Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

494 results found
Article

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified: type I: no displacement ...
Article

Risk of malignancy index in ovarian tumors

The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumors is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3. Classification The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum CA...
Article

Risser classification

The Risser classification is used to grade skeletal maturity based on the level of ossification and fusion of the iliac crest apophyses. It is primarily in planning corrective surgery for scoliosis. Classification stage 0: no ossification center at the level of iliac crest apophysis stage 1: ...
Article

Rockwood classification of acromioclavicular joint injury

The Rockwood classification (1998) is the most common (c.2020) classification system in use for acromioclavicular joint injuries 3,8.  Usage This well known 6-type system is a modification of the earlier 3-class classification system described by Allman (1967) 2 and Tossy (1963). The Rockwood ...
Article

Rotator cuff tear grading (MRI)

One method of grading rotator cuff tears on MRI is as follows: grade 0: normal grade I: increased T2 signal with normal morphology grade II: increased T2 signal with abnormal morphology (thickening, or irregularity of the tendon) grade III: defined tear (e.g. partial or full-thickness, compl...
Article

Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classifica...
Article

Sacroiliitis grading (New York criteria)

Sacroiliitis grading can be achieved using plain radiographs according to the New York criteria 4. Classification grade 0: normal grade I: some blurring of the joint margins - suspicious grade II: minimal sclerosis with some erosion grade III definite sclerosis on both sides of joint 5 se...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
Article

Salter-Harris type II fracture

Salter-Harris type II fractures are the most common type of physeal fractures that occur in children. There is a fracture that extends through the physis and into a portion of the metaphysis. A triangular metaphyseal fragment, otherwise known as the Thurston Holland fragment, will be left intact...
Article

Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely oriented through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognosis...
Article

Salter-Harris type IV fracture

Salter-Harris type IV fractures are relatively uncommon injuries that occur in children. They are intra-articular injuries in which the fracture extends through the epiphysis, across the physis and through the metaphysis. Salter-Harris fractures are a group childhood injuries where a fracture in...
Article

Salter-Harris type V fracture

Salter-Harris type V fractures are very uncommon injuries that occur in children. These fractures involve a crush injury of the physis secondary to compressive forces that involve all or part of the physis 1,2. In general Salter-Harris fractures are childhood injuries where there is a fracture t...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification of Perthes disease

The Salter-Thompson classification of Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into two groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group A: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head group B: i...
Article

Sandbox (test page)

Feel free to edit this page however you want, if you want to just play and see how editing works.    Subheadings bullets more bullets test more bullets Testing number subheadings Capitalization words after bullets should not be capitalized unless they represent a name, e.g. Churg-Strauss...
Article

Sanders CT classification of calcaneal fracture

The Sanders classification system is used to assess intraarticular calcaneal fractures, which are those involving the posterior facet of the calcaneus. This classification is based on the number of intraarticular fracture lines and their location on semicoronal CT images. This classification is ...
Article

Sarcopenia

Sarcopenia can be defined as a significant loss of muscle function as a result of decreased muscle bulk. The definition was originally restricted to elderly individuals only, however many use it for people of any age. Sarcopenia in its primary form is age-related (geriatric patients), but can b...
Article

Scandinavian Stroke Scale

The Scandinavian Stroke Scale was designed for ease of use by non-neurologists1. It is simpler than the NIHSS and has comparable performance in predicting death or dependence after stroke 2. The degree of neurological impairment measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale has been shown to correla...
Article

Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
Article

Schenck classification of knee dislocation

The Schenck classification is categorizing knee dislocation based on the pattern of ligament tears. The four major ligamentous stabilizers are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) compl...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
Article

Segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries

The segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries has been originally developed and published by the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and the American Heart Association (AHA). It is widely used for the description of coronary findings in particular within the scope of coronary artery disease. Cor...
Article

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumors

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumors are a subtype of ovarian tumors and account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumors. They arise from two groups of cells in the ovary: stromal cells primitive sex cords: celomic epithelium The group of tumors includes ovarian fibroma-thecoma spectrum ovarian fibrom...
Article

Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are characterized by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
Article

Shoulder impingement

Shoulder impingement describes a group of conditions characterized by the entrapment of musculoskeletal soft tissue within the shoulder, which primarily results in pain. The catching of the affected structures may be structural and/or functional in etiology 2. Types of shoulder impingement incl...
Article

Shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage score

The shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SDASH) score is a harmonized score for the prediction of hydrocephalus requiring shunting after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The tool is employed in the acute phase to predict which patients will require shunting, rather than to...
Article

Siewert-Stein classification of esophageal adenocarcinoma

The Siewert-Stein classification of esophageal adenocarcinoma classes these tumors according to their relationship to anatomical landmarks 1. It was initially proposed by Siewert et al in 1996, becoming widely used in predicting lymph node spread and directing optimal management. As of the 7th e...
Article

Simpson grade

The Simpson grade of meningioma resection was described in 1957 and correlated the degree of surgical resection completeness with symptomatic recurrence 1.  Although the type of resection still plays a part in the likelihood of symptomatic recurrence, other factors (such as the MIB-1 index) are...
Article

Singh index

The Singh index is a classification system for bone density of the femoral neck based on the visibility of the trabecular types that can be seen in the femoral neck. Trabecular types in proximal femur Five trabecular types can be present in the proximal part of the femur: principal compressio...
Article

Single phase CT angiographic collateral scores in acute stroke

There are several described single-phase CT angiography collateral scores for evaluating the status of collateral vessels in acute ischemic stroke. These scores have been shown to be reliable predictors of clinical outcomes and eligibility for mechanical thrombectomy (endovascular clot retrieval...
Article

Situs classification

Situs classification (plural: sitūs) or body situs can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups: situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs situs inversus: mirror image of the normal configuration situs ambiguus (heterotaxy): an intermediate confi...
Article

Situs solitus

Situs solitus (rare plural: sitūs soliti) refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This will include a left-sided heart, also known as levocardia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the...
Article

Skip metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

Skip metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer refer to the uncommon phenomenon in which metastases do not follow the conventional stepwise pattern from level I to level II, to level III (infraclavicular), to the supraclavicular fossa, and or internal jugular chain 1-6,9. Terminol...
Article

Slipped upper femoral epiphysis - grading

Grading of SUFE (slipped upper femoral epiphysis) can be made on both AP and true lateral projections.  On an AP radiograph a line along the superior margin of the femoral neck (line of Klein) should intersect the lateral corner of the epiphysis. As the epiphysis slips, the metaphysis can be d...
Article

Small for date fetus

A small for dates fetus can result from a number of factors Fetal factors aneuploidy trisomy triploidy skeletal dysplasia(s) structural anomalies (syndromes) Maternal factors Common hypertension medication(s): fetal Warfarin syndrome hydantoin embryopathy (Dilantin TM) cytotoxic dru...
Article

Smoker's criteria

Smoker’s criteria use three quantitative measures of basilar artery morphology to diagnose dolichoectasia:  laterality bifurcation height ​surrogate measures for tortuosity and elongation basilar artery diameter represents the degree of dilatation The application of Smoker’s criteria provid...
Article

Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system allocates points for various angiographic features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a score that predicts the morbidity/mortality risk of surgery. Grading The grade (denoted in Roman numerals) is equal to th...
Article

Spinal AVM classification

Spinal arteriovenous malformations can be classified in a number of ways: intramedullary extramedullary: 80% 1 Or into four types 2: type I: single coiled vessel (spinal dural AV fistula) type II: intramedullary glomus AVM type III: juvenile  type IV: intradural perimedullary (AV fistula)...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all etiologies. Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as differ...
Article

Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumor related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilization or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement among...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Article

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis (plural: spondylolistheses) denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is dir...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
Article

SRU guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules

The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound (SRU) guidelines for the assessment of thyroid nodules were defined in a consensus conference statement published in 2005 focused on which thyroid nodules detected on ultrasonography should undergo fine needle aspiration. Recommendations The recommenda...
Article

Stahl classification of Kienböck disease

The Stahl classification of Kienböck disease, modified by Lichtman, is the most commonly used staging system and is useful in the treatment of Kienböck disease (avascular necrosis of the lunate). This system divides the disease into four stages:  stage I: normal radiograph stage II: increased...
Article

Stanford classification of aortic dissection

Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification 7 is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement: type A: A a...
Article

St. Anne-Mayo grading system of astrocytomas

The St. Anne-Mayo grading system, also known as the Daumas-Duport grading system, introduced in 1988 was for a time a popular system for grading diffuse astrocytomas but has now largely been replaced by the WHO grading system which is, however, derived from the St Anne-Mayo system and thus share...
Article

Steinberg staging of avascular necrosis

Steinberg staging of avascular necrosis of hip is a commonly used system (at the time of writing, mid-2016) similar to the Ficat and Arlet staging.  It is based on the radiographic appearance and location of lesion. It primarily differs from the other systems by quantifying the involvement of f...
Article

Stewart classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

The Stewart classification for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based upon fracture location and morphology. It is divided into five types. Classification Type I extra-articular transverse or oblique fracture between base of 5th metatarsal and diaphysis (Jones fracture) Type II avulsi...
Article

Stoma

A stoma (plural stomata) is defined as an artificially created connection between two hollow organs or a hollow organ and the skin. A surgical procedure that involves the creation of a stoma carries the suffix "-ostomy".For a discussion of imaging features and potential complications, please ref...
Article

Strasberg classification of bile duct injury

The Strasberg classification of bile duct injury is a widely used system to anatomically define these injuries by location 1.  Classification type A: injury to the cystic duct or from minor hepatic ducts draining the liver bed type B: occlusion of the biliary tree, commonly aberrant right hep...
Article

Subaxial cervical spine injury classification

The subaxial cervical spine injury classification (SLIC) and severity score is a system for cervical spine trauma that helps guide treatment and predicts prognosis. Classification Three parameters are assessed, two being radiologic determined and the last being a clinical assessment. Injury m...
Article

Superior vena cava obstruction (grading)

SVC obstruction can cause SVC syndrome which is the most common condition affecting this vessel. It can be secondary to extrinsic compression or intraluminal thrombosis/stenosis. Collateral pathways, with the azygos vein being the most important collateral vessel, form in response to severe narr...
Article

Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic pediatric injury which requires vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
Article

Suzuki staging system for Moyamoya

The staging system for moyamoya disease first described by Suzuki and Takaku in their seminal 1969 article 1 is still in use today. Formally, the staging refers to findings on conventional angiography, although there are efforts to apply similar systems to MR angiography 2. Suzuki stage appears...
Article

Tabar 5-tier grading system

The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...
Article

Talar neck fracture

Talar neck fractures extend through the thinnest cross-sectional portion of the talus, just proximal to the talar head. They represent one of the most common types of talus fracture (~30-50%), along with chip and avulsion fractures of the talus (~40-49%). These fractures are commonly associated ...
Article

Temporal bone fracture

Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of tem...
Article

Terminology of rectal cancer staging

The terminology used in describing the stage and features of rectal cancer staging is based on using abbreviations and prefixes to denote the specific stage identifier, modality of assessment and the patient's position in the treatment journey 1. Terminology Abbreviations and letters used in s...
Article

Terms used in radiology

There are numerous terms used in radiology (and clinical medicine more generally) that are worth knowing and this is a list of some of them. Please maintain all lists in alphabetical order. General ​ancillary artifact corner of film diagnosis of exclusion en face epiphenomenon filling de...
Article

Thoracic sarcoidosis (staging)

Thoracic sarcoidosis can be staged on a chest radiograph with implications for prognosis although HRCT and FDG-PET provide more information to help guide treatment.   Usage Chest radiographs have been the mainstay of staging thoracic sarcoidosis for many decades with fair interobserver concord...
Article

Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are numerous and represent attempts by various authors to create systems that allow uniform and reproducible classification and description of thoracolumbar fractures which in turn can help with treatment decision making and prognostication.  ...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three-column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures (of Denis) forms the basis of a number of widely used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems. Usage While the three-column concept was initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also ...
Article

Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale

The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grading system was described in 2003 by Higashida et al. 1 as a tool for determining the response of thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. In neurointerventional radiology it is commonly used for patients post endovascular revascularization. Lik...
Article

Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score

The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorizes the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thou...
Article

Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS)

Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) refers to any of several risk stratification systems for thyroid lesions, usually based on ultrasound features, with a structure modelled off BI-RADS. The following article describes the initial iterations proposed by individual research groups...
Article

Tile classification of pelvic fractures

The Tile classification of pelvic fractures is the precursor of the more contemporary Young and Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures. It takes into account stability, force direction, and pathoanatomy. The integrity of the posterior arch determines the grade, with the posterior arch ...
Article

Tillaux fracture

Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement. Epidemiology It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse. Path...
Article

Toast classification in acute ischemic stroke

The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischemic stroke. large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)* cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)* small-vessel occlusion (lacune)* stroke of other determined etiology * stroke of ...
Article

Todani classification of bile duct cysts

The Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides choledochal cysts into five groups. Classification Type I See: type I choledochal cyst account for 80-90% of all bile duct cysts characterized by fusiform dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct a subclassification has been proposed Ia: ...
Article

Torg's classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Torg's classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based on the degree of sclerosis adjacent to the fracture on imaging at the time of presentation to determine the fracture age. Classification Type I narrow fracture line with sharp margins and no widening minimal cortical hyper...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma grading

Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows: transitional cell papilloma benign tumor, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems carcinoma in situ do not penetrate the basement membrane cells resemble those of grade II or III t...
Article

Traumatic abruptio placenta scale

The traumatic abruptio placenta scale (TAPS) was devised to stratify placental injury findings on CT. Since placental abruption is a concern in a pregnant patient who has undergone traumatic injury, CT is occasionally the first imaging modality used to evaluate the placenta. 0: normal homogeneo...
Article

Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations

The Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations describes injuries of the atlanto-occipital joint according to the displacement of the occipital condyles relative to the atlas: type I: anterior displacement type II: distraction (inferior displacement) type III: posterior displa...
Article

Triplane fracture

Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Article

Trochanteric fracture

A trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur. Classification Fractures in these regions can be classified as: intertrochanteric fracture pertrochanteric: intertrochanteric, involving both trochanters subtrochanteric fracture greater tro...
Article

True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Subtypes There are three forms of true hermaphroditism: unilateral true hermaphroditism ...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis (diagnostic criteria)

The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2019) 1.  Criteria Genetic criteria The identification of either a TSC1...
Article

Tumors of the male urethra

Tumors of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorized both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5%...
Article

Tumors of the meninges (differential)

Tumors of the meninges are a heterogeneous group of lesions which usually occur as extra-axial masses.  Although a large number of lesions that can involve meninges are scattered throughout the  WHO classification of CNS tumors, the main entities to be considered include:  meningioma and numero...
Article

Tumors of the seminal vesicles

Tumors of the seminal vesicles usually represent contiguous invasion of the seminal vesicles from malignancies in adjacent organs, most commonly the prostate. Tumors originating de novo within the seminal vesicles themselves are much rarer. Epithelial tumors adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesic...
Article

Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease

Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease has become the first choice for carotid artery stenosis screening, permitting the evaluation of both the macroscopic appearance of plaques as well as flow characteristics in the carotid artery. This article focus on internal caro...
Article

Urinary tract dilatation classification

Urinary tract dilatation (UTD) classification was a proposed unified classification of urinary tract dilatation for prenatal and postnatal care. This classification was formed with the collaborations from 8 societies (The American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Institute of Ultrasound ...
Article

Uterine biophysical profile

Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.  Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS) The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle: 1. endometrial thickne...
Article

Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock. type A: fractures involve the t...
Article

Varicocele grading on color Doppler

Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
Article

VASARI MRI feature set

The VASARI (Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images) MRI feature set is a system designed to enable consistent description of gliomas using a set of defined visual features and controlled vocabulary. It is the result of work by The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) who publish relevant guides to use, an...
Article

Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS)

The Vesical Imaging–Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) is a structured reporting scheme for multiparametric bladder MRI in the evaluation of suspected bladder cancer. A systematic approach to bladder lesion based on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) was proposed by the European Association of Urology...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal s...
Article

Walch classification of glenoid morphology

The Walch classification of glenoid morphology is the most commonly used system describing glenohumeral pathology in primary osteoarthritis. It was initially measured on 5 mm thick slices on axial CT scans of the shoulder 1, which had mixed results for inter- and intra-observer agreement but th...
Article

Waldenström classification of Perthes disease

The Waldenström classification of Perthes disease refers to x-ray abnormalities, and represents four temporal phases of the disease. These stages have been further subdivided in the modified Elizabethtown classification 2. stage I: early asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on the affec...
Article

Wassel classification for radial polydactyly

The Wassel classification system is used to classify pre-axial polydactyly, also called radial polydactyly. The classification system is based on the level of duplication from distal to proximal. I: bifid distal phalanx II: duplicated distal phalanx III: bifid proximal phalanx IV: duplicate...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.