Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

333 results found
Article

WHO classification of CNS tumours

The WHO classification of CNS tumours is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumours and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumour. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which sho...
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Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid, retropharyngeal space, and occipital nodes.  Level I   below myloh...
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Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
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Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting not only increased energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury but also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the...
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Suzuki staging system for Moyamoya

The staging system for moyamoya disease first described by Suzuki and Takaku in their seminal 1969 article1 is still in use today. Formally, the staging refers to findings on conventional angiography, although there are efforts to apply similar systems to MR angiography.2 Suzuki stage appears t...
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Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynaecological imaging, and vary widely in aetiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant, or the...
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures result from high-energy blunt trauma. Epidemiology The exact incidence of these fractures is unknown but are reported to occur in 3-4% patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injuries 3. Clinical presentation History and examination are unreliable, and high...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis are MRI criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) were introduced in 2001, revised in 2005, 2010 and more recently in 2016 1. As before the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis requires establishing disease disseminated in both spac...
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Triplane fracture

Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Article

Prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS)

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient. The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADSv2 6 by...
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Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. Classification Bosniak 1 simple cy...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid bo...
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Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (19...
Article

Lung-RADS

Lung-RADSTM (or lung imaging reporting and data system) is a classification proposed to aid with findings in low dose CT screening exams for lung cancer. The goal of the classification system is to standardize follow-up and management decisions. The system is similar to the Fleischner criteria b...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
Article

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the second most common morphological and pathological pattern of the interstitial lung diseases. NSIP has two main subtypes: fibrotic type: most common, having a more dismal outcome cellular type: less common, but carries a much better prognosis du...
Article

Cochlear anomalies (classification)

Cochlear anomalies are a variety of congenital anomalies which, depending on the exact time at which an insult occurs during embryogenesis, may have different manifestations. Terminology is often used imprecisely leading to confusion not only among clinicians, but also in the literature. Classi...
Article

Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, combines both alpha and beta angles. There are a number of additional subdivisions, which are often not used clinically.  As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and in s...
Article

Temporal bone fractures

Temporal bone fractures are usually a sequela of blunt head injury, generally from severe trauma. Associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, shear (or diffuse axonal) injury, and cerebral contusion are common. Early identification of temporal bone trauma is essential to m...
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Non small cell lung cancer (IASLC 8th edition staging)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  It is as follows: TNM system T: primary tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed or tumour proven by presence of maligna...
Article

Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle injury

The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used for the classification of the ankle injuries based on the mechanism of injury which have predictable pattern and imaging findings. Along with the Weber classification, these systems are useful tools in describing and classifying ankle injuries. Cla...
Article

Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification OI was initially classified by type according to a scheme developed by Dr Da...
Article

Osteochondral injury staging

Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. stage I injury limited to articular cartilage MRI findings: subchondral oedema x-ray findings: none stage II cartilage injury with associated sub...
Article

Mucinous neoplasms of the appendix

Mucinous neoplasms of the appendix are epithelial tumours of the appendix that produce mucin. According to a panel of specialists consensus published in 2016, a new nomenclature and classification for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasms based on their histologic type and biologic behaviour has be...
Article

Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 3-4 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
Article

Boyden classification of bronchi

The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy. Each lung has 10 segments, however on the left, the first two segments share a common trunk and are hence B1/2. Also given the shared trunk on the left of the lower lobe...
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Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lace...
Article

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for all lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin's subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation and prognosis.  See the 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

ABC/2

ABC/2 is a fast and simple method for estimating the volume of intracerebral haemorrhage (or any other ellipsoid lesion for that matter) which does not require volumetric 3D analysis or software. Intracerebral haemorrhage volume is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality (and thus tria...
Article

Lunate morphology

Several classification systems exist for the lunate morphology 1, 2. Classification The lunate classification proposed by Veigas et al is arguably the most relevant 3:  type I lunates: single distal articular facet for the capitate type II lunates: additional distal articular facet medially ...
Article

Vancouver classification

The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock. type A: fractures involve the t...
Article

Periprosthetic hip fracture classification systems

Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification Johansson classification Vancouver classification: most widely used
Article

Johansson classification

The Johansson classification of periprosthetic hip fractures was the first classification system proposed and is the simplest. It is based on the level of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis. type I: fracture proximal to the tip of the prosthesis with the stem still in contact with the m...
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Cooke and Newman classification

The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier. type I explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable ...
Article

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions: level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter  level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I  level III: femur distal to level...
Article

Classification of endoleaks

Endoleaks occur when an aneurysmal sac continues to be pressurised despite endoluminal stent placement. Classification There are five types: type I: leak at graft ends (inadequate seal) - most common after repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms 4 Ia: proximal Ib: distal Ic: iliac occluder ty...
Article

Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the Inferior vena cava type 2: localised, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hepa...
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Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the Inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
Article

Risser classification

The Risser classification is used to grade skeletal maturity based on the level of ossification and fusion of the iliac crest apophyses. Classification stage 0: no ossification center at the level of iliac crest apophysis stage 1: apophysis under 25% of the iliac crest stage 2: apophysis ove...
Article

Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease

Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease has become the first choice for carotid artery stenosis screening, permitting the evaluation of both the macroscopic appearance of plaques as well as flow characteristics in the carotid artery. This article focus on internal caro...
Article

Judet and Letournel classification for acetabular fractures

The Judet and Letournel classification is the most widely used classification of acetabular fractures. It is based on three radiographic views (anteroposterior view, obturator oblique view and Iliac oblique view)  and classifies acetabular fractures into ten major fracture patterns, which cons...
Article

MAGNIMS consensus on MRI diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

The magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis (MAGNIMS), which is a European collaborative research network, published in 2016 new recommendations to upgrade the imaging diagnosis criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). These came as a consensus, based on evidence-based and expert opinions ...
Article

Mason classification of radial head fractures

The Mason classification is used to classify radial head fractures and is useful when assessing further treatment options 1-2. type I: non-displaced radial head fractures (or small marginal fractures), also known as a "chisel" fracture type II: partial articular fractures with displacement (>2...
Article

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (prese...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults.  Epidemiology There is no gender predilection and has a prevalence of around 0.3-0.5% in the general population 4. Pathology Hyper...
Article

Risk of malignancy index in ovarian tumours

The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumours is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3. Classification The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum C...
Article

Garden classification of hip fractures

The Garden classification of  subcapital femoral neck fractures is the most widely used. It is simple and predicts the development of AVN 1,2. Garden described particular femoral neck and acetabular trabeculae patterns which can assist in recognising differences within this classification system...
Article

Medial temporal lobe atrophy score

The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain - an approach). Classificatio...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all aetiologies. Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as diffe...
Article

Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to occlusion of small perforating arteries of the posterior circulation. The resulted infarction has characteristic clinical picture according to the involved area however, generally there is ipsilateral cranial nerve ...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Article

Shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage score

The shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SDASH) score is a harmonized score for the prediction of hydrocephalus requiring shunting after subarachnoid haemorrhage. The tool is employed in the acute phase to predict which patients will require shunting, rather to as...
Article

Breast MRI classification flowchart

The breast MRI classification flowchart (or Tree algorithm) is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five diagnostic criteria that are mainly consistent with BI-RADS though assigning diagnostic weights. Diagnostic cr...
Article

WFNS grading system

The WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) grading system uses the Glasgow Coma Scale and presence of focal neurological deficits to grade the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage. This grading system was proposed in 1988, and this is one of the accepted systems (although not conside...
Article

Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear

The Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear was proposed in 1990 4 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing achilles tendon rupture.  Classification Achilles tendon tears may be grouped (according to severity of the tear and degree of retr...
Article

Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia

The Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia proposed by Bolger et al in 1990 1 takes into account associated anomalies of the uncinate process, which are of utmost importance for planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Maxillary sinus hypoplasia in itself is asymptomati...
Article

AAST liver injury scale

The 1994 revision of the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale is the most widely used liver injury grading system at the time of writing (late 2016).  Classification grade I haematoma: subcapsular, <10% surface area laceration: capsular tear, <1 cm  parenc...
Article

DeBakey classification

Along with the Stanford classification, the DeBakey classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asce...
Article

Talar neck fracture

Talar neck fractures extend through the thinnest cross-sectional portion of the talus, just proximal to the talar head. They represent one of the most common types of talus fracture (~30-50%), along with chip and avulsion fractures of the talus (~40-49%). These fractures are commonly associated ...
Article

Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale

The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grading system was described in 2003 by Higashida et al 1 as a tool for determining the response of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke. In neurointerventional radiology it is commonly used for patients post endovascular revascularisation. Lik...
Article

Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
Article

Salter-Harris type II fracture

Salter-Harris type II fractures are the most common physeal fractures that occur in children. The fracture line will include the physis and a portion of the metaphysis, leaving a triangular metaphyseal fragment intact, otherwise known as the Thurston Holland fragment. Salter-Harris fractures ar...
Article

Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) unstable...
Article

2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...
Article

2001 WHO classification of hepatic hydatid cysts

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hepatic hydatid cysts is used to assess the stage of hepatic hydatid cyst on ultrasound and is useful for deciding on its appropriate management, depending on the stage of the cyst. This classification was proposed by the WHO in 2001 and...
Article

Müllerian duct anomaly classification

The Müllerian duct anomaly classification is a seven point system that can be used to describe a number of embryonic Müllerian duct anomalies: class I: uterine agenesis / uterine hypoplasia a: vaginal (uterus: normal / variety of abnormal forms) b: cervical c: fundal d: tubal e: combined ...
Article

Posterior atrophy score of parietal atrophy

The posterior atrophy score, a.k.a. Koedam score, has been developed to enable visual assessment of parietal atrophy on MRI, and is useful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia, especially atypical or early onset Alzheimer's disease (see: neurodegenerative MRI brain: an approach) ...
Article

Tillaux fracture

Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement. Epidemiology It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse. Path...
Article

Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
Article

AAST spleen injury scale

The 1994 revision of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale is the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma at the time of writing (late 2016).  Classification grade I subcapsular haematoma <10% of surface area capsular laceration <1 cm depth...
Article

Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury

The Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury is a CT scan derived metric using only a few features and has been shown to predict outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury.  This system was first published in 1992 1 building on findings from a large cohort of head injury cases des...
Article

Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to a ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with adverse ...
Article

Ultrasound (U) classification of thyroid nodules

The ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules has been developed by the British Thyroid Association as part of their 2014 guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer. It allows for stratifying thyroid nodules as benign, suspicious or malignant based on ultrasound appearances termed U1...
Article

Germinal matrix haemorrhage (grading)

Grading of germinal matrix haemorrhage has taken several forms over the years. The most commonly used system is the sonographic grading system proposed by Burstein, Papile et al.  Classification grade I restricted to subependymal region/germinal matrix which is seen in the caudothalamic groov...
Article

ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
Article

Paediatric midface anomalies (classification)

This classification system based on the embryology and anatomy of the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, and nasolacrimal apparatus as well as anomalies associated with craniofacial syndromes.2 Nasal cavity choanal atresia and stenosis pyriform aperture stenosis Nasofrontal region  conge...
Article

Oral cavity tumours (T staging)

T staging of oral cavity tumours is as follows: Oral cavity The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferiorly, and the ...
Article

Meandering main pancreatic duct

Meandering main pancreatic duct (MMPD) comprises of a reverse Z-type and loop-type of pancreatic ducts. These ductal variants are found in ERCP and MRCP studies. The exact incidence is not known. Increased incidence of meandering pancreatic duct has been reported in patients with idiopathic re...
Article

Oropharyngeal tumours (T staging)

T staging of oropharyngeal tumours is as follows: Definition The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferior surface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior pharyng...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11 or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the g...
Article

Stewart classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

The Stewart classification for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based upon fracture location and morphology. It is divided into five types. Classification Type I extra-articular transverse or oblique fracture between base of 5th metatarsal and diaphysis (jones fracture) Type II avulsi...
Article

Torg's classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Torg's classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based on the degree of sclerosis adjacent to the fracture on imaging at the time of presentation to determine the fracture age. Classification Type I narrow fracture line with sharp margins and no widening minimal cortical hyper...
Article

Dameron-Lawrence-Bofte classification of proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Dameron-Lawrence-Bofte classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures divides fractures into three zones based on anatomy: zone 1: tuberosity of 5th metatarsal avulsion fracture of tuberosity (pseudo-jones fracture) zone 2: meta-diaphyseal junction Jones fracture zone 3: proximal dia...
Article

Microtia

Microtia refers to a small pinna of the ear, when is it completely absent it is termed anotia. Epidemiology The estimated incidence at around 1:9000 live births. It is more common in males and there is a recognised right sided predilection. Pathology Associations Microtia can be associated ...
Article

Tumours of the meninges (differential)

Tumours of the meninges are a heterogeneous group of lesions which usually occur as extra-axial masses.  Although a large number of lesions that can involve meninges are scattered throughout the  WHO classification of CNS tumours, the main entities to be considered include:  meningioma and nume...
Article

Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
Article

Global cortical atrophy scale

The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale, also known as the Pasquier scale, is a qualitative rating system developed to assess cerebral atrophy, especially in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. It evaluates atrophy in 13 brain regions assessed separately in each hemisphere and resulting i...
Article

Thyroid image reporting and data system (TIRADS)

TIRADS is a risk stratification system for classifying thyroid lesions and was recently recognized in an American College of Radiology (ACR) white paper 1. Its use is being advocated similar to BIRADS category for breast lesions.  In 2017, a white paper 2 was released by the ACR committee on th...
Article

ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardised scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...

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