Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

310 results found
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Pathognomonic

The term pathognomonic in radiology, as well as clinical medicine in general, refers to a finding or a sign that is only found in a single specific condition or specific group of conditions, i.e. the finding has 100% specificity. Thus by implication, a pathognomonic finding cannot and does not h...
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CT cystography

CT cystography is a variation of the traditional fluoroscopic cystogram. Instead of anterograde opacification of the urinary collecting system (as with CT urography), contrast is instilled retrograde into the patient's bladder, and then the pelvis is imaged with CT. Indications suspected bladd...
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Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntington disease but is in no way specific for the diagnosis, also seen in other less...
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Frontal horn width to intercaudate distance ratio

Frontal horn width to intercaudate distance ratio (FH/CC) is used in assessing patients with suspected Huntington disease.  On the same axial plane obtained on the ACPC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, the ratio between the distance between the caudate heads (where they are ...
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Antenatal features of Down syndrome

Antenatal screening of Down syndrome (and other less common aneuploidies) should be available as a routine component of antenatal care. It allows families to either adjust to the idea of having a child with the condition or to consider termination of pregnancy. For a general description of Down...
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Geographic appearance

Geographic appearance is a term used in imaging, and other clinical fields (e.g. histopathology) to describe lesions with a well-circumscribed margins with adjacent tissues.  The term derives from the somewhat similar appearance of the outline of countries on a map or the clear demarcation forme...
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Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
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Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  TNM system T: primary tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed or tumour proven by the presence of malignant cells in spu...
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Anatomic position

The anatomic position, also referred to as the standard anatomic position, is the consistent position of the human body in which positional reference is made for anatomical nomenclature. It is not reliant on whether the patient is standing, supine, prone, sitting, etc. The position is defined a...
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Brock model for pulmonary nodules

The Brock model, also known as the PanCan model, is a multivariable model that estimates the risk that a pulmonary nodule on CT scan is a lung cancer. The model was developed from participants enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study 1, has been validated in lung cancer...
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Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries, ...
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Isikoff's View

The Isikoff's view is a sonographic view which demonstrates the origins of the right and left renal arteries. It is taken in the longitudinal plane with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position 1.
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Describing a bone lesion

Describing a bone lesion is an essential skill for the radiologist, used to form an accurate differential diagnosis for neoplastic entities, and occasionally non-neoplastic. In addition to patient demographics, the radiographic features of a bone lesion are often the primary determinant of non-h...
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11-13 week antenatal scan

11-13 week antenatal scan is considered a routine investigation advised for the fetal well being as well as for early screening in pregnancy (see antenatal screening). It includes multiple components and is highly dependant on the operator. Traditionally three factors are used to calculate the ...
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Modified PIOPED criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The modified PIOPED criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus (PE) determine the probability of pulmonary emboli following a VQ scan. Classification High probability two or more large mismatched segmental defects or equivalent moderate/large defects with a normal x-ray any perfusion de...
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Global cortical atrophy scale

The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale, also known as the Pasquier scale, is a qualitative rating system developed to assess cerebral atrophy, especially in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. It evaluates atrophy in 13 brain regions assessed separately in each hemisphere and resulting i...
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Lobar collapse (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Lobar collapse is relatively common and occurs following obstruction of a bronchus. Gas is resorbed from the lung parenchyma distal to the obstruction resulting in the collapse of the lung, with volume reduction and negativ...
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Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is a type of total shoulder replacement. It is often the preferred method when there has been advanced damage to the rotator cuff as seen in rotator cuff arthropathy. Procedure The reverse total shoulder flips the normal mechanical arrangement of the ...
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RANO criteria for glioblastoma

Response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria (RANO), published in 2010 1, are used to assess response to first-line treatment of glioblastoma (as well as lower grade astrocytoma 3) and have largely superseded the older Macdonald criteria (which only dealt with glioblastoma multiforme) 2. For ...
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Fleischner society pulmonary nodule recommendations

The Fleischner society pulmonary nodule recommendations are for the follow-up and management of pulmonary nodules detected incidentally on imaging. The guideline does not apply to patients <35 years or with a history of cancer or immunosuppression. The initial guideline was released in 2005 1, s...
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Joint effusion

This article is dedicated to the humble joint effusion, particularly the plain radiographic appearances. A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small physiological amount of fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulat...
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Pineal region (an approach)

A systematic approach to the pineal region is crucial as it is at the confluence of many intracranial structures/regions and is the site of origin of a number of unique pathologies as well as playing host to many entities which are more frequently encountered elsewhere. As such an understanding ...
Article

CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhoea or CSF otorrhoea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base of skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated non-ionic low-osmolar ...
Article

Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
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Radiomics

Radiomics is a new emerging field in which medical images are converted into multidimensional data by data-characterisation algorithms. The data is assessed for improved decision support. Radiomics has the potential to uncover disease characteristics that fail to be recognised by the naked human...
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CT enterography

Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Advantages  evaluates the entire thickness of the bowel wall offers information about the surrounding mesentery, the mesenteric vasculature and the perienteric fat useful in the assessm...
Article

Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT  and MR imaging, howev...
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Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
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Functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a type of paranasal sinus surgery performed intranasally using a rigid endoscope. Its primary objective is to restore physiological ventilation and mucociliary transport 1. Paranasal sinus imaging is crucial in preoperative planning and is also incr...
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Management of incidental adrenal masses: American College of Radiology white paper

The management of incidental adrenal masses revised in 2017 by the Adrenal Subcommittee of the Incidental Findings Committee of the American College of Radiology is an algorithm for the management of patients who are: adults (i.e. 18-year-old or over) asymptomatic for adrenal pathology referr...
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ATA guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules

The American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules are meant to improve inter- and intra-reader consistency during assessment of thyroid nodules on ultrasound, and to facilitate communication with referring endocrinologists. The 2015 guidelines stress the import...
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ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardised scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
Article

Satisfaction of search error

Satisfaction of search (also known as SOS) error is a common error in diagnostic radiology. It occurs when the reporting radiologist fails to continue to search for subsequent abnormalities after identifying an initial one. This initial detection of an abnormality satisfies the "search for meani...
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Breast density

Breast density on mammography can significantly vary between individuals. The density is a function of the relationship between radiolucent fat and radiodense glandular tissue. Breast density varies with age and generally younger women have denser breasts (i.e. more glandular tissue relative to...
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Breast calcifications (an approach)

Breast calcifications are relatively frequent on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is important...
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Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns

Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns on CT scan can be grouped under five categories: white enhancement gray enhancement water halo sign fat halo sign black attenuation The first three patterns are seen on contrast studies. White enhancement It is defined as uniform enhancement of th...
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Cardiac segmentation model

The American Heart Association (AHA) has published the nomenclature and segmentation of the left ventricular myocardium (the cardiac segmentation model), now widely used for the description of disease-affected myocardial territories and wall function. There are 17 segments that have a reasonabl...
Article

Acromiohumeral interval

Acromiohumeral interval is a useful and reliable measurement on AP shoulder radiographs and when narrowed is indicative of rotator cuff tear or tendinopathy.  Pathology Measurements of the acromiohumeral interval in the following intervals are suggestive of pathology 1,2: >12 mm: shoulder dis...
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Adult chest radiograph common exam pathology

Adult chest radiograph common exam pathology is essential to consider in the build up to radiology exams. The list of potential diagnoses is apparently endless, but there are some favourites that seem to appear with more frequency. When dealing with the adult chest radiograph in the exam settin...
Article

Epistaxis

Epistaxis (nosebleed) is very common and has a broad differential diagnosis in clinical practice. In clinical practice, anterior epistaxis are mainly located in Kiesselbach's plexus and posterior epistaxis (5% of all epistaxis) in Woodruff's plexus. Epidemiology Epistaxis is very common, with ...
Article

Ground glass opacification

Ground glass opacification/opacity (GGO) is a descriptive term referring to an area of increased attenuation in the lung on computed tomography (CT) with preserved bronchial and vascular markings. It is a non-specific sign with a wide aetiology including infection, chronic interstitial disease a...
Article

Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart (or cardiac CT) is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease, to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac funct...
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Breast MRI enhancement curves

Following administration of Gadolinium there can be three possible enhancement kinetic curves for a lesion on breast MRI (these are also applied in other organs such as prostate MRI). These are sometimes termed the Kuhl enhancement curves. type I curve: progressive enhancement pattern typicall...
Article

Cobb angle

The Cobb angle is the most widely used measurement to quantify the magnitude of spinal deformities, especially in the case of scoliosis, on plain radiographs. A scoliosis is defined as a lateral spinal curvature with a Cobb angle of 10° or more 4. Measurement To measure the Cobb angle, one mus...
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British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules

British Thoracic Society guidelines for pulmonary nodules were published in August 2015 for the management of pulmonary nodules seen on CT. In the United Kingdom, they supersede the Fleischner Society guidelines. They are based initially on identifying whether the nodule is solid or subsolid an...
Article

MR enterography

MR enterography is a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Indications The most common indication is to evaluate patients with Crohn disease (CD). Other less common indications would include coeliac disease, postoperative of adhesions, radiation enteritis, scleroderma,...
Article

Cystography

Cystography is a fluoroscopic study that images the bladder. It is similar to a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), and the difference between the studies is primarily one of emphasis; a cystogram focuses on the bladder and a VCUG focuses on the posterior urethra. The study has been adapted to CT w...
Article

Retrotracheal space

The retrotracheal space (or Raider triangle) is a radiolucent mediastinal space best seen on lateral chest x-rays. It is normally triangular in shape but can vary greatly in size and shape depending on the patient's body habitus and lung volume 1. Boundaries anterior: posterior tracheal stripe...
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Chest x-ray: lines and tubes (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray lines and tubes can be easily assessed and should be the first thing that you look at when reviewing a chest x-ray. Assessment of their position is important, but they also give you an idea about how sick the pa...
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Lines and tubes (chest radiograph)

Lines and tubes are important components in chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric (NG) tube See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-oesophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bron...
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Triangle of safety

The triangle of safety is an anatomical region in the axilla that forms a guide as to the safe position for intercostal catheter (ICC) placement. With the arm abducted, the apex is the axilla, and the triangle is formed by the: lateral border of the pectoralis major anteriorly lateral border o...
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Chest x-ray: circulation (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation ...
Article

Chest x-ray: ET tube position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray ET (endotracheal) tube position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article, see ETT. S...
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Chest x-ray - an approach (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Chest radiographs are frequently performed and a fantastic tool for making diagnoses of acute and chronic co...
Article

Wrist radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Wrist radiographs are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma.  Summary approach alignment AP distal radius and ulna have smooth joint surface carpal arcs are smooth carpal bones do not overlap ...
Article

Elbow radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Elbow radiographs are common plain films that are obtained frequently in the emergency department. Summary approach alignment anterior humeral line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the mi...
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Shoulder radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Shoulder radiographs are commonly performed for shoulder injury assessment and followup. Using a standard system to approach the x-ray means it is much more likely you will find the abnormality. Summary approach alignment...
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Abdominal x-ray artifacts (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Abdominal x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using ABDO X is a helpful and systematic method for abdominal x-ray review, where X refers to the assess...
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Abdominal x-ray organs (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Abdominal x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using ABDO X is a helpful and systematic method for abdominal x-ray review, where O refers to the assess...
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Abdominal x-ray densities (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Abdominal x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using ABDO X is a helpful and systematic method for abdominal x-ray review, where D refers to the assess...
Article

Abdominal x-ray bowel (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Abdominal x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using ABDO X is a helpful and systematic method for abdominal x-ray review, where B refers to the assess...
Article

Abdominal x-ray air (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Abdominal x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using ABDO X is a helpful and systematic method for abdominal x-ray review, where A refers to the assess...
Article

Abdominal x-ray - an approach (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Abdominal radiographs can be challenging examinations to look at. It is always best to approach radiographs in a systematic way. Bowel gas pattern Gas within the bowel forms a natural contrast with surrounding tissues sin...
Article

Chest x-ray (exposure summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where E refers to "everything ...
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Chest x-ray: disability (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability a...
Article

Chest x-ray airway (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessme...
Article

Chest x-ray: ABCDE (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review: A: airways B: breathing (th...
Article

CVC position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray CVC (central venous catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; for a more in-depth reference article see centr...
Article

Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
Article

Nasogastric tube position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists   Nasogastric (NG) tube position on chest x-ray should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article NGT. S...
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Situs inversus

Situs inversus, short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. It is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera (mirror image of internal organs normal pos...
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Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
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Crohn disease vs ulcerative colitis

Due to the overlap in clinical presentation of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), imaging often has a role to play in distinguishing the two. Distinguishing features include: bowel involved CD: small bowel 70-80%, only 15-20% have only colonic involvement UC: rectal involvement 9...
Article

Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment

Densitometric vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is an image of the lumbar and thoracic spine acquired on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners, for the purpose of diagnosing osteoporotic vertebral fractures.  Terminology The technique is available on DXA scanners under a variety of...
Article

Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms of relations anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before...
Article

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, en...
Article

Carpal height

Carpal height is used to diagnose and assess the severity of carpal collapse. It is defined as the distance between the base of third metacarpal and the subchondral bony cortex of the distal radius. But due to variations between individuals, it is more appropriate to calculate the carpal height ...
Article

CT polytrauma (approach)

Below is an approach used for the "primary survey" of a CT polytrauma/multitrauma (also called trauma CT or whole body CT), often performed at the CT console with the patient still on the CT table. It allows rapid communication of significant findings to the trauma team as well as the decision ...
Article

Breast MRI

Breast MRI is the most sensitive method for detection of breast cancer. Depending on international health regulations, it is either applied for screening of women at high risk for developing breast cancer (e.g. BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers), as an additional diagnostic test in pretherapeutic breast ...
Article

Sagittal balance (C7 plumb line)

Sagittal balance forms part of the plain radiographic assessment of spinal deformity including kyphotic or lordotic deformities and scoliosis. There are numerous ways of assessing this, using various bony landmarks and angles to evaluate whether or not a normal distribution of weight and stresse...
Article

Central sacral vertical line

The central sacral vertical line (CSVL) is used in the assessment of spinal scoliosis.  It is a line constructed on frontal films of the spine and pelvis to measure coronal balance, drawn as follows: a line connecting the top of the iliac crests is drawn a second line is drawn perpendicular t...
Article

Coronal balance

Coronal balance is one of the features that needs to be assessed on long spine radiographs obtained for spinal deformity, particularly scoliosis. It measures whether or not the upper spine is located over the midline (normal) or off to one side.  To assess coronal balance, a vertical (plumb) li...
Article

Abdominal x-ray review: ABDO X (summary)

Abdominal x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using ABDO X is a helpful and systematic method for abdominal x-ray review: A: air - where it should and shouldn't be B: bowel - position, size and wall thickness D: dense st...
Article

Pelvic ultrasound

Pelvic ultrasound is usually the initial modality for imaging gynaecologic pathology, including acute pelvic pain and chronic pelvic pain. The exam normally involves two components: a transabdominal (TA) evaluation and a transvaginal (TV) / endovaginal (EV) evaluation. Normal ultrasound anatomy...
Article

CT angiography of the cerebral arteries

CT angiography of the cerebral arteries is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch of the aorta. By using multidetector CT (MDCT) after int...
Article

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
Article

Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
Article

Medial temporal lobe atrophy score

The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain - an approach). Classification ...
Article

3D ultrasound

Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound is a technique that converts standard 2D grayscale ultrasound images into a volumetric dataset. The 3D image can then be reviewed retrospectively. The technique was developed for problem-solving (particularly in obstetric/gynaecologic exams) and to potentially r...
Article

Haematospermia

Haematospermia (less commonly haemospermia) refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety in patients despite usually being of benign aetiology. Pathology Aetiology urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease comm...
Article

Optic nerve sheath diameter

Optic nerve sheath diameter has significance in the assessment of papilloedema in cases of elevated intracranial pressure. Pathology The optic nerve sheath demonstrates changes in diameter with CSF pressure changes as there is a layer of subarachnoid space between the nerve and its sheath, whi...
Article

Neurodegenerative MRI brain (an approach)

Imaging of the brain in patients with suspected neurodegenerative conditions is common and challenging, as in patients with subtle and equivocal signs and symptoms, the imaging findings are also subtle and equivocal. In many instances, by the time imaging findings are clear cut, then the patient...

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