digestive system. Radiographic features Oesophageal cancer Endoscopic ultrasound can be used fo...
Article

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette on chest x-ray can be due to a number of causes 1: cardiomegaly (most common cause by far) pericardial effusion anterior mediastinal mass prominent epicardial fat pad expiratory radiograph Recognising enlargement relies upon an understanding of the nor...
Article

Enteroclysis

Enteroclysis is a gastrointestinal technique designed to provide improved evaluation of the small bowel. The conventional fluoroscopic technique is not widely used since it is somewhat invasive, time and labour intensive, and often unpleasant for the patient. The exam also requires a degree of s...
Article

Epistaxis

Epistaxis (nosebleed) is very common and has a broad differential diagnosis in clinical practice. In clinical practice, anterior epistaxis are mainly located in Kiesselbach's plexus and posterior epistaxis (5% of all epistaxis) in Woodruff's plexus. Epidemiology Epistaxis is very common, with ...
Article

Errors in diagnostic radiology

Errors in diagnostic radiology occur for a variety of reasons related to human error, technical factors and system faults.  Classification Renfrew classification This classification was proposed by Renfrew et al5 in 1992, and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely accepted...
Article

Evacuation proctography

Evacuation proctography (defecography) is a fluoroscopic technique to evaluate pelvic floor disorders. The technique traditionally involves fluoroscopy and barium, but an analogous MRI technique has also been developed (see: MR dynamic pelvis imaging). Indications incomplete defecation / const...
Article

Evaluation of recurrent bone tumours

Recurrent bone tumours are a common complication post currettage or resection. Radiographs taken pre- and post-operatively are sufficient for evaluation of recurrence based on following features: osteolytic changes cortical changes matrix mineralization (characteristic of a particular tumor)...
Article

Exam set-pieces

Exam set-pieces refer to those cases that can be considered likely to turn up in the exam setting and can be prepared for. In the oral exam, having a prepared "speech" for these set-pieces allows the candidate to focus less on the stress of describing what is in front of them and more ...
Article

Expiratory HRCT

Expiratory HRCT is an useful method for detecting small airway obstructive disease in which the air remain trapped in the small airways even after the expiration and appear as mosaic attenuation. Indication Ideally, an expiratory HRCT scan should be performed in all obstructive airway diseases...

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