Spinal arteriovenous malformations can be classified in a number of ways:
extramedullary: 80% 1
Or into four types 2:
type I: single coiled vessel (dural AV fistula)
type II: intramedullary glomus AVM
type III: juvenile
type IV: intradural perimedullary (AV fistula)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all etiologies.
Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as differ...
The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumor related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilization or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease.
Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement among...
Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following:
vertebral metastases (94%)
may have epidural extension
intradural extramedullary metastases (5%)
intramedullary metastases (1%)
Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Spondylolisthesis denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.
Although etymologically it is directionless (see below) and c...
A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above.
This classification was original...
Spondylolisthesis can be classified according to broad etiologies as described by Wiltse in 1981 1. Typically when reporting studies with spondylolisthesis the Wiltse type is merely stated without referring to its number, whereas the grade of spondylolisthesis is explicitly stated: e.g. "Grade 1...
The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound (SRU) guidelines for the assessment of thyroid nodules were defined in a consensus conference statement published in 2005 focused on which thyroid nodules detected on ultrasonography should undergo fine needle aspiration.
The Stahl classification of Kienböck disease, modified by Lichtman, is the most commonly used staging system and is useful in the treatment of Kienböck disease (avascular necrosis of the lunate).
This system divides the disease into four stages:
stage I: normal radiograph
stage II: increased...
Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement:
type A: A aff...
The St. Anne-Mayo grading system, also known as the Daumas-Duport grading system, introduced in 1988 was for a time a popular system for grading diffuse astrocytomas but has now largely been replaced by the WHO grading system which is, however, derived from the St Anne-Mayo system and thus share...
Steinberg staging of avascular necrosis of hip is a commonly used system (at the time of writing, mid-2016) similar to the Ficat and Arlet staging.
It is based on the radiographic appearance and location of lesion. It primarily differs from the other systems by quantifying the involvement of f...
The Stewart classification for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based upon fracture location and morphology. It is divided into five types.
extra-articular transverse or oblique fracture between base of 5th metatarsal and diaphysis (Jones fracture)
A stoma (plural stomata) is defined as an artificially created connection between two hollow organs or a hollow organ and the skin. A surgical procedure that involves the creation of a stoma carries the suffix "-ostomy".For a discussion of imaging features and potential complications, please ref...
The subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) system is a severity score for cervical spine trauma that helps in determining treatment and prognosis.
no abnormality: 0 points
simple compression fracture: 1 point
burst fracture: 2 points
SVC obstruction can cause SVC syndrome which is the most common condition affecting this vessel. It can be secondary to extrinsic compression or intraluminal thrombosis/stenosis. Collateral pathways, with the azygos vein being the most important collateral vessel, form in response to severe narr...
Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic pediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle.
Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% ar...
The staging system for moyamoya disease first described by Suzuki and Takaku in their seminal 1969 article 1 is still in use today. Formally, the staging refers to findings on conventional angiography, although there are efforts to apply similar systems to MR angiography 2.
Suzuki stage appears...
There are specific terms used when describing a syrinx or other cystic lesions within the spinal cord 1:
hydromyelia: fluid accumulation/dilatation within the central canal, therefore, lined by ependyma
syringomyelia: cavitary lesion within cord parenchyma, of any cause (there are many); locat...
The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...
Talar neck fractures extend through the thinnest cross-sectional portion of the talus, just proximal to the talar head. They represent one of the most common types of talus fracture (~30-50%), along with chip and avulsion fractures of the talus (~40-49%). These fractures are commonly associated ...
Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of tem...
There are numerous terms used in radiology (and clinical medicine more generally) that are worth knowing and this is a list of some of them.
The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are numerous and represent attempts by various authors to create systems that allow uniform and reproducible classification and description of thoracolumbar fractures which in turn can help with treatment decision making and prognostication.
The three-column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures (of Denis) forms the basis of a number of widely used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems.
While the three-column concept was initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also ...
The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grading system was described in 2003 by Higashida et al. 1 as a tool for determining the response of thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. In neurointerventional radiology it is commonly used for patients post endovascular revascularization. Lik...
The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorizes the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thou...
Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) refers to any of several risk stratification systems for thyroid lesions, usually based on ultrasound features, with a structure modelled off BI-RADS. The following article describes the initial iterations proposed by individual research groups...
Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement.
It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse.
The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischemic stroke.
large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)*
cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)*
small-vessel occlusion (lacune)*
stroke of other determined etiology *
stroke of ...
The Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides choledochal cysts into five groups.
See: type I choledochal cyst
account for 80-90% of all bile duct cysts
characterized by fusiform dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct
a subclassification has been proposed
Torg's classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based on the degree of sclerosis adjacent to the fracture on imaging at the time of presentation to determine the fracture age.
narrow fracture line with sharp margins and no widening
minimal cortical hyper...
Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows:
transitional cell papilloma
benign tumor, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems
carcinoma in situ
do not penetrate the basement membrane
cells resemble those of grade II or III t...
The traumatic abruptio placenta scale (TAPS) was devised to stratify placental injury findings on CT. Since placental abruption is a concern in a pregnant patient who has undergone traumatic injury, CT is occasionally the first imaging modality used to evaluate the placenta.
0: normal homogeneo...
Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
A trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur.
Fractures in these regions can be classified as:
pertrochanteric: intertrochanteric, involving both trochanters
greater trochanteric avulsio...
True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.
Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues.
There are three forms of true hermaphroditism:
unilateral true hermaphroditism
Tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis are both common causes of spinal infection. Imaging findings of these 2 diseases can be challenging to distinguish, yet crucial because the treatments for these infections are particularly different 2.
The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have most recently been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2019) 1.
The identification of...
There are a number of tumors of muscular origin, which overall are relatively uncommon, representing only 1.7% of benign soft tissue tumors, and 10.3% of malignant soft tissue tumors1.
The tumors can be divided according to the type of muscle fiber:
Skeletal muscle origin
Tumors of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorized both on the grounds of histology and location.
squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80%
urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra)
adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5%...
Tumors of the meninges are a heterogeneous group of lesions which usually occur as extra-axial masses. Although a large number of lesions that can involve meninges are scattered throughout the WHO classification of CNS tumors, the main entities to be considered include:
meningioma and numero...
Tumors arising primarily from the seminal vesicles are rare. Most frequently, when a mass is seen in the seminal vesicles, it represents a contiguous spread from tumors in adjacent organs, in particular, the prostate.
adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesicle
the most common pri...
Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease has become the first choice for carotid artery stenosis screening, permitting the evaluation of both the macroscopic appearance of plaques as well as flow characteristics in the carotid artery.
This article focus on internal caro...
Urinary tract dilatation (UTD) classification was a proposed unified classification of urinary tract dilatation for prenatal and postnatal care. This classification was formed with the collaborations from 8 societies (The American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Institute of Ultrasound ...
Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.
Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS)
The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle:
1. endometrial thickne...
The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock.
type A: fractures involve the t...
Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.
For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele.
baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
The VASARI (Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images) MRI feature set is a system designed to enable consistent description of gliomas using a set of defined visual features and controlled vocabulary. It is the result of work by The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) who publish relevant guides to use, an...
Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters:
grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter
grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis
grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system
The Walch classification of glenoid morphology is the most commonly used system describing glenohumeral pathology in primary osteoarthritis.
It was initially measured on 5 mm thick slices on axial CT scans of the shoulder 1, which had mixed results for inter- and intra-observer agreement but th...
The Waldenström classification of Perthes disease refers to x-ray abnormalities, and represents four temporal phases of the disease. These stages have been further subdivided in the modified Elizabethtown classification 2.
stage I: early
asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on the affec...
The Weber ankle fracture classification (or Danis-Weber classification) is a simple system for classification of lateral malleolar fractures, relating to the level of the fracture in relation to the ankle joint. It has a role in determining treatment.
below the level of...
The Weiss classification is one of the classification systems used for lateral humeral condyle fractures and is based on the degree of displacement measured on an internal oblique view of the elbow:
type 1: <2 mm displacement
type 2: 2-4 mm displacement
type 3: >4 mm displacement
The degree ...
The WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) grading system uses the Glasgow Coma Scale and presence of focal neurological deficits to grade the severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This grading system was proposed in 1988, and this is one of the accepted systems (although not consider...
Whitmore-Jewett staging system (also known as the Jewett staging system or ABCD system) is a staging system for prostate cancer. It was developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). Most societies (including AUA) and clinicians now advocate and use the TNM staging system.
The World Health Organization classifies anal canal neoplasms into intraepithelial neoplasms and invasive neoplasms which are further divided to epithelial and non-epithelial tumors and secondary lesions:
squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal
adenocarcinoma of anal canal
The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is:
Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma)
Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma)
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
The WHO classification of CNS tumors is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumors and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which should...
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of eye tumors is a widely used pathologic classification system of neoplasms of the orbit. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2018 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of head and neck tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2017 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of bone tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2013 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2013 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organization classification of tumors of the breast is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2012 and is reflected in the article below 1.
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is the most widely used pathologic classification system for hematolymphoid neoplasms. The current revision, known as the 4th revised edition, was published in 2016 and supersedes the 4th edition p...
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the kidney is the most commonly used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2016 as part of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Urin...
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumors is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumors, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich
WHO (World Health Organization) grading of CNS tumors is based on histological characteristics such as cellularity, mitotic activity, pleomorphism, necrosis, and endothelial proliferation (neoangiogenesis). It is used in the WHO classification of CNS tumors.
It should be noted that at the time...
The WHO grading system is the most widely used system for grading diffuse astrocytomas (at the time of writing i.e. mid-2016) and is an adaptation of the now superseded St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Daumas-Duport grading system).
Grade I is reserved for localized astrocytomas...
Benign renal tumors were histologically classified according to the World Health Organization 1. This is the subset of entities in the 2016 WHO classification of renal tumors that are associated with an International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) behavior code of 0, indicating ...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumors and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 8051/3...
Wiberg classification is a system used to describe the shape of the patella based mainly on the asymmetry between the patellar medial and lateral facets on axial views of the patella. Increasing number type indicates a larger degree of asymmetry.
Wiberg type 1 or a
The Winquist classification of femoral shaft fractures is based on fracture comminution and was proposed by Winquist in 1980. This classification is used with regards to management decision making, in determining whether a fracture requires an intramedullary nail or open reduction.
Type 0: no ...
The Yasargil classification is one of the two common systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations that is currently in use at the time of writing (mid 2016).
type I: small pure cisternal fistula between the vein of Galen (voG) and either the pericallosal arteries (anteri...
The Young and Burgess classification is a modification of the Tile classification 1. It is the recommended 5 and most widely used classification system for pelvic ring fractures.
It takes into account force type, severity, and direction, as well as injury instability.
Three basic mechanistic ...
The Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernomas has been proposed as a way of classifying cerebral cavernous malformations, and although not used in clinical practice it is useful in scientific publications that seek to study cavernous malformations.
The classification was proposed in 1994 ...
The Zurich pituitary score (ZPS) is a quantitative classification of pituitary adenomas based on coronal T1W magnetic resonance imaging with contrast, although the score can also be obtained with computed tomography.
The ZPS is based on the ratio (R) between horizontal tumor diameter over inter...