Artifacts that mimic breast calcification can arise from a number of sources. These include:
deodorants on skin: most practices recommend that clients for mammography do not use deodorant or perfume on the day of the study for this reason. The residue from deodorant is a very fine, dense, misty...
Breast calcifications are relatively frequently found on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is i...
Breast density on mammography can significantly vary between individuals. The density is a function of the relationship between radiolucent fat and radiodense glandular tissue.
Breast density varies with age and generally younger women have denser breasts (i.e. more glandular tissue relative to...
Breast echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon is usually classified into three categories 1:
parenchymal patterns in breast imaging
Breast MRI is the most sensitive method for detection of breast cancer. Depending on international health regulations, it is either applied for screening of women at high risk for developing breast cancer (e.g. BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 carriers), as an additional diagnostic test in pretherapeutic breas...
Following administration of Gadolinium there can be three possible enhancement kinetic curves for a lesion on breast MRI (these are also applied in other organs such as prostate MRI). These are sometimes termed the Kuhl enhancement curves.
type I curve: progressive enhancement pattern
The nipple areolar complex is a major anatomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions.
nipple retraction or inversion
In breast imaging, forbidden, check or review areas are zones that, according to Tabár, require special attention in mammographic interpretation.
on a mediolateral oblique (MLO) view
the "milky way" (retromammary fat): a 3-4 cm wide band parallel to the edge of the pectoral muscle...
Many patients, particularly in developing countries, present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can be tr...
Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast.
Types of mammography
In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic.
Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging.
Nipple markers can be a useful technique in the evaluation of densities overlying the expected position of the nipple on a chest radiograph. Not uncommonly a small round opacity projects over the lower thorax on a chest radiograph (see: solitary pulmonary nodule).
Often, especially in women, th...
Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Triangulation is a technique for determining if a questionable structure is genuine or superimposition of structures.
hang the CC, MLO, and 90° lateral films (in that order) on the view box
the nipple on each film must be at the same level
use a ruler and place one end over the les...
Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or the stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules.
Ultrasound guided percutaneous breast biopsy is a widely used technique for an accurate histopathological assessment of suspected breast pathology. It is a fast, safe and economical procedure.
Ultrasound guidance is limited to lesions visible on ultrasound study, such as: