Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

333 results found
Article

CT colonography reporting and data system

CT colonography reporting and data system is a method devised to standardise CT colonography reporting. Classification It primarily classifies abnormalities into colonic (C) and extra-colonic (E). Colonic classification C0: inadequate study C1: normal colon/benign lesion: routine screening ...
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CT severity index in acute pancreatitis

The CT severity index (CTSI) is based on findings from a CT scan with intravenous contrast to assess the severity of acute pancreatitis. The severity of computed tomography findings have been found to correlate well with clinical indices of severity.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score:...
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Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora): increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
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Dameron-Lawrence-Bofte classification of proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Dameron-Lawrence-Bofte classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures divides fractures into three zones based on anatomy: zone 1: tuberosity of 5th metatarsal avulsion fracture of tuberosity (pseudo-jones fracture) zone 2: meta-diaphyseal junction Jones fracture zone 3: proximal dia...
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DeBakey classification

Along with the Stanford classification, the DeBakey classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asce...
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Degloving injury

Degloving injuries can refer to a number of conditions: degloving soft tissue injury Morel-Lavallee lesion (closed degloving soft tissue injury) intramuscular degloving injury degloving bowel injury
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Deltoid ligament injury

Deltoid ligament injuries involve the deltoid ligament that forms the medial part of the ankle joint. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones. Pathology Mechanism of injury It occurs due to eversion and/or pronation injury, or can be associated with lateral ankle fractures. ...
Article

Diffuse astrocytoma grading

Diffuse astrocytomas can be graded in according to a number of systems, the most popular being the WHO grading system. In general these grading systems focus on the presence or absence of a number of histological features 3: cellular atypia/anaplasia  mitotic activity microvascular proliferat...
Article

Diffuse hepatic steatosis (grading)

Grading of diffuse hepatic steatosis on ultrasound has been used to communicate to the clinician about the extent of fatty changes in the liver.  Grading grade I: increased hepatic echogenicity with visible periportal and diaphragmatic echogenicity grade II: increased hepatic echogenicity wit...
Article

Distal fibula fracture (basic)

Distal fibula fractures are the commonest fracture at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury. Background Pathophysiology Most ankle injuries occur because of an inversion injury. A pu...
Article

Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...
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Elliott et al classification of cardiomyopathies

The Elliott et al classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2. See also cardio...
Article

Errors in diagnostic radiology

Errors in diagnostic radiology occur for a variety of reasons related to human error, technical factors and system faults.  Classification Renfrew classification This classification was proposed by Renfrew et al5 in 1992, and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely accepted...
Article

Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and light making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures are most com...
Article

Fazekas scale for white matter lesions

The Fazekas scale is used to simply quantify the amount of white matter T2 hyperintense lesions usually attributed to chronic small vessel ischaemia, although clearly not all such lesions are due to this. This classification was proposed by Fazekas et al. in 1987 1 and at the time of writing (l...
Article

Fibromuscular dysplasia classification

Fibromuscular dysplasia is classified into 5 categories according to the vessel wall layer affected: intima   intimal fibroplasia (1%) media  medial dysplasia (70%, the commonest type) perimedial (subadventitial) fibroplasia (15-20%) medial hyperplasia (8-10%) adventitia adventital fibro...
Article

Ficat and Arlet classification of avascular necrosis of femoral head

The Ficat and Arlet classification uses a combination of plain radiographs, MRI and clinical features to stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Classification stage 0 plain radiograph: normal MRI: normal clinical symptoms: nil stage I plain radiograph: normal or minor osteopaenia ...
Article

Ficat classification of osteonecrosis

The Ficat classification of osteonecrosis is based on radiographic findings. In 1985 Dr Ficat published a modified version of his initial classification in 1980: Stage 0 preclinical and preradiographic diagnosis is suspected in one hip when the other has a definite disease - this is the stage...
Article

Fisher scale

The Fisher scale is the initial and best known system of classifying the amount of subarachnoid haemorrhage on CT scans, and is useful in predicting the occurrence and severity of cerebral vasospasm, highest in grade 3 2.  Numerous other scales have been proposed, incorporating various paramete...
Article

Fractures of the extremities (general rules and nomenclature)

General rules and nomenclature of fractures should be understood by, and familiar to, anyone involved in the interpretation or management of fractures of the extremities. This article covers basic nomenclature of fractures.  Classification systems Before the most appropriate treatment for a fr...
Article

Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

The Frykman classification of distal radial fractures is based on the AP appearance and encompasses the eponymous entities of Colles fracture, Smith fracture, Barton fracture, chauffeur fracture. It assesses the pattern of fractures, involvement of the radioulnar joint and presence of a distal u...
Article

Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts

The Galassi classification of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts​ is used to classify arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa, which account for 50-60% of all arachnoid cysts 1. Galassi et al published this classification in 1982, and at the time of writing (June 2016) it remains the most ...
Article

Garden classification of hip fractures

The Garden classification of  subcapital femoral neck fractures is the most widely used. It is simple and predicts the development of AVN 1,2. Garden described particular femoral neck and acetabular trabeculae patterns which can assist in recognising differences within this classification system...
Article

Gartland classification of supracondylar humeral fractures

The Gartland classification of supracondylar fractures of the humerus is based on the degree and direction of displacement, and the presence of intact cortex. It applies to extension supracondylar fractures rather than the rare flexion supracondylar fracture. Classification type I: undisplaced...
Article

Gastric cancer (TNM staging)

Gastric cancer staging is routinely performed using the TNM staging system. This article is based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumours. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour invades the lamina propria and or muscularis mucosae  T1b: tumour invades submucosa...
Article

Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
Article

Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% los...
Article

Germ cell tumour (classification)

Germ cell tumours are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology. seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma  yolk sac tu...
Article

Germinal matrix haemorrhage (grading)

Grading of germinal matrix haemorrhage has taken several forms over the years. The most commonly used system is the sonographic grading system proposed by Burstein, Papile et al.  Classification grade I restricted to subependymal region/germinal matrix which is seen in the caudothalamic groov...
Article

Gilula three carpal arcs

Gilula three carpal arcs refer to the alignment described on posteroanterior or anteroposterior wrist radiographs and are used to assess normal alignment of the carpus: first arc: is a smooth curve outlining the proximal convexities of the scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum second arc: traces the...
Article

Glasgow coma scale

The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was developed in 1974 1 to describe the level of consciousness specifically in patients with head injury although it is now used widely as a shorthand for all manner of presentations and has generally been validated, although concerns about its use in certain scenari...
Article

Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature. 1: least aggressive 5: most aggressive These two scores are then added together t...
Article

Global cortical atrophy scale

The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale, also known as the Pasquier scale, is a qualitative rating system developed to assess cerebral atrophy, especially in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. It evaluates atrophy in 13 brain regions assessed separately in each hemisphere and resulting i...
Article

Goldman classification of urethral injuries

The Goldman classification of urethral injuries is a more widely accepted classification than one proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Goldman classification is based on the anatomical location of the urethral injury and was initially proposed by Colapinto a...
Article

Goutallier classification

The Goutallier classification is a classification system used to quantify the amount of degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles, particularly in the context of rotator cuff tendon tears. Although originally described in shoulder CT 1, it is applicable and now most commonly used in MR. It is bas...
Article

Grading of brachial plexus injuries

According to CT myelography, brachial plexus injuries can be classified into six types 1: N type: normal root sleeve and nerve roots A1 type: slightly deformed root sleeves and nerve roots as compared to unaffected site A2 type: obliteration of the tip of root sleeves and deformed thickened n...
Article

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification

Gradman and Steinburg inferior vena cava aneurysm classification is one method of classing aneurysmal dilatation of the inferior vena cava, which is an uncommon finding. When present it can be often associated with other caval anomalies. Gradman and Steinburg method classifies them as 1: type I...
Article

Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, combines both alpha and beta angles. There are a number of additional subdivisions, which are often not used clinically.  As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and in s...
Article

Gustilo Anderson classification

The Gustilo Anderson classification, sometimes referred to as the Gustilo classification is the most widely accepted classification system of open (or compound) fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher ris...
Article

Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of sub types, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated sub type, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epitheli...
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Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis

Hinchey et al. 3 proposed a classification for acute diverticulitis, that has been variously adapted, and is useful not only in academia but also in outlining successive stages of severity. Classification stage 1a: phlegmon stage 1b: diverticulitis with pericolic or mesenteric abscess stage ...
Article

Hunka classification of neonatal septic arthritis of the hip

Type I: Absent or minimal femoral head changes. Type II: A: deformity of the femoral head with intact physis. B: deformity of the femoral head with premature physeal closure. Type III: Pseudarthrosis of the femoral neck. Type IV: A:Complete destruction of the capital femoral epiphysis wit...
Article

Hunt and Hess grading system

The Hunt and Hess scale describes the severity of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and is used as a predictor of survival. grade 1 asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness 70% survival grade 2 moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve...
Article

Hydrometra

Hydrometra is a descriptive term that refers to a distended uterus filled with clear, non-infected fluid. See also haematometra pyometra hydrometrocolpos hydrocolpos endometrial fluid
Article

Hydronephrosis (grading)

Grading systems of hydronephrosis have been devised to communicate the degree of upper collecting system dilatation. The most common system used (Society of Fetal Ultrasound, SFU) was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant hydronephrosis: grade 0 no dilatation, calyceal walls are ...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults.  Epidemiology There is no gender predilection and has a prevalence of around 0.3-0.5% in the general population 4. Pathology Hyper...
Article

Hypopharyngeal tumours (T staging)

T staging of hypopharyngeal tumours is as follows: Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour in...
Article

Ichikado CT scoring of acute respiratory distress syndrome

CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al. in 2006 2 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system. Classification...
Article

Intraventricular neoplasms and lesions

Intraventricular neoplasms are rare and arise from periventricular structures such as the walls of the ventricular system, the septum pellucidum and the choroid plexus. Many tumour types arise from, or can bulge into the ventricular system, although there are certain lesions that are relatively ...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, en...
Article

Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
Article

ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies

The ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies is based on the initial classification published by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982, and encompasses all vascular malformations and tumours in a framework of internationally consistent nomenclature. The classification was revised in 2014. It is proba...
Article

Johansson classification

The Johansson classification of periprosthetic hip fractures was the first classification system proposed and is the simplest. It is based on the level of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis. type I: fracture proximal to the tip of the prosthesis with the stem still in contact with the m...
Article

Judet and Letournel classification for acetabular fractures

The Judet and Letournel classification is the most widely used classification of acetabular fractures. It is based on three radiographic views (anteroposterior view, obturator oblique view and Iliac oblique view)  and classifies acetabular fractures into ten major fracture patterns, which cons...
Article

Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
Article

Kellgren and Lawrence system for classification of osteoarthritis of knee

The Kellgren and Lawrence system is a method of classifying the severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using five grades. This classification was proposed by Kellgren et al. in 1957 2 and later accepted by WHO in 1961. Classification grade 0: no radiographic features of OA are present grade 1: ...
Article

Kernohan grading system for diffuse astroctyomas

The Kernohan grading system for diffuse astrocytomas is no longer used, superseded by the the WHO grading system.  It was first described in 1949 and divided astrocytomas into 4 grades (I - IV) on the basis of histological features 1.
Article

Komi classification of bile duct cysts

Komi classification of bile duct cysts, as stated by Komi et al, divides anomalous union of the pancreatico-bile ducts (AUPBD) into 3 types based on the angle of union of the ducts 1. Classification type I: union of the ducts at a right angle to each other type Ia: without dilatation or  typ...
Article

Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear

The Kuwada classification of Achilles tendon tear was proposed in 1990 4 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing achilles tendon rupture.  Classification Achilles tendon tears may be grouped (according to severity of the tear and degree of retr...
Article

Langer Saldino syndrome

The Langer Saldino syndrome or achondrogenesis type II is a sub type of achondrogenesis. It is an extremely rare fatal skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Genetics Majority of cases are sporadic. Autosomal dominant inheritance is also another mode. There is mutation in the collagen type II gene (CO...
Article

Lasajunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Lateral humeral condylar fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children.  Epidemiology They represent ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of elbow fractures in children and are the second most common paediatric elbow fracture after supracondylar fractures. They occur in ...
Article

Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle injury

The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used for the classification of the ankle injuries based on the mechanism of injury which have predictable pattern and imaging findings. Along with the Weber classification, these systems are useful tools in describing and classifying ankle injuries. Cla...
Article

Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid bo...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolithesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant an...
Article

LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Lie classification of vasculitis

The Lie classification of vasculitis was proposed in 1994.  Classification Primary vasculitides affecting large, medium, and small blood vessels (see large vessel vasculitides) Takayasu arteritis temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis) isolated angiitis of the central nervous system Hug...
Article

Limbus fracture types

Limbus fractures are not to be confused with a limbus vertebra. They can be classified as follows: type I: avulsions of the posterior cortical vertebral rim type II: central cortical and cancellous bone fractures type III: lateralised chip fractures type IV: span the entire length and breadt...
Article

Lodwick classification

The Lodwick classification is a system for describing the margins of a lucent/lytic bone lesion. The terms used in the description suggest the level of concern for an aggressive, and possibly malignant, process. Classification type 1: geographic 1A: thin, sclerotic margin 1B: distinct, well-...
Article

LR2 cirrhosis-associated nodule

LR2 cirrhosis-associated nodules are defined as "probably benign" according to the LI-RADS classification system. They are a common finding in a cirrhotic liver and do not need to be mentioned in the report.  Radiographic features The nodule must demonstrate all of the following: diameter <20...
Article

Lunate morphology

Several classification systems exist for the lunate morphology 1, 2. Classification The lunate classification proposed by Veigas et al is arguably the most relevant 3:  type I lunates: single distal articular facet for the capitate type II lunates: additional distal articular facet medially ...
Article

Lung-RADS

Lung-RADSTM (or lung imaging reporting and data system) is a classification proposed to aid with findings in low dose CT screening exams for lung cancer. The goal of the classification system is to standardize follow-up and management decisions. The system is similar to the Fleischner criteria b...
Article

Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid, retropharyngeal space, and occipital nodes.  Level I   below myloh...
Article

Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings. Classification A: compression injuries A1: impaction fractures A1.1: endplate impaction A1.2: wedge impaction A1.3...
Article

MAGNIMS consensus on MRI diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

The magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis (MAGNIMS), which is a European collaborative research network, published in 2016 new recommendations to upgrade the imaging diagnosis criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). These came as a consensus, based on evidence-based and expert opinions ...
Article

Markowitz and Manson classification system of naso-orbitoethmoid fractures

The Markowitz and Manson classification system categorises fractures of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex as follows 1: type I - in which the medial canthal tendon is intact and connected to a single large fracture fragment type II - the fracture is comminuted, and the medial canthal tendon...
Article

Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury

The Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury is a CT scan derived metric using only a few features and has been shown to predict outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury.  This system was first published in 1992 1 building on findings from a large cohort of head injury cases des...
Article

Mason classification of radial head fractures

The Mason classification is used to classify radial head fractures and is useful when assessing further treatment options 1-2. type I: non-displaced radial head fractures (or small marginal fractures), also known as a "chisel" fracture type II: partial articular fractures with displacement (>2...
Article

Mayfield classification of carpal instability (perilunate instability)

Mayfield classification of carpal instability, also known as perilunate instability classification (carpal dislocations), describes carpal ligament injuries.  Instability has been divided into four stages 1-2: stage I: scapholunate dissociation (rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid) disruptio...
Article

Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures

Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures divides them into three types according to anatomic location of the fracture line: middle (70%) distal (20%) proximal (10%) Fractures of the distal third are further divided into distal articular surface or the distal tubercle fractures: distal tube...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria 2001 - 2005

The McDonald's criteria are MRI criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and were initially described in 2001 and revised in 2005 and again recently in 2010 - see McDonald diagnostic criteria 2010. Below are the previously used criteria, which should no longer be employed clinically...
Article

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis

McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis are MRI criteria used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) were introduced in 2001, revised in 2005, 2010 and more recently in 2016 1. As before the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis requires establishing disease disseminated in both spac...
Article

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (prese...
Article

Meandering main pancreatic duct

Meandering main pancreatic duct (MMPD) comprises of a reverse Z-type and loop-type of pancreatic ducts. These ductal variants are found in ERCP and MRCP studies. The exact incidence is not known. Increased incidence of meandering pancreatic duct has been reported in patients with idiopathic re...
Article

Medial collateral ligament injury grading

Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are graded into three groups on MRI, much in the same way as many other ligaments: grade 1: (minor sprain) high signal is seen medial (superficial) to the ligament, which looks normal grade 2: (severe sprain or partial tear) high signal is seen medial ...
Article

Medial temporal lobe atrophy score

The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain - an approach). Classificatio...
Article

Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect the division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging.  Classification The ITMIG classification divides the mediastinum into three compartments: prevascular...
Article

MELD score

The MELD score (Model for End-stage Liver Disease) is a classification used to grade liver dysfunction in preparation for liver transplantation. It is an estimate of 3 month mortality. The components of the score are: serum creatinine (mg/dl) if dialysis twice in last week, then bilirubin is ...
Article

Metaphyseal diaphyseal angle

The metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle (of Drennan) is an important measurement used to distinguish betweeen tibia vara (Blount disease) and physiological bowleg.  This angle is measured by drawing a line along the long axis of the tibia, creating a perpendicular to this line, and drawing another lin...
Article

Microtia

Microtia refers to a small pinna of the ear, when is it completely absent it is termed anotia. Epidemiology The estimated incidence at around 1:9000 live births. It is more common in males and there is a recognised right sided predilection. Pathology Associations Microtia can be associated ...
Article

Mitchell classification of avascular necrosis

Mitchell classification of avascular necrosis is based on MRI signal characteristics within the centre of the lesion on T1 and T2-weighted images. Classification The lesion is classified into four stages with stage A representing early disease and stage D representing late disease. However, th...

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