Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

494 results found
Article

Modified Outerbridge grading of chondromalacia

The modified Outerbridge grading of chondromalacia is divided into four grades by MRI, typically using fat-saturated proton density sequences. This grading system was originally devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patellae, but then modified and extended for all ch...
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Modified PIOPED II criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The modified PIOPED II criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on V/Q scan (ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy). The following article reflects the modified interpretation criteria promulgated in 2008 1 based on recat...
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Modified Rankin scale

The modified Rankin scale is commonly used to quantify functional outcome in individuals who suffer a neurological event. The scale was initially described by Rankin in 1957 to assess the outcome of cerebrovascular accidents 1. It has subsequently been modified 2,3 and has been used in a wide va...
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Modified Ringertz grading system for diffuse astrocytomas

The modified Ringertz grading system has historically been one of the more frequently used grading systems for diffuse astrocytomas, but has not essentially been replaced by the WHO grading system. Unlike the WHO grading system and St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Dumas-Duport gra...
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Modified treatment in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) score

The modified treatment in cerebral infarction (mTICI) score was developed from the original Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) scale by a consensus group in 2013 1. The recommendations included a name change to better reflect the increasing use of endovascular therapy for stroke, and sim...
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MRI classification system for lumbar disc degeneration

Disc degeneration can be graded on MRI T2 spin-echo weighted images using a grading system proposed by Pfirrmann 1. This classification is not used on routine spine reports, being more important for research purposes. grade I: disc is homogeneous with bright hyperintense white signal intensity ...
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MRI grading system for abnormal meniscal signal intensity

MRI grading system for abnormal high meniscal signal intensity was reported by Lotysch et al.  MR grades 1, 2, and 3 have been used: grade 1: small focal area of hyperintensity, no extension to the articular surface grade 2: linear areas of hyperintensity, no extension to the articular surface...
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MRI grading system for bone stress injuries

MRI grading system for bone stress injuries​ is a useful tool in assessing the extent of clinical findings related to bone stress injury and predicting the time to return to full activity, the latter being especially important for athletes.  Classifications Fredericson grading system Frederic...
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MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS)

MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) is a semi-quantitative scoring tool that was developed from the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) scoring tools. MOAKS has been shown to have very good to excellent reliability.  Scoring ...
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Mucinous neoplasms of the appendix

Mucinous neoplasms of the appendix are epithelial tumors of the appendix that produce mucin. They represent a spectrum of malignant potential, and are the most common cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei. Pathology Classification According to a panel of specialists consensus published in 2016 (Per...
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Mueller-Weiss syndrome (classification)

Mueller Weiss syndrome refers to a spontaneous adult onset osteonecrosis of the tarsal navicular. This syndrome is multifactorial and related to chronic loading on a suboptimally ossified navicular bone which is susceptible to central osteonecrosis due to its centripetal blood supply. It is dist...
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Müllerian duct anomaly classification

The Müllerian duct anomaly classification is a seven-class system that can be used to describe a number of embryonic Müllerian duct anomalies: class I: uterine agenesis/uterine hypoplasia a: vaginal (uterus: normal/variety of abnormal forms) b: cervical c: fundal d: tubal e: combined clas...
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Multiphase CT angiography collateral score in acute stroke

Multiphase CT angiography (mCTA) collateral score is a simple scoring system that allows quick evaluation of collateral vessel filling delay in acute ischemic stroke. In some studies, it has been shown to be a better predictor of clinical outcomes and eligibility for endovascular therapy (ECT) t...
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Myeloproliferative neoplasm

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a diverse group of conditions that are characterized by an excess of terminally differentiated myeloid cells (red cells, white cells, and/or platelets) in the peripheral blood. Pathology Classification The classic four types of myeloproliferative neoplasms are...
Article

National Early Warning Score (NEWS)

The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is a validated clinical assessment tool developed by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK 1,2. In December 2017, NEWS2 was released superseding the original (2012) version. The score is widely used as part of the evaluation of an acutely unwell patien...
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Neck dissection classification

Neck dissection, also known as cervical lymphadenectomy, is the surgical procedure for the management of metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy. There are multiple types of neck dissection that vary by the structures removed 1. This article reflects the 2001 classification by the American Head and ...
Article

Neck imaging reporting and data system (NI-RADS)

NI-RADS (Neck Imaging and Reporting and Data System) is a lexicon and risk classification proposed by the American College of Radiology for reporting surveillance imaging of treated head and neck cancer. The terminology and categories may be applied to any head and neck malignancy (e.g. squamous...
Article

Necrotizing enterocolitis (staging)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, to guide appropriate treatment based on the work of Bell et al. 1. In general, stage I and II are managed medically whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnea, bradyc...
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Neer classification of clavicle fractures

The Neer classification of clavicular fractures along with the AO classification system is one of the more frequently used classification systems when assessing clavicular fractures. Classification The classification system, broken into five categories communicates both the stability and treat...
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Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures

The Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures is probably the most frequently used system along with the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures. The terminology and factors which influence the classification are essential for the utility of radiological reports of proximal humer...
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Neimeier classification of gallbladder perforation

The classification of gallbladder perforation was proposed by Neimeier and later modified by Anderson et al. in 1987, which at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely accepted classification for gall bladder perforation. According to this classification, there are three main cli...
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Nerve injury classification

Nerve injury classification describes the various features of nerve injury on MRI with respect to pathological events. Classification neuropraxia grade I: there is increased T2/STIR signal in the nerve, however, the muscle appears normal recovery occurs within a few days to 3 months axono...
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Neurodegenerative disease

Neurodegenerative disease is a blanket term encompassing a wide variety of disorders, typically slowly progressive, with variable gradual neurologic dysfunction.  Over the years numerous classifications schemas have been described, each adding a layer of confusion for students. The main distinc...
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Neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a wide spectrum of disease. They consist of a large heterogeneous group of malignancies that are derived from embryonic neural crest tissue found in various organ such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, and gastrointestina...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation, and prognosis.  See 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the second most common morphological and pathological pattern of interstitial lung diseases. NSIP has two main subtypes: fibrotic type: most common, having a more dismal outcome cellular type: less common, but carries a much better prognosis due to...
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Normal bone marrow signal of the clivus

Bone marrow signal of the clivus changes predictably with age and is well assessed with midline T1 non-fat-saturated, non-contrast images. As is seen in the rest of the body the proportion of yellow (fatty) marrow increases with age. Knowledge of these changes allows the diagnosis of the abnorma...
Article

Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures are uncommon injuries usually resulting from high-energy blunt trauma. They are considered a specific type of basilar skull fracture, and importantly can be seen along with craniocervical dissociation. Treatment of isolated injury is generally conservative, unless t...
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as a peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension, and with or without compression 5. Classification There are two...
Article

Esophageal atresia (classification)

Esophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-esophageal fistula and can be divided into1: type A: isolated esophageal atresia (8%) type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%) type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%) type D: double fistula with intervening atresia (1%) ty...
Article

Off-ended

The term off-ended is used by some orthopedic surgeons and radiologists to describe a long bone fracture that is displaced by more than the width of the bone. An off-ended fracture is often shortened due to muscle contraction.
Article

Oligoprogression

Oligoprogression is an emerging concept in oncology, denoting a state where after an initially successfully systemic therapy of disseminated metastases, a single/few lesions display further progression.  Terminology A key difference between the related concepts of oligometastasis and oligoprog...
Article

Open book pelvic injury

Open book pelvic injuries are most often the result of high-energy trauma and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular injuries.  Pathology Open book pelvic injuries result from an anteroposterior compression injury to the pelvis and result in a combin...
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Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) classification

Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) is the unified transplantation network in the United States and runs under the administration of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). OPTN classification is the part of the imaging policy of UNOS that consists of in order to determine the ...
Article

Orthoroentgenogram

Orthoroentgenogram is a radiographic study used to evaluate anatomic leg length and calculate leg-length discrepancies. This study utilizes a long ruler placed on the film, and three radiographs including bilateral hips, knees and ankles. Similar studies used to evaluate true leg length include...
Article

Osteoarthritis of the hip (grading)

Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to its severity. Classification Plain radiograph Different grading schemes are described for plain radiographs of the hip: grade 0: normal grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes grade 2: definite joint space narrowin...
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Osteochondral injury staging

Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. stage I injury limited to articular cartilage MRI findings: subchondral edema x-ray findings: none stage II cartilage injury with associated subc...
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Osteochondritis dissecans (surgical staging)

Osteochondritis dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages: stage I stable lesion in continuity with the host bone covered by intact cartilage stage II stable on probing partial discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone stage III unstable on probing fragment not dislocat...
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Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification Osteogenesis imperfecta was initially classified by type according to a sche...
Article

Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Magnetic Resonance Imaging (O-RADS MRI) forms the MRI component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesio...
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Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Imaging Reporting and Data System, (O-RADS), aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accurately assigning each lesion to a risk category of malignancy being present, which informs the appropriate m...
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Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US)

The Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Ultrasound (O-RADS US) forms the ultrasound component of the Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System (O-RADS). This system aims to ensure that there are uniform unambiguous sonographic and MRI evaluations of ovarian or other adnexal lesions, accura...
Article

Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynecological imaging, and vary widely in etiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Pathology Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnan...
Article

Overall visual assessment of coronary artery calcification

Overall visual assessment of coronary artery calcification is a simple scoring system for risk assessment of coronary heart disease mortality by an overall "gestalt" of none, mild, moderate or heavy coronary artery calcification. It is comparable to the Agatston score but has the advantage of be...
Article

Pediatric mediastinal masses

Pediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses middle mediastinal masses posterior mediastinal ma...
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Pediatric midface anomalies (classification)

This classification system based on the embryology and anatomy of the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, and nasolacrimal apparatus as well as anomalies associated with craniofacial syndromes.2 Nasal cavity choanal atresia and stenosis pyriform aperture stenosis Nasofrontal region  conge...
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Palmer classification of TFCC abnormalities

Palmer classification for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) abnormalities is based on the cause, location, and degree of injury 1: Class 1 - traumatic injury a: central perforation of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) disc proper b: ulnar avulsion with or without distal ulnar fractur...
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Palmini classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Palmini classification of focal cortical dysplasia published in 2004 was one of the leading classification systems used for focal cortical dysplasia, recently replaced by a newer classification; Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia.  Unfortunately, as is the case with many classif...
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Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: hematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lacer...
Article

Pandystrophies

Pandystrophies are neurological diseases that demonstrate both white and grey-matter involvement, as opposed to leukodystrophies (dominated by white matter involvement) or poliodystrophies (dominated by grey matter involvement). Most metabolic diseases with central nervous system involvement fa...
Article

Parathyroid proliferative disease

Parathyroid proliferative disease is the collective term for a spectrum of parathyroid disorders 1: parathyroid adenoma parathyroid carcinoma parathyroid atypical adenoma: controversial entity parathyroid hyperplasia primary chief cell hyperplasia primary water-clear cell hyperplasia (rare...
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Parenchymal patterns in breast imaging

Parenchymal patterns in breast imaging influence mammographic screening sensitivity and is related to the risk of breast cancer. This article describes the historical classifications of breast density. See the main article on breast density for the currently accepted BI-RADS descriptors. Classi...
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Pathological fracture risk (Harrington criteria)

Harrington criteria can be used to predict which long bone skeletal metastases are at high risk of pathological fracture and should undergo prophylactic internal fixation. It preceded the Mirels classification for impending pathological fracture but has not been validated and its use is debated....
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Pathological fracture risk (Mirels classification)

Mirels classification is a system used to predict the highest risk of pathological fracture among long bones affected by metastases, and is based on site, location, matrix and/or presence of pain.  Classification 1 point upper limb involving <1/3 of bone diameter blastic/sclerotic lesion m...
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Patte classification of rotator cuff tendon retraction

The Patte classification describes the amount of supraspinatus tendon retraction in a complete tear of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, and is applied on sequences in the frontal plane 1: stage 1: proximal stump near the bony insertion stage 2: proximal stump is at the level of the humeral he...
Article

Patterns of normal bone marrow distribution in the spine

Patterns of normal bone marrow distribution in the spine have been described by Ricci 1. They apply to patients from the age of 6 months. Gross anatomy There are four patterns of normal red and yellow bone marrow distribution, with great variability not only between patients, but between respe...
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Patterns of sinonasal obstruction

Recognizing patterns of sinonasal obstruction is useful to help localize the area of pathology and narrow the differential diagnosis.  Radiographic features Babbel et al described five pattern of sinonasal obstruction 1, which are readily apparent on CT: Infundibular pattern opacification of...
Article

Penetration-aspiration scale

The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) is a means of grading the severity of penetration or aspiration observed in a videofluoroscopic swallow study and is widely used 2. The term aspiration is used for material that passes inferior to the level of the vocal folds. If material enters the larynx...
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Penile fracture grading

A simple grading system for penile fracture has been developed but it is not widely used or validated nor recognized by relevant urological surgical societies. Regardless, this system which relies on ultrasound assessment of the tunica albugenia, corpora of the penis, urethra and other fascia 1 ...
Article

Perianal disease

Perianal disease (also known as anorectal disease) is the collective name given to a group of diseases that primarily affect the anal canal +/- rectum. The disease spectrum ranges from the typically benign, e.g. hemorrhoids, to the potentially more serious, e.g. perianal fistula 1-3. hemorrhoid...
Article

Peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common and debilitating condition. Epidemiology The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is ~12% 3. Pathology Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of occlusive arterial disease of the extremities in patients over 40 years of age with t...
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Periprosthetic hip fracture classification systems

Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification Johansson classification Vancouver classification: most widely used
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Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...
Article

Periventricular leukomalacia classification

One of the methods used for grading of periventricular leukomalacia based on sonographic appearances is as: grade 1: areas of increased periventricular echogenicity without any cyst formation persisting for more than 7 days grade 2: the echogenicity has resolved into small periventricular cyst...
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Peroneal tubercle

The peroneal tubercle (also known as the peroneal trochlea) is one of the two bony projections or protuberances that may be seen on the lateral aspect of the calcaneus, the other one being the retrotrochlear eminence. The peroneal tubercle is present immediately inferior to the fibular malleolu...
Article

Perugini grading scale

The Perugini grading scale is a semi-quantitative method of scoring cardiac uptake following injection of 99mTc-DPD, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate or 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy in the investigation of cardiac amyloidosis. Classification grade 0: no cardiac uptake and normal bone uptake grade 1: cardiac up...
Article

PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
Article

Pharmaceuticals used in nuclear imaging

There are several drugs which are useful for evaluation of nuclear studies for respective systems. These drugs play an important role in monitoring the physiological changes and aiding in diagnosis. Drugs used are metoclopramide and erythromycin in gastrointestinal scintigraphy; used for gastr...
Article

Piedmont fracture

Piedmont fractures have been variably defined in the literature. Many suggest that Piedmont fractures are synonymous with Galeazzi fractures. That is a fracture of the radius at the middle and distal third with associated disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. The initial report about the s...
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Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture inferior to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture ext...
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PISAPED criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The PISAPED criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus indicate the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli based on findings on perfusion scintigraphy (only the Q portion of the V/Q scan) in combination with chest radiography. The criteria were validated in the Prospective Investigative St...
Article

Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to an ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries, the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with advers...
Article

Poliodystrophies

Poliodystrophies are neurological disease dominated by grey-matter involvement as opposed to leukodystrophies (dominated by white matter involvement) or pandystrophies (both white and grey matter involved). The poliodystrophy group are defined by predominant grey matter involvement, but some de...
Article

Poliovirus

Poliovirus is the causative agent involved in poliomyelitis. It is a single-stranded RNA virus and one of the smallest significantly described viruses: group: group IV family: picornaviruses genus: enterovirus species: enterovirus C subtype: poliovirus Related pathology poliomyelitis pol...
Article

Polymicrogyria

Polymicrogyria is one of many malformations of cortical development (see classification system for cortical malformations), and along with grey matter heterotopias, falls under a bewildering group of conditions characterized by abnormalities both in the migration of neurons to the cortex and abn...
Article

Posterior atrophy score of parietal atrophy

The posterior atrophy score, a.k.a. Koedam score, has been developed to enable visual assessment of parietal atrophy on MRI, and is useful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia, especially atypical or early onset Alzheimer's disease (see: neurodegenerative MRI brain: an approach) ...
Article

Preinvasive adenocarcinoma lesion of the lung

Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small non-invasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions. The category includes two types of lesions: atypical adenomatous ...
Article

Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging–Reporting and Data System) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric prostate MRI in the evaluation of suspected prostate cancer in treatment naive prostate glands. This article reflects version 2.1 (v2.1), published in 2019 and developed by an internationall...
Article

Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and peripheral stenoses See also congenital pulmonary stenosis
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2003 classification)

There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems. In 2003, the 3rd World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised in the Dana Point classification of pulm...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2008 classification)

The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1. This system is as follows: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.2: heritable ...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2013 classification)

In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.  The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
Article

Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
Article

Pulmonary edema grading

One pulmonary edema grading based on chest radiograph appearances and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is as follows: grade 0: normal chest radiograph, PCWP 8-12 mmHg grade 1: shows evidence of upper lobe diversion on a chest radiograph, PCWP 13-18 mmHg grade 2: shows interstitial ed...
Article

Ranson criteria

Ranson criteria are useful in assessing prognosis in early acute pancreatitis. The more of the criteria are met the higher the mortality. Ranson criteria are assessed both at admission and at 48 hours. Criteria On admission age: >55 years white blood count: >16 000/mL blood glucose level: >...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete obliteration class II: r...
Article

RECIST 1.1: comparison with RECIST 1.0

Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) was updated to version 1.1 in 2009. For both RECIST 1.0 and 1.1, the requirement for measurable disease at baseline depends on the endpoints of the clinical trial. The fundamental concept common to both versions of RECIST is that measurable...
Article

RENAL nephrometry scoring system

The RENAL nephrometry scoring system was developed to categorize renal masses into low, intermediate and high complexity, based on cross-sectional imaging findings. Its purpose is to aid in decision making, patient counseling, surgical planning, and patient follow-up, as well as academic reporti...
Article

Retrotrochlear eminence

The retrotrochlear eminence is located posterior to the peroneal tubercle and the peroneal tendons. It is one of two bony projections or protuberances that may be seen arising from the lateral wall of the calcaneum, the other being the peroneal tubercle. It is seen to be prominent in individua...
Article

Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis from 2012 is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1992 Atlanta classification. The worldwide consensus aims for an internationally agreed-upon classification of acute pancre...
Article

Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides

The Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides was formed by experts from 12 different countries in the field of vasculitis as a proposed update to the original 1994 International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides. This 2012 up...

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