Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

351 results found
Article

Choi response criteria

Use only the size of the tumor during evaluation of response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially when the estimated response for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumour attenuation could p...
Article

Lugano classification: response evaluation criteria for CT and PET/CT

The Lugano classification recommends two methods of visualization for standing lymphoma: Computer tomography (CT) Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT) Response Assessment on CT   CT uses for the standing of all types of lymphoma (if CT is performed for tumor size measure...
Article

Bladder impairment following spinal cord injury

Another commonly used classification scheme used by urologists and rehabilitation specialists, described by Wein, classifies bladder impairment following spinal cord injury according to the level of injury: suprasacral (infrapontine) bladder - upper motor neuron lesion, releasing the sacral mic...
Article

Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
Article

Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis

E J Hinchey et al. 3 proposed a classification for acute diverticulitis, that has been variously adapted, and is useful not only in academia but also in outlining successive stages of severity. Classification stage 1a: phlegmon stage 1b: diverticulitis with pericolic or mesenteric abscess st...
Article

Ciliopathies

Ciliopathies refer to diseases due to malfunctioning cilia (singular: cilium). Cilia are organelles that are external extensions of the cell membrane. Cilia fall into two main types: primary (or immotile) cilia and motile cilia.  Clinical presentation Primary cilia are found in virtually every...
Article

Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis (2012)

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis (2012) is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1991 Atlanta classification. This has been further revised in 2016 6. The worldwide consensus aims for an internationally agre...
Article

Orthoroentgenogram

Orthoroentgenogram is a radiographic study used to evaluate anatomic leg length and calculate leg-length discrepancies. This study utilises a long ruler placed on the film, and three radiographs including bilateral hips, knees and ankles. Similar studies used to evaluate true leg length include...
Article

Combined conduit score of sinovenous stenosis

The combined conduit score (CCS) is a grading scheme for the assessment of the degree of transverse-sigmoid sinus stenosis in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The score was initially developed for ATECO MR venography 1. Parameters Assessment is performed using maximum inten...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above.  grade I: 0-25% grade II: 26-50...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (2017)

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis are clinical, radiographic, and laboratory criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. They were originally introduced in 2001 1, revised in 2005 2, 2010 3, 2016 (by MAGNIMS) 4 and most recently in 2017 5. The 2017 revision is the foc...
Article

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is directionless (see below) a...
Article

Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Biffl scale for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a series of clinical indications and risk factors fo...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria 2001 - 2005

The McDonald's criteria are MRI criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and were initially described in 2001 and revised in 2005. Since these initial revisions, the criteria has been revised again in 2010 and 2017. Below are the previously used criteria, which should no longer be e...
Article

MAGNIMS consensus on MRI diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

The magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis (MAGNIMS), which is a European collaborative research network, published in 2016 new recommendations to upgrade the imaging diagnosis criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). These came as a consensus, based on evidence-based and expert opinions ...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria 2010

McDonald diagnostic criteria 2010 were MRI criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. They were introduced in 2001, revised in 2005, 2010 (the focus of this article) and in 2016 (by MAGNIMS) 1. The latest revision was in 2017 2. Below are the previously used criteria, which should no...
Article

Lung-RADS

Lung-RADSTM (or lung imaging reporting and data system) is a classification proposed to aid with findings in low dose CT screening exams for lung cancer. The goal of the classification system is to standardize follow-up and management decisions. The system is similar to the Fleischner criteria b...
Article

VASARI MRI feature set

The VASARI (Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images) MRI feature set is a system designed to enable consistent description of gliomas using a set of defined visual features and controlled vocabulary. It is the result of work by The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) who publish relevant guides to use, an...
Article

Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture proxi...
Article

Spondylolisthesis Wiltse classification

Spondylolisthesis can be classified according to broad aetiology as described by Wiltse in 1981 1. Typically when reporting studies with spondylolisthesis the Wiltse type is merely stated without referring to it's number, whereas the grade of spondylolisthesis is explicitly stated: e.g. "Grade 1...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT as well as various radiopharmaceuti...
Article

Shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage score

The shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SDASH) score is a harmonized score for the prediction of hydrocephalus requiring shunting after subarachnoid haemorrhage. The tool is employed in the acute phase to predict which patients will require shunting, rather to as...
Article

Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale, modified Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete ...
Article

Diffuse hepatic steatosis (grading)

Grading of diffuse hepatic steatosis on ultrasound has been used to communicate to the clinician about the extent of fatty changes in the liver.  Grading grade I: diffusely increased hepatic echogenicity but periportal and diaphragmatic echogenicity is still appreciable grade II: diffusely in...
Article

Tillaux fracture

Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement. Epidemiology It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse. Path...
Article

Temporal bone fractures

Temporal bone fractures are usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damaging hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of t...
Article

Germinal matrix haemorrhage (grading)

Grading of germinal matrix haemorrhage has taken several forms over the years. The most commonly used system is the sonographic grading system proposed by Burstein, Papile et al.  Classification grade I restricted to subependymal region/germinal matrix which is seen in the caudothalamic groov...
Article

Grading of brachial plexus injuries

According to CT myelography, brachial plexus injuries can be classified into six types 1: N type: normal root sleeve and nerve roots A1 type: slightly deformed root sleeves and nerve roots as compared to unaffected site A2 type: obliteration of the tip of root sleeves and deformed thickened n...
Article

Thyroid image reporting and data system (TIRADS)

TIRADS is a risk stratification system for classifying thyroid lesions and was recently recognized in an American College of Radiology (ACR) white paper1. Its use is being advocated similar to BIRADS category for breast lesions.  In 2017, a white paper2 was released by the ACR committee on thyr...
Article

Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al. in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two...
Article

Ahlbäck classification of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

This classification was proposed by Ahlback et al. in 1968. According to Ahlbäck system, knee joint osteoarthritis is classified as: grade 1: joint space narrowing (less than 3 mm) grade 2: joint space obliteration grade 3: minor bone attrition (0-5 mm) grade 4: moderate bone attrition (5-1...
Article

Elliott et al. classification of cardiomyopathies

The Elliott et al. classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2. See also cardi...
Article

Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale

The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grading system was described in 2003 by Higashida et al. 1 as a tool for determining the response of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke. In neurointerventional radiology it is commonly used for patients post endovascular revascularisation. Li...
Article

Mitchell classification of avascular necrosis

Mitchell classification of avascular necrosis is based on MRI signal characteristics within the centre of the lesion on T1 and T2-weighted images. Classification The lesion is classified into four stages with stage A representing early disease and stage D representing late disease. However, th...
Article

ABC/2

ABC/2 is a fast and simple method for estimating the volume of intracerebral haemorrhage (or any other ellipsoid lesion for that matter) which does not require volumetric 3D analysis or software. Intracerebral haemorrhage volume is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality (and thus tria...
Article

Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia

The Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia proposed by Bolger et al. in 1990 1 takes into account associated anomalies of the uncinate process, which are of utmost importance for planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Maxillary sinus hypoplasia in itself is asymptomat...
Article

Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the Inferior vena cava type 2: localised, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
Article

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems: 1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system Elliott et al. classification system: published by the European Society of Cardiology Workin...
Article

Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
Article

Errors in diagnostic radiology

Errors in diagnostic radiology occur for a variety of reasons related to human error, technical factors and system faults.  Classification Renfrew classification This classification was proposed by Renfrew et al. 5 in 1992, and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely accept...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults.  Epidemiology There is no gender predilection and has a prevalence of around 0.3-0.5% in the general population 4. Pathology Hyper...
Article

Classification of gamekeeper thumb

This classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) was proposed by Hintermann et al. 1 in 1993 and is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable: type I fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion typically treated with a sp...
Article

Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lace...
Article

Lunate morphology

Several classification systems exist for the lunate morphology 1, 2. Classification The lunate classification proposed by Veigas et al. is arguably the most relevant 3:  type I lunates: single distal articular facet for the capitate type II lunates: additional distal articular facet medially...
Article

Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al. described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (1...
Article

Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts

The Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts is used to classify arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa, which account for 50-60% of all arachnoid cysts 1. Galassi et al. published this classification in 1982, and at the time of writing (June 2016), it remains the most...
Article

Alberta stroke program early CT score

The Alberta stroke programme early CT score (ASPECTS) 1 is a 10-point quantitative topographic CT scan score used in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. Segmental assessment of the MCA vascular territory is made and 1 point is deducted from the initial score of 10 for every region...
Article

RCR breast imaging classification system

work in progress - Fran/Derek   UK interpretation/system to guide investigation (2008) Classification Mammography   Ultrasound   MRI    
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
Article

Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system allocates points for various features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a grade between 1 and 5. Grade 6 is used to describe inoperable lesions. The score correlates with operative outcome. Grading size of ni...
Article

Breast MRI classification flowchart

The breast MRI classification flowchart (or Tree algorithm) is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five diagnostic criteria that are mainly consistent with BI-RADS though assigning diagnostic weights. Diagnostic cr...
Article

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for all lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin's subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation and prognosis.  See the 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Mason classification of radial head fractures

The Mason classification is used to classify radial head fractures and is useful when assessing further treatment options 1-2. type I: non-displaced radial head fractures (or small marginal fractures), also known as a "chisel" fracture type II: partial articular fractures with displacement (>2...
Article

Modified Rankin scale

The modified Rankin scale or is a commonly used to quantify functional outcome in individuals who suffer a neurological event. The scale was initially described by Rankin in 1957 to assess the outcome of cerebrovascular accidents 1. It has subsequently been modified 2,3 and has been used in a wi...
Article

PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, en...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

Distal fibula fractures are the most common type at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Background Pathophysiology Most ankle injuries occur because of an inversion injury. A pure...
Article

Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures

Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures divides them into three types according to the anatomic location of the fracture line: middle (70%) distal (20%) proximal (10%) Fractures of the distal third are further divided into distal articular surface and distal tubercle fractures: distal tub...
Article

Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

The Frykman classification of distal radial fractures is based on the AP appearance and encompasses the eponymous entities of Colles fracture, Smith fracture, Barton fracture, chauffeur fracture. It assesses the pattern of fractures, involvement of the radioulnar joint and presence of a distal u...
Article

Keifhaber-Stern classification of volar plate avulsion injuries of hand

This classification was proposed originally by Hastings and later modified by Keifhaber and Stern in 1998. This classification, along with the Eaton classification, is the most widely accepted classification at the time of writing (August 2016) for the management of volar plate avulsion injuries...
Article

Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

There are several thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems: three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures (Denis classification) Magerl classification McAfee classification thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)
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Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings. Classification A: compression injuries A1: impaction fractures A1.1: endplate impaction A1.2: wedge impaction A1.3...
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
Article

Trochanteric fracture

Trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur. Classification Fractures in these region can be classified as: intertrochanteric subtrochanteric greater trochanteric avulsion fracture lesser trochanteric avulsion fracture Intertrochanteric...
Article

Young and Burgess classification of pelvic ring fractures

The Young and Burgess classification is a modification of the Tile classification 1. It is the recommended 5 and most widely used classification system for pelvic ring fractures. It takes into account force type, severity, and direction, as well as injury instability. Anteroposterior compress...
Article

Periprosthetic hip fracture classification systems

Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification Johansson classification Vancouver classification: most widely used
Article

Gustilo Anderson classification

The Gustilo Anderson classification, sometimes referred to as the Gustilo classification is the most widely accepted classification system of open (or compound) fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher ris...
Article

Eaton classification of volar plate avulsion injury

This classification was proposed by Eaton and Malerich in 1980, and presently (time of writing, August 2016) along with Keifhaber-Stern classification, is the most widely accepted classification of volar plate avulsion injuries 1.  Knowledge of the orthopaedic Eaton classification is practical ...
Article

Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
Article

Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures...
Article

Bado classification of Monteggia fracture-dislocations

The Bado classification is one of the more widely used classifications for Monteggia fracture-dislocations and mainly focuses on the radial component. Four types are recognised and are generally based on the principle that the direction in which the apex of the ulnar fracture points is the same ...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
Article

Limbus fracture types

Limbus fractures are not to be confused with a limbus vertebra. They can be classified as follows: type I: avulsions of the posterior cortical vertebral rim type II: central cortical and cancellous bone fractures type III: lateralised chip fractures type IV: span the entire length and breadt...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Article

Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) has been developed by the Spine Trauma Group to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems for determining treatment 1. Classification Classificat...
Article

McAfee classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

McAfee classification of acute traumatic spinal injuries is based on the three column concept of the spine. CT is needed for accurate assessment. Classification wedge compression: isolated anterior column compression  stable burst: anterior and middle column compression but posterior column i...
Article

Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the ...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant a...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
Article

Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognos...
Article

Salter-Harris type II fracture

Salter-Harris type II fractures are the most common physeal fractures that occur in children. The fracture line will include the physis and a portion of the metaphysis, leaving a triangular metaphyseal fragment intact, otherwise known as the Thurston Holland fragment. Salter-Harris fractures ar...
Article

Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid, retropharyngeal space, and occipital nodes.  Level I   below myloh...
Article

Weiss classification of lateral humeral condyle fractures

The Weiss classification is one of the classification systems used for lateral humeral condyle fractures and is based on the degree of displacement measured on an internal oblique view of the elbow: type 1: <2 mm displacement type 2: 2-4 mm displacement type 3: >4 mm displacement The degree ...
Article

Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic paediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
Article

Milch classification of lateral humeral condyle fractures

The Milch classification is one of the classificaiton systems that can be used for lateral humeral condyle fractures and splits these fractures into two groups depending on their relationship with the trochlear groove: type I: fracture passes lateral to the trochlear groove type II: fracture p...
Article

AAST liver injury scale

The 1994 revision of the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale is the most widely used liver injury grading system at the time of writing (late 2016).  Classification grade I haematoma: subcapsular, <10% surface area laceration: capsular tear, <1 cm  parenc...

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