Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

373 results found
Article

Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas correlates venous drainage patterns with increasingly aggressive neurological clinical course. It was first described in 1995 1 and at the time of writing (July 2016) is probably the most widely used classification system for dural arter...
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Combined conduit score of sinovenous stenosis

The combined conduit score (CCS) is a grading scheme for the assessment of the degree of transverse-sigmoid sinus stenosis in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The score was initially developed for ATECO MR venography 1. Parameters Assessment is performed using maximum inten...
Article

Complex midfacial fracture

Complex midfacial fractures consist of multiple facial fractures that cannot be classified as any of the defined complex facial fracture (e.g. Le Fort fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, naso-orbital-ethmoid fracture).
Article

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Clinical presentation Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies ...
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Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the Inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the Inferior vena cava type 2: localised, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
Article

Congenital utero-vaginal anomalies

There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include: Buttram and Gibbons classification 2 American Fertility Society (AFS) classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification This classification divid...
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Conotruncal cardiac anomalies

Conotruncal heart defects are a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero. Epidemiology They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2. Clinical presentation Du...
Article

Cooke and Newman classification

The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier. type I explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable ...
Article

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System

Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADSTM) classification is proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), the American College of Radiology (ACR), and the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI), last updated in 2016. This recomm...
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Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion, or shearing off by th...
Article

Couinaud classification of hepatic segments

The Couinaud classification (pronounced kwee-NO) is currently the most widely used system to describe functional liver anatomy. It is the preferred anatomy classification system as it divides the liver into eight independent functional units (termed segments) rather than relying on the tradition...
Article

CT colonography reporting and data system

CT colonography reporting and data system is a method devised to standardise CT colonography reporting. Classification It primarily classifies abnormalities into colonic (C) and extra-colonic (E). Colonic classification C0: inadequate study C1: normal colon/benign lesion: routine screening ...
Article

CT severity index in acute pancreatitis

The CT severity index (CTSI) is based on findings from a CT scan with intravenous contrast to assess the severity of acute pancreatitis. The severity of computed tomography findings have been found to correlate well with clinical indices of severity.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score:...
Article

Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora): increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
Article

Dameron-Lawrence-Bofte classification of proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Dameron-Lawrence-Bofte classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures divides fractures into three zones based on anatomy: zone 1: tuberosity of 5th metatarsal avulsion fracture of tuberosity (pseudo-jones fracture) zone 2: meta-diaphyseal junction Jones fracture zone 3: proximal dia...
Article

DeBakey classification

Along with the Stanford classification, the DeBakey classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asce...
Article

Degloving injury

Degloving injuries can refer to a number of conditions: degloving soft tissue injury Morel-Lavallee lesion (closed degloving soft tissue injury) intramuscular degloving injury degloving bowel injury
Article

Deltoid ligament injury

Deltoid ligament injuries involve the deltoid ligament that forms the medial part of the ankle joint. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones. Pathology Mechanism of injury It occurs due to eversion and/or pronation injury, or can be associated with lateral ankle fractures. ...
Article

Diffuse astrocytoma grading

Diffuse astrocytomas can be graded in according to a number of systems, the most popular being the WHO grading system. In general these grading systems focus on the presence or absence of a number of histological features 3: cellular atypia/anaplasia  mitotic activity microvascular proliferat...
Article

Diffuse hepatic steatosis (grading)

Grading of diffuse hepatic steatosis on ultrasound has been used to communicate to the clinician about the extent of fatty changes in the liver.  Grading grade I: diffusely increased hepatic echogenicity but periportal and diaphragmatic echogenicity is still appreciable grade II: diffusely in...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Distal fibula fractures are the most common type at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Background Pathophy...
Article

Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...
Article

Eaton classification of volar plate avulsion injury

This classification was proposed by Eaton and Malerich in 1980, and presently (time of writing, August 2016) along with Keifhaber-Stern classification, is the most widely accepted classification of volar plate avulsion injuries 1.  Knowledge of the orthopaedic Eaton classification is practical ...
Article

Edinburgh criteria for lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

The Edinburgh criteria were proposed in 2018 in order to diagnose lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) 1. They can potentially be used to rule CAA-associated lobar haemorrhage either in or out, but require external validation in other patient populati...
Article

Elliott et al. classification of cardiomyopathies

The Elliott et al. classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2. See also cardi...
Article

Errors in diagnostic radiology

Errors in diagnostic radiology occur for a variety of reasons related to human error, technical factors and system faults.  Classification Renfrew classification This classification was proposed by Renfrew et al. 5 in 1992, and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely accept...
Article

Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma at moderate or high levels of force. Such injuries may be sustained during a fall, physical assault, motor vehicle collision, or gunshot wound. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. ...
Article

Fazekas scale for white matter lesions

The Fazekas scale is used to simply quantify the amount of white matter T2 hyperintense lesions usually attributed to chronic small vessel ischaemia, although clearly not all such lesions are due to this. This classification was proposed by Fazekas et al. in 1987 1 and at the time of writing (l...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia classification

Fibromuscular dysplasia is classified into 5 categories according to the vessel wall layer affected: intima   intimal fibroplasia (1%) media  medial dysplasia (70%, the commonest type) perimedial (subadventitial) fibroplasia (15-20%) medial hyperplasia (8-10%) adventitia adventital fibro...
Article

Ficat and Arlet classification of avascular necrosis of femoral head

The Ficat and Arlet classification uses a combination of plain radiographs, MRI, and clinical features to stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Classification stage 0 plain radiograph: normal MRI: normal clinical symptoms: nil stage I plain radiograph: normal or minor osteopenia ...
Article

Ficat classification of osteonecrosis

The Ficat classification of osteonecrosis is based on radiographic findings. In 1985 Dr Ficat published a modified version of his initial classification in 1980: Stage 0 preclinical and preradiographic diagnosis is suspected in one hip when the other has a definite disease - this is the stage...
Article

Fisher scale

The Fisher scale is the initial and best known system of classifying the amount of subarachnoid haemorrhage on CT scans, and is useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of cerebral vasospasm, highest in grade 3 2.  Numerous other scales have been proposed, incorporating various paramete...
Article

Fractures of the extremities (general rules and nomenclature)

General rules and nomenclature of fractures should be understood by, and familiar to, anyone involved in the interpretation or management of fractures of the extremities. This article covers basic nomenclature of fractures.  Classification systems Before the most appropriate treatment for a fr...
Article

Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

The Frykman classification of distal radial fractures is based on the AP appearance and encompasses the eponymous entities of Colles fracture, Smith fracture, Barton fracture, chauffeur fracture. It assesses the pattern of fractures, involvement of the radioulnar joint and presence of a distal u...
Article

Fukuoka consensus guidelines

The Tanaka criteria, also referred to as the Fukuoka consensus guidelines, is a classification system for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs).  The prior international consensus guidelines (2006) were referred to as the Sendai criteria, which la...
Article

Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts

The Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts is used to classify arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa, which account for 50-60% of all arachnoid cysts 1. Galassi et al. published this classification in 1982, and at the time of writing (June 2016), it remains the most...
Article

Garden classification of hip fractures

The Garden classification of  subcapital femoral neck fractures is the most widely used. It is simple and predicts the development of AVN 1,2. Garden described particular femoral neck and acetabular trabeculae patterns which can assist in recognising differences within this classification system...
Article

Gartland classification of supracondylar humeral fractures

The Gartland classification of supracondylar fractures of the humerus is based on the degree and direction of displacement, and the presence of intact cortex. It applies to extension supracondylar fractures rather than the rare flexion supracondylar fracture. Classification type I: undisplaced...
Article

Gastric cancer (TNM staging)

Gastric cancer staging is routinely performed using the TNM staging system. This article is based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumours. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour invades the lamina propria and or muscularis mucosae  T1b: tumour invades submucosa...
Article

Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
Article

Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% los...
Article

Germ cell tumour (classification)

Germ cell tumours are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology. seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma  yolk sac tu...
Article

Germinal matrix haemorrhage (grading)

Grading of germinal matrix haemorrhage has taken several forms over the years. The most commonly used system is the sonographic grading system proposed by Burstein, Papile et al.  Classification grade I restricted to subependymal region/germinal matrix which is seen in the caudothalamic groov...
Article

Gilula three carpal arcs

Gilula three carpal arcs refer to the alignment described on posteroanterior or anteroposterior wrist radiographs and are used to assess normal alignment of the carpus: first arc: is a smooth curve outlining the proximal convexities of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum second arc: traces the...
Article

Glasgow Coma Scale

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was developed in 1974 1 to describe the level of consciousness specifically in patients with head injury although it is now used widely as a shorthand for all manner of presentations and has generally been validated, although concerns remain about its use in certain ...
Article

Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature. 1: least aggressive 5: most aggressive These two scores are then added together t...
Article

Global cortical atrophy scale

The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale, also known as the Pasquier scale, is a qualitative rating system developed to assess cerebral atrophy, especially in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. It evaluates atrophy in 13 brain regions assessed separately in each hemisphere and resulting i...
Article

Goldman classification of urethral injuries

The Goldman classification of urethral injuries is a more widely accepted classification than one proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Goldman classification is based on the anatomical location of the urethral injury and was initially proposed by Colapinto a...
Article

Goutallier classification

The Goutallier classification is a classification system used to quantify the amount of degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles, particularly in the context of rotator cuff tendon tears. Although originally described in shoulder CT 1, it is applicable and now most commonly used in MR. It is bas...
Article

Grading of brachial plexus injuries

According to CT myelography, brachial plexus injuries can be classified into six types 1: N type: normal root sleeve and nerve roots A1 type: slightly deformed root sleeves and nerve roots as compared to unaffected site A2 type: obliteration of the tip of root sleeves and deformed thickened n...
Article

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification is one method of classing aneurysmal dilatation of the inferior vena cava, which is an uncommon finding. When present it can be often associated with other caval anomalies. Gradman and Steinburg method classifies them as 1: type I...
Article

Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, combines both alpha and beta angles. There are a number of additional subdivisions, which are often not used clinically.  As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and in s...
Article

Gustilo Anderson classification

The Gustilo Anderson classification, sometimes referred to as the Gustilo classification is the most widely accepted classification system of open (or compound) fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher ris...
Article

Gynaecologic imaging reporting and data system (GI-RADS)

The Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography. Classification Findings are classified into five categories 1: GI-RADS 1 normal ovaries identified and no adn...
Article

Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations

Hamburg classification system of vascular malformations is one of the more commonly used systems to describe the wide range of vascular malformations, largely replacing the many various eponymous syndromes traditionally used. It accounts for the underlying anatomical, histological, and pathophys...
Article

Harvard scoring system for rhinosinusitis

The Harvard scoring system for rhinosinusitis is, as the name implies, a scoring system based on CT-scan assessment for grading of rhinosinusitis. Scoring 0: normal (< 2 mm mucosal thickening on any sinus wall) 1: all unilateral disease or anatomic abnormality 2: bilateral disease limited to...
Article

Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of sub types, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated sub type, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epitheli...
Article

Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis

E J Hinchey et al. 3 proposed a classification for acute diverticulitis, that has been variously adapted, and is useful not only in academia but also in outlining successive stages of severity. Classification stage 1a: phlegmon stage 1b: diverticulitis with pericolic or mesenteric abscess st...
Article

Hunka classification of neonatal septic arthritis of the hip

Type I: Absent or minimal femoral head changes. Type II: A: deformity of the femoral head with intact physis. B: deformity of the femoral head with premature physeal closure. Type III: Pseudarthrosis of the femoral neck. Type IV: A:Complete destruction of the capital femoral epiphysis wit...
Article

Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and is used as a predictor of survival. grade 1 asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness 70% survival grade 2 moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve...
Article

Hydrometra

Hydrometra is a descriptive term that refers to a distended uterus filled with clear, non-infected fluid. See also haematometra pyometra hydrometrocolpos hydrocolpos endometrial fluid
Article

Hydronephrosis (grading)

Grading systems of hydronephrosis have been devised to communicate the degree of upper collecting system dilatation. The most common system used (Society of Fetal Ultrasound, SFU) was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant hydronephrosis: grade 0 no dilatation, calyceal walls are ...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults. Terminology Although hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can generally describe a hypertrophied and non-dilated left ventricle due to any ca...
Article

Hypopharyngeal tumours (T staging)

T staging of hypopharyngeal tumours is as follows: Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour in...
Article

Ichikado CT scoring of acute respiratory distress syndrome

CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al. in 2006 2 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system. Classification...
Article

International panel for NMO diagnosis criteria

The 2015 International Panel for NMO Diagnosis criteria are, as the name implies, a set of criteria used to diagnose neuromyelitis optic spectrum disorder (NMOSD) 1. They are based on a combination of clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings. Criteria Diagnostic criteria for NMOSD with ...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, en...
Article

Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
Article

ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...
Article

Johansson classification

The Johansson classification of periprosthetic hip fractures was the first classification system proposed and is the simplest. It is based on the level of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis. type I: fracture proximal to the tip of the prosthesis with the stem still in contact with the m...
Article

Judet and Letournel classification for acetabular fractures

The Judet and Letournel classification is the most widely used classification of acetabular fractures. It is based on three radiographic views (anteroposterior view, obturator oblique view and Iliac oblique view)  and classifies acetabular fractures into ten major fracture patterns, which cons...
Article

Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
Article

Keifhaber-Stern classification of volar plate avulsion injuries of hand

This classification was proposed originally by Hastings and later modified by Keifhaber and Stern in 1998. This classification, along with the Eaton classification, is the most widely accepted classification at the time of writing (August 2016) for the management of volar plate avulsion injuries...
Article

Kellgren and Lawrence system for classification of osteoarthritis of knee

The Kellgren and Lawrence system is a common method of classifying the severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using five grades 1. This classification was proposed by Kellgren et al. in 1957 2 and later accepted by WHO in 1961. In applying the system, the prevalence of chronic knee pain in a post...
Article

Kernohan grading system for diffuse astroctyomas

The Kernohan grading system for diffuse astrocytomas is no longer used, superseded by the the WHO grading system.  It was first described in 1949 and divided astrocytomas into 4 grades (I - IV) on the basis of histological features 1.
Article

Komi classification of bile duct cysts

Komi classification of bile duct cysts, as stated by Komi et al, divides anomalous union of the pancreatico-bile ducts (AUPBD) into 3 types based on the angle of union of the ducts 1. Classification type I: union of the ducts at a right angle to each other type Ia: without dilatation or  typ...
Article

Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals....
Article

Kuhn classification

Kuhn classification is an anatomical classification for the subtypes of frontal cells. type 1 (~37%): a single air cell above the agger nasi cell type 2 (~19%): two or more air cells above the agger nasi cell type 3 (~7%): a single large cell above the agger nasi cell that extends into the fr...
Article

Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear

The Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear was proposed in 1990 4 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing achilles tendon rupture.  Classification Achilles tendon tears may be grouped (according to severity of the tear and degree of retr...
Article

Langer Saldino syndrome

The Langer Saldino syndrome or achondrogenesis type II is a sub type of achondrogenesis. It is an extremely rare fatal skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Genetics Majority of cases are sporadic. Autosomal dominant inheritance is also another mode. There is mutation in the collagen type II gene (CO...
Article

Lasjaunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
Article

Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle injury

The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used for the classification of the ankle injuries based on injury mechanisms which have predictable patterns and imaging findings. Along with the Weber classification, these systems are useful tools for describing and classifying ankle injuries. Classif...
Article

Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant a...
Article

Lie classification of vasculitis

The Lie classification of vasculitis was proposed in 1994.  Classification Primary vasculitides affecting large, medium, and small blood vessels (see large vessel vasculitides) Takayasu arteritis temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis) isolated angiitis of the central nervous system Hug...
Article

Limbus fracture types

Limbus fractures represent bony fractures of the vertebral body rim at the site of attachment of the Sharpey fibres of the intervertebral disc. They should not to be confused with a limbus vertebra. They can be classified as follows: type I: avulsions of the posterior cortical vertebral rim ty...
Article

LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Lodwick classification

The Lodwick classification is a system for describing the margins of a lucent/lytic bone lesion. The terms used in the description suggest the level of concern for an aggressive, and possibly malignant, process. Classification type 1: geographic 1A: thin, sclerotic margin 1B: distinct, well-...
Article

LR2 cirrhosis-associated nodule

LR2 cirrhosis-associated nodules are defined as "probably benign" according to the LI-RADS classification system. They are a common finding in a cirrhotic liver and do not need to be mentioned in the report.  Radiographic features The nodule must demonstrate all of the following: diameter <20...

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