Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

278 results found
Article

Ottawa ankle rules

The Ottawa ankle rules are a clinical decision-making strategy for determining which patients require radiographic imaging for ankle and foot injuries. Proper application has high (97.5%) sensitivity and reduces the need for radiographs by ~35% 1,2,4.  There are two components, assessing for an...
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Ottawa knee rules

The Ottawa knee rules are a clinical decision-making strategy for determining which patients require radiographic imaging for knee pain. A patient with knee pain qualifies for a radiograph if: 55 years or older point tenderness at the fibular head isolated point tenderness of the patella in...
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Paediatric elbow radiograph (an approach)

Paediatric elbow radiographs are commonly encountered in the emergency department and, when approached in a systematic fashion, are not as difficult to interpret as most people think! Systematic review Ossification Check that the ossification centres are present and in the correct position. T...
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Paediatric urinary tract infection (NICE guideline)

The British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published the “Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management” in 2007 as a guideline for paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) management, including imaging, prophylaxis and follow-up 1.  This article inten...
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Pancreatic ultrasound

Pancreatic ultrasound can be used to assess for pancreatic malignancy, pancreatitis and its complications, as well as for other pancreatic pathology. Preparation Fast the patient to reduce interference from overlying bowel gas, which may otherwise make visualisation difficult. Scanning techni...
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Pathology checklists

Pathology checklists are really helpful when reporting a radiograph, ultrasound or cross-sectional examination. It is a key way to ensure that you fully review a film and don't fall foul of satisfaction of search. Plain film radiographs craniofacial skull radiograph checklist facial bones ra...
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Patterns of sinonasal obstruction

Recognising patterns of sinonasal obstruction is useful to help localise the area of pathology and narrow the differential diagnosis.  Radiographic features Babbel et al described five pattern of sinonasal obstruction 1, which are readily apparent on CT: Infundibular pattern opacification of...
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PECARN traumatic brain injury algorithm

The PECARN (Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) traumatic brain injury algorithm is a clinical decision rule that aims to identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) 1. This validated paediatric algorithm predicts likelihood of the a...
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Pelvic pain in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with pelvic pain in the exam.  Most examinations are performed using ultrasound. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram. Only...
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Pelvic ultrasound

Pelvic ultrasound is the usually the initial modality for imaging gynaecologic pathology, including acute pelvic pain and chronic pelvic pain. The exam normally involves two components: a transabdominal (TA) evaluation and a transvaginal (TV) / endovaginal (EV) evaluation. Normal ultrasound ana...
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Penile Doppler in erectile dysfunction

Penile Doppler (papaverine induced colour duplex Doppler) is an excellent and highly accurate means of assessing patients with erectile dysfunction. Pathology Penile erection is a result of complex interaction between nervous, arterial, venous and sinusoidal systems. Any defect in one of these...
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Per vaginal bleeding in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with per vaginal bleeding in the exam.  Premenopausal embedded IUD lost IUD submucosal fibroid Pregnancy related perigestational haemorrhage intrauterine fetal demise ectopic pregnancy ruptured ectopic cervical ectopic  in...
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Perigestational haemorrhage in the exam

Getting a film with perigestational haemorrhage in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show an anteverted uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is 20 mm in TV study with a single, live e...
Article

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
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Pineal region (an approach)

A systematic approach to the pineal region is crucial as it is at the confluence of many intracranial structures/regions and is the site of origin of a number of unique pathologies as well as playing host to many entities which are more frequently encountered elsewhere. As such an understanding ...
Article

Pituitary MRI (an approach)

A systematic approach to the pituitary region is crucial as small lesions can have a profound impact on the patient, and can be subtle even on high quality dedicated MRI imaging. Successful assessment of the pituitary region relies not only on a clear understanding of the local anatomy but also ...
Article

Placental abruption in the exam

Getting a film with placental abruption (premature separation of placenta from uterus) in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show a single live fetus with gestational age of 27 weeks. The cervix i...
Article

Pneumothorax in the exam

Getting a film with a pneumothorax in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.   It is unlikely that they will give you a simple pneumothorax - so, it is worth while considering the likely causes and whether it is under tension. Miss it at your peril (both in real l...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome in the exam

Getting a film with polycystic ovarian syndrome in a subfertile patient is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show an anteverted uterus with a normal size. There is diffuse thickening of the endometrium to 17...
Article

Prosthetic cardiac valves on chest x-ray (an approach)

Prosthetic cardiac valves are a routine finding on chest X-ray. The frequency and degree of exposure is greatest in larger hospitals with cardiothoracic centres, however, prosthetic valves are commonplace universally. Recognition of which valve has been replaced, any other related cardiothoraci...
Article

Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
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Radiographic assessment of basilar invagination

Five lines have been described and used by most of the radiologists to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal and lateral skull plain radiographs as well as coronal and midsaggital reconstructed CT images. This is based on the relative projection of odontoid process to these lines, which is a...
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Radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Radiographic evaluation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves: femoral component a line is drawn along the posterior cortex of the femur a second line is drawn along the roof of the intercondylar notch of the femur (Blumensaat line) the point of intersection of these tw...
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Radiographic positioning terminology

Radiographic positioning terminology is used routinely to describe the position of the patient for taking various radiographs. Standard nomenclature is employed with respect to the anatomic position. Terminology Basic terms anterior is towards the front of the body (Latin: before) posterior ...
Article

Rapid ultrasound in shock

The Rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) protocol is a structured point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a shocked patient. It is a more detailed and longer exam than the FAST scan, with the aim to differentiate between hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and...
Article

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
Article

Renal transplant ultrasound

The central approach of renal transplant ultrasound is to evaluate for possibly treatable surgical or medical complications arising in the transplanted kidney. Institutions vary in the exact schedule of renal transplant ultrasound assessment, but it is common to obtain an initial ultrasound 24-...
Article

Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms

When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include 1-2: size and shape sac dimensions (outer sur...
Article

Retained barium in appendix

Retained barium in appendix refers to the presence of barium in appendix beyond 72 hours from the start of procedure. Proposed significance Previously used as a sign of appendicitis. Actual significance Retained barium outlining the appendiceal lumen allows evaluation of its width and contou...
Article

Reticular and linear pulmonary opacification

In chest radiology, reticular and linear opacification refers to a broad sub-group of pulmonary opacification caused by a decrease in the gas to soft tissue ratio due to a pathological process centred in or around the pulmonary interstitium. This includes thickening of any of the interstitial co...
Article

Retrosternal airspace

The retrosternal airspace is seen as a normal lucency between the posterior aspect of the sternum and anterior aspect of the ascending aorta on lateral chest radiographs. This space normally measures less than 2.5 cm in width. Increased retrosternal airspace is a sign of pulmonary emphysema, whi...
Article

Retrotracheal space

The retrotracheal space (or Raider triangle) is a radiolucent mediastinal space best seen on lateral chest x-rays. It is normally triangular in shape but can vary greatly in size and shape depending on the patient's body habitus and lung volume 1. Boundaries anterior: posterior tracheal stripe...
Article

Reversal of umbilical arterial end diastolic flow

Reversal of umbilical artery end-diastolic flow (REDF) or velocity is often an ominous finding if detected after 16 weeks. It is classified as Class III in severity in abnormal umbilical arterial Dopplers 6. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~0.5% of all pregnancies with a much higher...
Article

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is a type of total shoulder replacement. It is often the preferred method when there has been advanced damage to the rotator cuff as seen in rotator cuff arthropathy. Procedure The reverse total shoulder flips the normal mechanical arrangement of the ...
Article

Right paratracheal stripe

The right paratracheal stripe is a normal finding on the frontal chest x-ray and represents the right tracheal wall, adjacent pleural surfaces and any mediastinal fat between them. It is visible because of the silhouette sign created by air within the trachea medially and air within the lung lat...
Article

Sagittal midline of the brain (an approach)

The sagittal midline of the brain is one of the most important sectional planes in neuroimaging. A good working knowledge of the normal neuroanatomy of the sagittal midline is essential so that the subtle abnormalities that may manifest here can be recognised. The neuroembryological development...
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Satisfaction of search

Satisfaction of search is a common error in diagnostic radiology. It occurs when the reporting radiologist fails to continue to search for subsequent abnormalities after identifying an initial one. This initial detection of an abnormality satisfies the "search for meaning" and the reporting of t...
Article

Scapholunate interval

The scapholunate interval is the radiographic measurement of the scapholunate joint on PA wrist projections. Abnormal widening is indicative of injury to the scapholunate ligament that occurs with scapholunate dissociation.  In adults, the normal value is usually taken as <2 mm, with an interva...
Article

Scrotal scintigraphy

Scrotal scintigraphy is a radio-isotope examination of the scrotal contents, primarily in patients presenting with scrotal pain. Indications Although, ultrasound remains the mainstay of scrotal imaging, scintigraphy can be used where the diagnosis is unclear, since ultrasound appearances for s...
Article

Second trimester ultrasound scan

The second trimester scan is a routine ultrasound examination in many countries that is primarily used to assess fetal anatomy and detect the presence of any fetal anomalies.  The second trimester extends from 13 weeks and 0 days to 27 weeks and 6 days of gestation although the majority of thes...
Article

Shortened fetal humerus

Shortened fetal humerus is a morphological description and is usually defined when the humeral length falls below the 5th percentile or less than 0.9 predicted by the bipareital diameter (BPD). It can occur in isolation or in association with a number of other anomalies. The humeral length is n...
Article

Shoulder radiograph (an approach)

Shoulder radiographs are common films to see in the Emergency Department, especially during the weekend after sporting events. Systematic review Glenohumeral joint articular surfaces should be parallel the humeral head should be on the glenoid in any other view if the humeral head lies unde...
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Shoulder radiograph (summary approach)

Shoulder radiographs are commonly performed for shoulder injury assessment and followup. Using a standard system to approach the x-ray means it is much more likely you will find the abnormality. Summary approach alignment glenohumeral joint - shoulder dislocation the humeral head is adjacent...
Article

Situs inversus

Situs inversus, short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. It is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera (mirror image of internal organs normal pos...
Article

Skeletal survey

A skeletal survey is a series of radiographs, performed systematically to cover the entire skeleton or the anatomic regions appropriate for the clinical indications. A typical skeletal survey includes bilateral anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) projections of hands, forearms, humeru...
Article

Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric surgical procedure involving resection of the greater curvature of the fundus and body of the stomach to leave approximately 15% of the original gastric volume (60 to 100 cc), thus creating a restrictive physiology. The post-surgical gastric pouch resembles a ba...
Article

Small bowel follow through

Small bowel follow through (SBFT) is a fluoroscopic technique designed to obtain high resolution images of the small bowel. The function of the small bowel can also be evaluated. Indications The small bowel follow through can be used for evaluation of small bowel abnormalities, including: str...
Article

Small pulmonary nodules (HRCT chest approach)

Small pulmonary lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for 5-10 mm lung nodules and are divided into three main categories based on their distribution pattern: centrilobular perilymphatic random Approach Distribution Firstly, determine whether the nodules are perilymphatic ...
Article

Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test, also known as diaphragm fluoroscopy, is a quick and easy real time fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragmatic motor function (excursion). It is used most often to confirm absence of muscular contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration in patients with phrenic nerve...
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Solitary pulmonary nodule (an approach)

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several radi...
Article

Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all aetiologies. Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as diffe...
Article

Sports injuries (cricket)

Cricket is a popular game in Commonwealth countries, injuries in this game can be associated with three aspects of the game: bowling, batting or fielding. Radiologists should know the different kind of injuries related to this game for a better clinical association. Injuries can range from a mus...
Article

Standardised reports

Standardised reports may be a helpful starting point for reporting examinations. However, with practice and confidence, breaking away from the standard report is possible and, in most cases, desirable. The standard report may help to remember review areas and in times of increasing litigation m...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Subcutaneous calcification (differential)

Subcutaneous calcification can be associated with a number of disorders. The list includes: dermatomyositis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome pseudoxanthoma elasticum basal cell nevus syndrome subcutaneous lipodystrophy venous thrombosis as a manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus varicose v...
Article

Submucosal leiomyoma in the exam

Getting a film with submucosal fibroid in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound scans show an anteverted uterus with endometrium that is 7 mm wide and has a trilaminar appearance indicative of the pe...
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Supratentorial intracranial mass in an adult (an approach)

The identification of a supratentorial intracranial mass in an adult is a fairly common clinical scenario, the appropriate management of which relies heavily on preoperative imaging. Often important clues will be present in the clinical history (e.g. immunosuppression, systemic malignancy, durat...
Article

Tentorial angle

The tentorial angle is measured between a line connecting the nasion with the tuberculum sellae and the the angle of the straight sinus. Normally it should measure between 27° and 52°. Abnormalities of the posterior fossa / base of skull can alter this. For example this angle is elevated in ach...
Article

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound

Testicular and scrotal ultrasound is the primary modality for imaging most of the male reproductive system. It is relatively quick, relatively inexpensive, can be correlated quickly with the patient's signs and symptoms, and, most importantly, is non-ionising. MRI is occasionally used for probl...
Article

The four "Ds" of radiology reporting

The four "Ds" of radiology reporting are the basic sequential tasks that a radiologist performs when reporting/reading a case, whether it be in training, the exam environment or in day-to-day clinical practice.  The 4 "Ds" Detect Describe Diagnosis or differential diagnoses Decision By sti...
Article

Thoracoplasty

Thoracoplasty is a surgical procedure that was originally designed to permanently collapse the cavities of pulmonary tuberculosis by removing the ribs from the chest wall 1-3 . The resection of multiple ribs, allows the apposition of parietal to the visceral or mediastinal pleura. Until supplant...
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Trabecular pattern of proximal femur

Trabecular pattern of proximal femur refers to the five groups of trabeculae that are demonstrable within the femoral head and neck. Basic concept Trabecula is a supportive and connective tissue element which form in cancellous bone. Trabeculae develop in a normal bone and also in a healing bo...
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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation or replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is a technique to replace the aortic valve through a transvascular or transapical approach. Compared to traditional open aortic valve replacement with sternotomy and a heart-lung bypass machine, the TAVI technique is less invasiv...
Article

Transrectal ultrasound

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is a technique that is used most commonly to evaluate the prostate gland, including ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies depth of invasion of colon/rectal cancer (for staging purposes) It can also be used for guidance in placing a transrectal drain, or in rare pro...
Article

Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with traumatic aortic injury. Description ...
Article

Triangle of safety

The triangle of safety is an anatomical region in the axilla that forms a guide as to the safe position for intercostal catheter (ICC) placement. With the arm abducted, the apex is the axilla, and the triangle is formed by the: lateral border of the pectoralis major anteriorly lateral border o...
Article

Triangulation

Triangulation is a technique for determining if a questionable structure is genuine or superimposition of structures. Technique hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box the nipple on each film must be at the same level use a ruler and place one end over the les...
Article

Tuberculosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal tuberculosis is always secondary to a primary lesion in the lung. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease is around 30 million globally and 1-3% of the 30 million have involvement of their bones and/or joints. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for almost all of the c...
Article

Tuberculous arthropathy

Tuberculous arthropathy is a type of musculoskeletal manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) and a common cause of infectious arthritis in developing countries. Any pathological joint lesion where the exact diagnosis is equivocal should be considered tubercular in origin unless proven otherwise. Ple...
Article

Tumour pseudoresponse

Tumour pseudoresponse, also known just as pseudoresponse, refers to the phenomenon of tumours appearing to respond to a specific treatment on imaging criteria, when the lesion actually remains stable or has even progressed. The term is largely used in brain tumours imaging follow-up, especially...
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Tumours that metastasise to bone (mnemonic)

Tumours that metastasise to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "lead kettle" spelled PBKTL (lead is Pb on the Periodic Table). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers t...
Article

Two diameter pocket method

The two diameter pocket (TDP) method is an alternative method of assessing amniotic fluid volumes on ultrasound. However, it is not thought to be good predictor of adverse neonatal outcome 2. Sonographic assessment According to this method 1-2: TDP <15 cm2: indicative of oligohydramnios TDP ...
Article

Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease

Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease has become the first choice for carotid artery stenosis screening, permitting the evaluation of both the macroscopic appearance of plaques as well as flow characteristics in the carotid artery. This article focus on internal caro...
Article

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or the stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules. I...
Article

Ultrasound guided breast biopsy

Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure. Indications Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as:  BIRADS ...
Article

Ultrasound of the elbow

Ultrasound of the elbow allows high-resolution imaging of elbow anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joint, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the elbow with ultrasound. A typical protocol is as follows 1: Anterior elb...
Article

Ultrasound of the knee

Ultrasound of the knee allows high-resolution imaging of superficial knee anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of some of the tendons and ligaments. Knee ultrasound is somewhat limited compared with ultrasound examinations of other joints because the cruciate ligaments and th...
Article

Ultrasound of the wrist

Ultrasound is a useful imaging modality for evaluation of the wrist, allowing high-resolution imaging of anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joint, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the wrist with ultrasound. The exam...
Article

Ultrasound-guided FNA of the thyroid

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid refers to a minimally invasive procedure where in which tissue samples are collected from a thyroid nodule or other suspicious thyroid lesion. It is usually done on a outpatient basis and generally complications are very minimal. Pro...
Article

Umbilical arterial Doppler assessment

Umbilical arterial (UA) Doppler assessment is used in surveillance of fetal well-being in the third trimester of pregnancy. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler is a marker of uteroplacental insufficiency and consequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or suspected pre-eclampsia.  Umbilical ...
Article

Umbilical venous flow assessment

Umbilical venous flow in the physiological situation comprises of a monophasic non-pulsatile flow pattern with a mean velocity of 10-15 cm/s. The presence of pulsatility implies a pathological state unless in the following situations: early in pregnancy: up to ~13 weeks gestation  the presence...
Article

Unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax

Unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax has many potential causes. It may be the result of rotation away from an optimal position or because of pathology. Rotation A unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax may be caused by the positioning of the patient. Rotation away from the radiation beam alt...
Article

Urethrography

Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...
Article

Urinary tract infection

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition involving the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis). It is commonly divided into 'uncomplicated' and 'complicated' infections.  Pathology UTIs occur when there is bacterial colonisation of the uroepithelium and a subsequent...
Article

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment

Uteroplacental blood flow assessment is an important part of fetal well-being assessment and evaluates Doppler flow in the uterine arteries and rarely the ovarian arteries. Pathology In a non-gravid state and at the very start of pregnancy the flow in the uterine artery is of high pulsatility ...
Article

Viva preparation

Viva preparation is key to successful completion of professional exams.  It is really important to think about the types of cases that you will be shown in the viva and preparing aurally for them. So, rather than learning sitting with your books, get a set of films, or using the Radiopaedia.org...
Article

Viva technique

Viva technique is hugely important when sitting oral examinations. You must remember that the examiners may well have been examining for several days and for hours at a time. They will have shown their films many times and will know them backwards! Moreover, their films will be beloved, so do no...
Article

Weightbearing foot series (an approach)

Reporting a weightbearing foot series can be a daunting process if you are inexperienced and often results in the films being left for somebody else to report. This article attempts to demystify the whole process by providing a structured approach to their reporting. Technique The weightbearin...
Article

Wrist radiograph (an approach)

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous on any night of the week in emergency departments, especially when pavements are icy! Systematic review Distal radial contour Check the contour of the distal radius: AP the distal radial articular surface should cup the carpals the articular surface should ...
Article

Wrist radiograph (approach)

Wrist x-rays are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma. This is usually a fall onto an outstretched hand. Systematic review It is useful to have a systematic approach; I tend to start proximally and work distally looking at structures on both views together: distal ra...
Article

Wrist radiograph (summary approach)

Wrist radiographs are commonly used for the assessment of the wrist following trauma.  Summary approach alignment AP distal radius and ulna have smooth joint surface carpal arcs are smooth carpal bones do not overlap apart from pisiform and trapezium metacarpals do not overlap and distal...

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