An opacity projecting over the abdomen has a broad differential. Possibilities to consider include:
ingested, e.g. coins, batteries, bones, etc
artifacts, e.g. object attached to the cloth of the patient like a safety pin or button
iatrogenic, e.g. haemostatic clips, gastric b...
Abdominal radiographs can be challenging examinations to look at. It is always best to approach radiographs in a systematic way.
Bowel gas pattern
Gas within the bowel forms a natural contrast with surrounding tissues since it has a very low density. Bowel can only be seen if it contains air/g...
Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns on CT scan can be grouped under five categories:
water halo sign
fat halo sign
The first three patterns are seen on contrast studies.
It is defined as uniform enhancement of th...
Bronchogenic cysts and oesophageal duplication cysts are embryological foregut duplication cysts and are also differential diagnoses for a cystic mediastinal mass.
asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst
symptomatic oesophageal cyst in the case of peptic ulceration
The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.
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Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called CTC, virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CT pneumocolon, is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening.
screening test for colorectal carcinoma
colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful conventional c...
Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography, also called virtual gastroscopy (VG), is a noninvasive procedure for the detection of gastric abnormalities.
rapid and noninvasive exam
offers information about local tumor invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis in cases of gastric cance...
Due to the overlap in clinical presentation of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), imaging often has a role to play in distinguishing the two. Distinguishing features include:
CD: small bowel 70-80%, only 15-20% have only colonic involvement
UC: rectal involvement 9...
Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders.
evaluates the entire thickness of the bowel wall
offers information about the surrounding mesentery, the mesenteric vasculature and the perienteric fat
useful in the assessm...
Enteroclysis is a gastrointestinal technique designed to provide improved evaluation of the small bowel. The conventional fluoroscopic technique is not widely used since it is somewhat invasive, time and labour intensive, and not particularly pleasant for the patient. The exam also requires a de...
Evacuation proctography (defecography) is a fluoroscopic technique to evaluate pelvic floor disorders. The technique traditionally involves fluoroscopy and barium, but an analogous MRI technique has also been developed (see: MR defaecating proctography).
incomplete defecation / con...
Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.
It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical ...
Fundoplications are forms of antireflux surgery used as a second line of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease after failure of medical treatment and first line of treatment of paraesophageal hernia.
A gastric fold is wrapped around the distal esophagus which enforces the lowe...
Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.
The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4.
MR enterography is a new non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders.
The most common indication is to evaluate patients with Crohn disease (CD).
Actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical descripti...
Nasogastric (NG) tube position on chest x-ray should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs.
This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article.
x-rays are only performed when the position ...
Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death.
The ideal position should be in the sub-diaphragmatic position in the stomach - identified on a plain chest radiograph as overlying the ...
Pancreatic ultrasound can be used to assess for pancreatic malignancy, pancreatitis and its complications, as well as for other pancreatic pathology.
Fast the patient to reduce interference from overlying bowel gas, which may otherwise make visualisation difficult.
Retained barium in appendix refers to the presence of barium in appendix beyond 72 hours from the start of procedure.
Previously used as a sign of appendicitis.
Retained barium outlining the appendiceal lumen allows evaluation of its width and contou...
Sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric surgical procedure involving resection of the greater curvature of the fundus and body of the stomach to leave approximately 15% of the original gastric volume (60 to 100 cc), thus creating a restrictive physiology. The post-surgical gastric pouch resembles a ba...
Small bowel follow through (SBFT) is a fluoroscopic technique designed to obtain high resolution images of the small bowel. The function of the small bowel can also be evaluated.
The small bowel follow through can be used for evaluation of small bowel abnormalities, including: