Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

509 results found
Article

Fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle

The fourth-fifth intermetatarsal angle is used to assess for a bunionette deformity. It should not be confused with the first intermetatarsal angle, used to assess for hallux valgus deformity.  Measurement The 4-5 intermetatarsal angle is formed between the long axis of the fourth and fifth me...
Article

Friedman line

The Friedman or scapular line can be used to determine glenoid version and glenoid bone loss 4. Glenoid version angle measured by the Friedman method has better inter-reader reliability than the scapular body method 2.  Measurement The Friedman line is drawn along the long axis of the scapula ...
Article

AP Meary's angle

AP Meary's angle or AP talus-first metatarsal angle is used to assess for midfoot abduction/adduction in pes planus and pes cavus to assist with pre-operative planning 1.  Measurement On a weight-bearing AP foot radiograph, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the first metatarsal to ...
Article

Posterior tibial line

The posterior tibial line is drawn along the posterior aspect of the distal tibial shaft on a lateral ankle x-ray and can be used to assess the sagittal alignment of the talus when comparing side-to-side and/or calculate the posterior tibial line-talar ratio 1,2.
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Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance

Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is the measurement of the distance between the lateral aspect of the medial cuneiform and the medial aspect of the base of the second metatarsal bone 1,2. Usage Medial cuneiform to second metatarsal distance is an important measurement used in ass...
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Lateral tibiotalar distance

Lateral tibiotalar distance is a measurement on an ankle anterior drawer lateral view to assess for ankle instability.  Measurement On an ankle anterior drawer lateral view (typically performed using a Telos device 2-4), the distance between the posterior tip of the distal tibial articular sur...
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Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height

Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height is the distance between the most inferior part of the medial cuneiform and the most inferior part of the base of the 5th metatarsal and is used to evaluate the height and integrity of the medial vertical arch 1. Usage Medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal h...
Article

Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used in science and mathematics for millennia. The alphabet has 24 letters with an order similar to the Latin alphabet (used for English and many European languages).  In the list, the name of the letter is given first, followed by the upper and lower case symbols 1 ...
Article

Febrile seizure

Febrile seizures are the fits/seizure like condition that is caused by an abrupt increase in fever, greater than 100F or 38C with no other known predisposing cause such as meningitis, trauma, genetic origins, electrolyte disorder and known epileptic disorder. These are divided into two categorie...
Article

Rectal MRI (an approach)

Rectal MRI is a key imaging investigation in the diagnosis, staging and follow up of rectal cancer. An increase in the utility of rectal MRI as been driven by the recognition of the mesorectum as a distinct anatomic compartment containing and limiting the margins of the rectum, and forming a sur...
Article

CT paranasal sinus protocol

The CT paranasal sinus protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the study of the mucosa and bone system of the sinonasal cavities. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a Note: This article aim...
Article

Pediatric appendicitis score

The Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis in the pediatric population. Criteria1 cough/percussion/hopping tenderness in right lower quadrant (+2) anorexia (+1) fever (+1) nausea or emesis (+1) tenderness in righ...
Article

Fetal MRI

Fetal MRI allows for detailed imaging of the developing fetus in utero. Fast sequences are required due to fetal movement 1. Fetal MRI is most commonly utilized when ultrasound (USS) findings are equivocal. Fetal anatomy can be evaluated in detail including the brain, upper aerodigestive tract, ...
Article

Quadratus femoris injection (technique)

Quadratus femoris injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate and ensure the sciatic nerve is avoided during the procedure.  CT and ultrasound can be used, with ultrasound becoming more challenging in those with larger body habitus. Indications therapeutic for ischi...
Article

Osteoporotic vs pathological vertebral fractures

Discriminating between acute osteoporotic and pathological vertebral fractures is sometimes challenging. This may be especially true in the elderly population, in which both osteoporosis and malignant disease often co-occur, and vertebral fractures of both kinds are common and indeed may coexist...
Article

Renal imaging in nuclear medicine

Renal imaging in nuclear medicine is a method to assess the kidneys and collecting systems via multiple different radioactive tracers.Dynamic renal imaging is performed using Tc-99m MAG3 or Tc99m DTPA, and static renal imaging is performed with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, Tc-99m DTPA can be used t...
Article

Mucormycosis vs aspergillosis

It is important to be able to distinguish between mucormycosis and aspergillosis because:​ antifungal sensitivity: mucormycosis is resistant to voriconazole, whilst aspergillosis is sensitive to it mucormycosis may have an improved prognosis if treated earlier It is to be noted that there has...
Article

Rule of Spence

The Rule of Spence is a radiologic method to evaluate the likelihood of injury to the transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) on an open mouth AP (“peg”) radiograph. As originally framed, if the combined projection of the lateral masses of the atlas is more than 6.9 mm beyond the lateral masses of th...
Article

Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal ​(GI) bleeding may be either: upper GI bleeding bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz, i.e. proximal to the duodenojejunal (DJ) junction lower GI bleeding bleeding distal to the ligament of Treitz, i.e. distal to the DJ junction This bleeding may present as hematemes...
Article

Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator

The Pediatric Appendicitis Risk Calculator (pARC) is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients.  Due to the non-categorical data of some variables within the criteria, an integrated calculator is required to use this tool. Criteria 1,2 ...
Article

Ankle protocol (CT)

The CT ankle protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the ankle and rearfoot and is almost always performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries or can encompass the whole foot in certa...
Article

APPEND score

The APPEND score is a clinical decision rule and predictor of the likelihood of acute appendicitis. Criteria 1 male gender (1) anorexia (1) migratory pain (1) localized peritonism (1) elevated CRP > 15mg/L (1) neutrophilia >7.5x109/L (1) APPEND refers to the mnemonic: A: anorexia P: pa...
Article

Review area

Review areas (a.k.a. reporting checklists) are specific anatomical regions of imaging examinations whereby it has been found that radiologists are more likely to overlook significant findings. The most well known review areas are those of the standard frontal chest radiograph. The routine use of...
Article

Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy

Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy requires a considered imaging approach due to the increased risks of fetal demise associated with undiagnosed diseases such as perforated acute appendicitis. Ultrasound is the first-line modality due to its wide availability and ability to diagnose...
Article

Abdominal pain in pregnancy protocol (MRI)

The abdominal pain in pregnancy MRI protocol encompasses a set of MRI sequences for assessment of causes of non-traumatic abdominal pain in pregnancy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of an MRI protocol for the assessment of the abdomen in pregnancy. Protocol specifics will va...
Article

Triple rule out (CT protocol)

A triple rule out (TRO) protocol is a cardiac CT protocol that aims to assess for different problems at the same time in one single examination: obstructive coronary artery disease, aortic dissection or pulmonary embolism. The approach itself has been continuously under discussion due to diffic...
Article

Coronary CT angiography (CT protocol)

The coronary CT angiography or cardiac CT angiogram protocol is the most common dedicated cardiac CT examination and is a non-invasive tool for the evaluation of the coronary arteries. Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles. Protocol specifics especially medications, ...
Article

Cardiac CT (retrospective acquisition)

A retrospective ECG-gated cardiac CT is usually conducted in cases in which adequate control of heart rate cannot be achieved or in which additional information on ventricular or valvular function is required. Indications Please refer to our coronary CT angiography article for general indicati...
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Cardiac CT (prospective acquisition)

A prospective ECG gated cardiac CT angiogram, also known as the step and shoot method is considered the default or ‘bread and butter’ protocol for coronary CTA and combines a reasonably low radiation dose with diagnostic results in most situations. Nowadays, this protocol is available on most C...
Article

Years criteria for pulmonary embolism

The YEARS criteria is a diagnostic algorithm that determines the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) derived from three items in the Wells score that are most predictive of PE1. Unlike the Wells score, it uses a variable D-dimer threshold based off clinical pre-test probability. The YEARS criteria i...
Article

CT adrenals

CT of the adrenal glands is a study utilized in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal lesions on other studies, in order to characterize the lesions, and to seek adrenal abnormalities in patients with hormonal biochemical abnormalities. Indications Characterize incidentally discovered ...
Article

Kasai portoenterostomy

Kasai portoenterostomy is the surgery that comprises exposing the porta hepatis by radical excision of all bile duct tissue up to the liver capsule and attaching a Roux-en-Y loop of jejunum to the uncovered liver capsule above the bifurcation of the portal vein creating a portoenterostomy 1. In...
Article

Hematemesis

Hematemesis is the vomiting of blood, it is an indication of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Mortality is generally near to 10% 1,2,4. Please see the main article on upper gastrointestinal bleeding for more detail.  Treatment and prognosis In patients with moderate to severe hematemesis, life...
Article

Retrosigmoid craniotomy

Retrosigmoid craniotomy also known as a suboccipital lateral craniotomy refers to the neurosurgical procedure in which lateral section of the occipital bone is removed to gain surgical access to the wide range of neoplastic and vascular pathologies in the cerebellopontine angle.
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Imaging Reporting and Data System, (O-RADS), aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately assigning each lesion to a risk category of malignancy being present, and which informs the appropria...
Article

Cardiac CT (an approach)

Cardiac CT can be a more or less frequent examination faced in daily practice also depending on the institution and the CT scanner technology available. With technological advances and improved dose reduction techniques in the last decade, cardiac CT has become increasingly popular. What is pre...
Article

Prostate MRI (an approach)

Prostate MRI has become an increasingly frequent examination faced in daily radiological practice and is mainly conducted for the detection, active surveillance and staging of prostate cancer. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of a prostate MRI (usually mpMRI) wi...
Article

Ileostomy

An ileostomy is a surgical method in which a loop of the distal small bowel is connected and opened through the outer abdominal wall to artificially create a connection and bypass the large bowel. Pathology Types There are two types of ileostomies: permanent end ileostomy A permanent end il...
Article

Mitral annular plane systolic excursion

Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) refers to the displacement of the mitral valvular plane in the z-direction and reflects left ventricular longitudinal contraction or shortening, which has been attributed to account for about 60% of the stroke volume 1. Terminology Mitral annular...
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) forms the MRI component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there is a uniform, unambiguous MRI evaluation of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately ...
Article

Cardiac MRI (an approach)

A cardiac MRI can be a more or less frequent examination faced in daily practice also depending on the institution. In general radiological practices and institutions other than cardiac imaging centers, cardiac MRI examinations are not necessarily gladly enlisted into the appointment schedule pa...
Article

Gamma nail

The gamma nail or trochanteric nail is an osteosynthetic implant designed to treat proximal femoral fractures in the trochanter area with a closed intramedullary fixation method. The gamma nail consists of a funnel-shaped intramedullary nail with slight bending to reflect proximal femoral diaph...
Article

Subtalar joint injection (technique)

Subtalar joint injections are most often performed for osteoarthritis and the posterior subtalar joint is targeted.  Ultrasound, fluoroscopy and CT guidance can be used. Indications osteoarthritis diagnostic Contra-indications Absolute anaphylaxis to contrast/injectates active local/ syst...
Article

Medical devices

Medical devices are commonly seen on all imaging modalities of all body parts. When possible medical devices may be completely removed or at least moved out of the field of view to reduce image artifacts. Oftentimes it is impossible to remove devices, and the reporter must make allowances for th...
Article

Pudendal nerve block (technique)

Pudendal nerve blocks are performed on those with suspected or proven pudendal neuralgia.  Using CT will ensure accurate needle placement, which aims for a perineural pudendal nerve injection in the pudendal canal, also known as Alcock's canal.  Indications pudendal neuralgia diagnostic Cont...
Article

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage (technique)

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage is a procedure performed under ultrasound guidance with the aim of reducing the bulk of tendon calcification, in a similar fashion to that performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy.  Indications gluteus minimus/medius tendon calcifi...
Article

Extra-articular injection

Extra-articular injections occur when the needle tip is not within the targeted joint during joint injections. Terminology Defined by the presence of contrast outside of a joint in fluoroscopic or CT guided procedures, or the lack of direct visualization and resisted flow of intra-articular in...
Article

Knee joint injection (technique)

Knee joint injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the knee joint. Both fluoroscopy, ultrasound and CT can be used to guide and administer MRI and CT arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI: retear of repaired m...
Article

Edge of film error

Edge of film errors, also known as corner of film errors, are a classical perceptual error in radiology where a pertinent finding, whether incidental or not, is at the margin or edge of the image. It is now used for all modalities, in both a literal sense, i.e. actually at the edge of the image...
Article

Tibial torsion

Tibial torsion refers to the rotation or twist along the longitudinal axis of the lower leg or more specifically the tibial bone. Usage Internal tibial torsion is a cause of in-toeing gait a common rotational variant in toddlers, usually resolving spontaneously by the age of 5 years 1. Externa...
Article

Groin pain

Groin pain is a symptom manifesting in a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and diseases in athletes and non-athletes. The Doha agreement in 2014 identified and classified groin pain in athletes and defined the following clinical entities 1,2: adductor-related, pubic-related, inguinal-related...
Article

Cardiac strain imaging

Strain imaging is a cardiac imaging technique that detects ventricular deformation patterns and functional abnormalities before they become obvious as regional wall motion abnormalities on conventional cine imaging or echo. It has become more popular lately due to several technological improveme...
Article

Epiphenomenon

Epiphenomenon (plural: epiphenomena) is a term used in medicine to refer to the association between two conditions 'X' and 'Y', in that there is a correlation, but without implying any direct causal link.
Article

Cardiac tissue characterization

Cardiac tissue characterization is a term for an approach in cardiac imaging used for the evaluation of the myocardial tissue in respect to its inherent properties as opposed to cardiac function e.g. in cine or strain imaging. In cardiac magnetic resonance imaging tissue characterization typica...
Article

Myocardial salvage

Myocardial salvage is referred to as the reversibly injured myocardium in a setting of myocardial ischemia and/or myocardial infarction, which remains non-infarcted after reperfusion 1-7. Usage The assessment of myocardial salvage is an important measure in the evaluation of the efficacy of th...
Article

Myocardial area at risk

The myocardial area at risk (AAR) is defined by the ischemic proportion of the myocardium after coronary occlusion and reflects the potential size of the myocardial infarction 1-9. Usage The assessment of the myocardial area at risk is an important measure in the evaluation of the potentially ...
Article

Umbilical cord abnormalities

Abnormalities of the umbilical cord can be classified into 1: Morphologic abnormalities umbilical cord coiling hypocoiled umbilical cord hypercoiled umbilical cord straight umbilical cord umbilical cord length abnormalities long umbilical cord short umbilical cord umbilical cord thickne...
Article

MRI of the wrist (an approach)

MRI of the wrist is a fairly frequent examination in musculoskeletal radiology practice and not quite as common in general radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an MRI of the wrist knee with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of po...
Article

MRI of the ankle (an approach)

MRI of the ankle is one of the more frequent examinations faced in daily radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an MRI of the ankle with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of possible pathology, within the ankle without claim for co...
Article

MRI of the elbow (an approach)

MRI of the elbow is a fairly frequent examination in musculoskeletal radiology practice and not quite as common in general radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an elbow MRI with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of possible patho...
Article

MRI of the shoulder (an approach)

MRI of the shoulder is one of the more frequent examinations faced in daily radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an MRI shoulder with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of possible pathology, within the shoulder. Systematic revie...
Article

MRI of the knee (an approach)

Knee MRI is one of the more frequent examinations faced in daily radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an MRI knee with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of possible pathology, within the knee. Systematic review A systematic rev...
Article

T2 mapping - myocardium

T2 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T2 times of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for tissue characterization of the myocardium 1-5 and has been investigated for cartilage 6,7 and other tissues 4. The T2 tim...
Article

Extracellular volume - myocardium

Extracellular volume (ECV) refers to the space or volume of a tissue, which is not occupied by cells. Apart from the usual extracellular space, which surrounds the cells of a specific tissue it also includes the intracapillary plasma volume 1,2. It measures the space, which is occupied by the ex...
Article

T1 mapping - myocardium

T1 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T1 time of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for myocardial tissue characterization 1-6 and has been investigated for other tissues 5. T1 is the spin-lattice or longitudin...
Article

Elbow radiograph (checklist)

The elbow radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Elbow ...
Article

Tanner-Whitehouse method

The Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) method is a way of assessing the bone age of children. There are several variations of this method, but all use a DP radiograph of the left hand and wrist to assess the relative maturity of the bones of the patient. The TW2 (Tanner-Whitehouse 2) methods 1: RUS (radiu...
Article

Medial condyle trochlear offset

Medial condyle trochlear offset (MCTO) is a measurement to assess the height of the medial trochlear facet with respect to the trochlear groove 1. Usage Medial condyle trochlear offset has been described for the assessment of trochlear dysplasia in skeletally immature patients 1. It measures a...
Article

Ventral trochlear prominence

Ventral trochlear prominence (VTP) describes and measures the bony surplus in the anterior femoral surface at the most superior or proximal aspect of the trochlea. Usage Ventral trochlear prominence is used for the assessment of trochlear dysplasia, a risk factor for patellofemoral instability...
Article

Trochlear facet asymmetry

Trochlear facet asymmetry (FA) refers to the condition of the medial facet being abnormally small if compared to the lateral facet in trochlear dysplasia 1. Usage Facet asymmetry is also used as a measurement in magnet resonance imaging for trochlear dysplasia to make it more objective 1-3, th...
Article

Trochlear depth

Trochlear depth (TD) measures the depth of the trochlear groove in relation to the femoral condyles. Usage Trochlear depth is used for the assessment of trochlear dysplasia, a dysplastic deformity of the femoral head, which is a known risk factor for patellofemoral instability 1-6. A review o...
Article

Lateral trochlear inclination

Lateral trochlear inclination (LTI) is the inclination angle between the femoral trochlea and a posterior condylar tangential line 1. Usage The lateral trochlear inclination angle is used in the assessment of trochlear dysplasia, a dysplastic deformity of the distal femur, which is a known ris...
Article

Radiotracers for SPECT brain imaging

Radiotracers for SPECT brain imaging are divided into two classes: diffusible and not-diffusible radiotracers; this distinction lies in the ability (or not) to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The not-diffusible radiotracers - composed of ions or polar molecules - are unable to cross the li...
Article

Wrist radiograph (checklist)

The wrist radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Wrist ...
Article

Hand radiograph (checklist)

The hand radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Hand ra...
Article

Lumbar spine radiograph (checklist)

The lumbar spine checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph The lumbar...
Article

Thoracic spine radiograph (checklist)

The thoracic spine checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph These ra...
Article

Cervical spine radiograph (checklist)

The cervical spine checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Although...
Article

Medial clear space (ankle)

The medial clear space is a radiographic measurement that may be useful in the diagnosis of ankle instability, syndesmotic injuries and ankle fractures 5. Usage The medial clear space is used in the prediction of deltoid ligament injury 1 and in conjunction with the tibiofibular clear space th...
Article

Tibiofibular overlap

The tibiofibular overlap (TFO) is the overlapping area between the anterior distal tibial prominence and the medial edge of the distal fibula 1-3. Usage Together with the tibiofibular clear space (TFCS) and the medial clear space, the tibiofibular overlap space has been used in the diagnosis a...
Article

Tibiofibular clear space

The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS) is a radiographic measure and defined as the space between the groove of the distal tibial prominence and the medial margin of the distal fibula 1-3. Usage Together with the tibiofibular overlap (TFO) and the medial clear space the tibiofibular clear space h...
Article

Shoulder radiograph (checklist)

The shoulder radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Sho...
Article

First metatarsophalangeal angle

The first metatarsophalangeal angle, also known as hallux valgus angle (HVA) or hallux abductus angle, is a measurement used to assess the presence and severity of the alignment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint on a weight-bearing dorsoplantar radiograph of the foot. Measurement The angl...
Article

Foot radiograph (checklist)

The foot radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Foot ra...
Article

Pelvic radiograph (checklist)

The pelvic radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Plain radiograph ...
Article

Knee radiograph (checklist)

The knee radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Knee ra...
Article

Calcium volume score

The calcium volume score is a measure to quantify and calculate coronary artery calcium 1-3. Its calculation includes all voxels with a Hounsfield attenuation >130 and this is done by multiplying the volume of each voxel, determined by the area and the slice thickness with the number of voxels ...
Article

Sulcus angle (knee)

The sulcus angle is useful in the assessment of patellofemoral instability and trochlear dysplasia.  Measurement The angle is formed by the trochlear opening of the knee, measuring the angle between the medial and lateral facets. Classically described in axial x-rays of the knee performed at 3...
Article

Microvascular decompression

Microvascular decompression is a surgical procedure for cranial nerve compression syndrome, most often carried out for trigeminal neuralgia, or less frequently hemifacial spasm and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. It is usually carried out via a retrosigmoid craniotomy. The culprit blood vessel, eit...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint injection (technique)

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the joint and importantly that needle depth is under direct visualization.   Indications pain arthropathy, e.g. osteoarthritis diagnostic injection Contra-indications Absolute anaphyl...
Article

Hip joint injection (technique)

Hip joint injections can be performed with a variety of image guidance, including fluoroscopy and ultrasound, which are used to administer MRI arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing anesthetic arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI labral injury anesthetic pain - arthropathy i.e. os...
Article

Elbow injection (disambiguation)

Elbow injection usually refers to an elbow joint injection, but especially to patients, it can be a term used referring to other procedures which include: common extensor origin microtenotomy common flexor origin microtenotomy distal biceps tendon sheath injection elbow joint injection MRI ...
Article

Foot injection (disambiguation)

Foot injection is a non-specific term, often used by patients, in reference to tarsal or metatarsal joint injections, and to other injections which include:​ calcaneocuboid joint injection metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) injection naviculocuneiform joint injection plantar fascia microtenoto...

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