Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

402 results found
Article

Peripheral arterial disease

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common and debilitating condition. Epidemiology The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is ~12% 3. Pathology Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of occlusive arterial disease of the extremities in patients over 40 years of age with t...
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Periprosthetic hip fracture classification systems

Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification Johansson classification Vancouver classification: most widely used
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Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several periurethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal-vulval-vaginal region male genitourinary trac...
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Periventricular leukomalacia classification

One of the methods used for grading of periventricular leukomalacia based on sonographic appearances is as: grade 1: areas of increased periventricular echogenicity without any cyst formation persisting for more than 7 days grade 2: the echogenicity has resolved into small periventricular cyst...
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Peroneal tubercle

The peroneal tubercle (also known as the peroneal trochlea) is one of the two bony projections or protuberances that may be seen on the lateral aspect of the calcaneus, the other one being the retrotrochlear eminence. The peroneal tubercle is present immediately inferior to the fibular malleolu...
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PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
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Pharmaceuticals used in nuclear imaging

There are several drugs which are useful for evaluation of nuclear studies for respective systems. These drugs play an important role in monitoring the physiological changes and aiding in diagnosis . Drugs used are metoclopramide and erythromycin in gastrointestinal scintigraphy; used for gast...
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Piedmont fracture

Piedmont fractures have been variably defined in the literature. Many suggest that Piedmont fractures are synonymous with Galeazzi fractures. That is a fracture of the radius at the middle and distal third with associated disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. The initial report about the s...
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Pipkin femoral head fracture classification

Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations. Classification type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface type II: fracture proxi...
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Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to an ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries, the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with advers...
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Poliovirus

Poliovirus is the causative agent involved in poliomyelitis. It is a single-stranded RNA virus and one of the smallest significantly described viruses: group: group IV family: picornaviruses genus: enterovirus species: enterovirus C subtype: poliovirus Related pathology poliomyelitis pol...
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Polymicrogyria

Polymicrogyria is one of many malformations of cortical development (see classification system for cortical malformations), and along with grey matter heterotopias, falls under a bewildering group of conditions characterised by abnormalities both in migration of neurons to the cortex and abnorma...
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Posterior atrophy score of parietal atrophy

The posterior atrophy score, a.k.a. Koedam score, has been developed to enable visual assessment of parietal atrophy on MRI, and is useful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia, especially atypical or early onset Alzheimer's disease (see: neurodegenerative MRI brain: an approach) ...
Article

Preinvasive adenocarcinoma lesion of the lung

Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small non-invasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions. The category includes two types of lesions: atypical adenomatous ...
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Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System

PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient. The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADS v2 6, ...
Article

Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and peripheral stenoses See also congenital pulmonary stenosis
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (2003 classification)

There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems. In 2003, the 3rd World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised in the Dana Point classification of pulm...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2008 classification)

The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1. This system is as follows: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 1.2: heritable ...
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Pulmonary hypertension (2013 classification)

In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.  The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups: group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
Article

Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
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Pulmonary oedema grading

One grading system on pulmonary oedema based on chest radiograph appearances and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is as follows: grade 0: normal chest radiograph, PCWP 8-12 mmHg grade 1: shows evidence of upper lobe diversion on a chest radiograph, PCWP 13-18 mmHg grade 2: shows inte...
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Pulmonary sarcoidosis (staging on chest radiograph)

Pulmonary sarcoidosis may be classified on a chest radiograph into 5 stages 1-2: stage 0: normal chest radiograph 5-10% of patients at presentation stage I: hilar or mediastinal nodal enlargement only 45-65% of patients at presentation 60% go onto a complete resolution stage II: nodal enla...
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Ranson criteria

Ranson's criteria are useful in assessing prognosis in early acute pancreatitis. The more of the criteria are met the higher the mortality. Ranson's criteria are assessed both at admission and at 48 hours. Criteria On admission age: >55 years white blood count: >16 000/mm blood glucose leve...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Raymond–Roy occlusion classification of intracranial aneurysms

The Raymond–Roy occlusion classification (RROC) is an angiographic classification scheme for grading the occlusion of endovascularly treated intracranial aneurysms 1. It is also known as the Raymond class, Montreal scale or the Raymond Montreal scale. class I: complete obliteration class II: r...
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RCR breast imaging classification system

work in progress - Fran/Derek   UK interpretation/system to guide investigation (2008) Classification Mammography   Ultrasound   MRI    
Article

RECIST 1.1: comparison with RECIST 1.0

Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) was updated to version 1.1 in 2009. For both RECIST 1.0 and 1.1, the requirement for measurable disease at baseline depends on the endpoints of the clinical trial. The fundamental concept common to both versions of RECIST is that measurabl...
Article

Retropulsed fragment

A retropulsed fragment is any vertebral fracture fragment that is displaced into the spinal canal, thereby potentially causing spinal cord injury. They usually arise from the vertebral body with or without a portion of the pedicle, and are displaced posteriorly, hence the prefix 'retro'.
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Retrotrochlear eminence

The retrotrochlear eminence is located posterior to the peroneal tubercle and the peroneal tendons. It is one of two bony projections or protuberances that may be seen arising from the lateral wall of the calcaneum, the other being the peroneal tubercle. It is seen to be prominent in individua...
Article

Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1992 Atlanta classification. It was initially revised in 2012 and then further updated in 2016 6. The worldwide consensus aims for an...
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Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides

Following months of preparation, experts in the field of vasculitis from 12 different countries proposed an update to the 1994 International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature of vasculitides. This 2012 update at the time of writing (mid-2016) remains the most widely used system for d...
Article

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus

Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified: type I: no displacement ...
Article

Risk of malignancy index in ovarian tumours

The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumours is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3. Classification The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum C...
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Risser classification

The Risser classification is used to grade skeletal maturity based on the level of ossification and fusion of the iliac crest apophyses. It is primarily in planning corrective surgery for scoliosis. Classification stage 0: no ossification center at the level of iliac crest apophysis stage 1: ...
Article

Rockwood classification of acromioclavicular joint injury

The Rockwood classification (1998) is the most common classification system in use for acromioclavicular joint injuries 3. This well known 6-type system is a modification of the earlier 3-class classification system described by Allman (1967) 2 and Tossy (1963). It takes into account not only t...
Article

Rotator cuff tear grading

One method of grading rotator cuff tears on MRI is as follows: grade 0: normal grade I: increased T2 signal with normal morphology grade II: increased T2 signal with abnormal morphology (thickening, or irregularity of the tendon) grade III: defined tear (e.g. partial or full thickness, compl...
Article

Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury

The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.  It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
Article

Sacroiliitis grading (New York criteria)

Sacroiliitis grading can be achieved using plain radiographs according to the New York criteria 4. Classification grade 0: normal grade I: some blurring of the joint margins - suspicious grade II: minimal sclerosis with some erosion grade III definite sclerosis on both sides of joint 5 se...
Article

Salter-Harris classification

The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.  Classification Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR. type I slipp...
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Salter-Harris type II fracture

Salter-Harris type II fractures are the most common type of physeal fractures that occur in children. There is a fracture that extends through the physis and into a portion of the metaphysis. A triangular metaphyseal fragment, otherwise known as the Thurston Holland fragment, will be left intact...
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Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognos...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. gro...
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Sanders CT classification of calcaneal fracture

The Sanders classification system is used to assess intraarticular calcaneal fractures, which are those involving the posterior facet of the calcaneus. This classification is based on the number of intraarticular fracture lines and their location on semicoronal CT images. This classification is ...
Article

Sarcopenia

Sarcopenia can be defined as significant loss of muscle function as a result of decreased muscle bulk. The definition was originally restricted to elderly individuals only, however many use it for people of any age. A direct evaluation of muscle mass on imaging can be performed. Conversely, a r...
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Schatzker classification of tibial plateau fractures

Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures. Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
Article

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumours

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumours are a subtype of ovarian tumours and account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumours. They arise from two groups of cells in the ovary: stromal cells primitive sex cords: coelomic epithelium The group of tumours includes ovarian fibroma-thecoma spectrum ovarian f...
Article

Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are characterised by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
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Shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage score

The shunt-dependency in symptomatic aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SDASH) score is a harmonized score for the prediction of hydrocephalus requiring shunting after subarachnoid haemorrhage. The tool is employed in the acute phase to predict which patients will require shunting, rather than ...
Article

Siewert-Stein classification of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

The Siewert-Stein classification of oesophageal adenocarcinoma classes these tumours according to their relationship to anatomical landmarks 1. It was initially proposed by Siewert et al in 1996, becoming widely used in predicting lymph node spread and directing optimal management. As of the 7th...
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Simpson grade

The Simpson grade of meningioma resection was described in 1957 and correlated the degree of surgical resection completeness with with symptomatic recurrence 1.  Although the type of resection still plays a part in the likelihood of symptomatic recurrence, other factors (such as the MIB-1 index...
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Singh index

The Singh index is a classification system for bone density of the femoral neck based on the visibility of the trabecular types that can be seen in the femoral neck. Trabecular types in proximal femur Five trabecular types can be present in the proximal part of the femur: principal compressio...
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Situs classification

Situs classification can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups : situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs situs inversus: mirror image of normal situs ambiguus: an intermediate configuration with duplication (isomerism) Situs is best thought...
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Situs solitus

Situs solitus refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the aortic arch, gastric fundus, cardiac apex, pulmonary fissures and the branching pattern of ...
Article

Small for date fetus

A small for dates fetus can result from a number of factors Fetal factors aneuploidy trisomy triploidy skeletal dysplasia(s) structural anomalies (syndromes) Maternal factors Common hypertension medication(s): fetal Warfarin syndrome hydantoin embryopathy (Dilantin TM) cytotoxic dru...
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Soft tissue tumours (WHO 2002 classification)

The WHO 2002 classification of soft tissue tumours is as follows: This, however, has been revised under the 2013 WHO tissue tumour classification system 4. Adipocytic tumours Benign lipoma 8850/0* lipomatosis 8850/0 lipomatosis of nerve 8850/0 lipoblastoma/lipoblastomatosis 8881/0 angiol...
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Sorensen criteria

In typical Scheuermann disease of the thoracic spine the Sorensen criteria are met when three or more consecutive vertebrae are wedged by 5 degrees or more 1.
Article

Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation grading system

The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system allocates points for various features of intracranial arteriovenous malformations to give a grade between 1 and 5. Grade 6 is used to describe inoperable lesions. The score correlates with operative outcome. Grading size of ni...
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Spinal AVM classification

Spinal arteriovenous malformations can be classified in a number of ways: intramedullary extramedullary: 80% 1 Or into four types 2: type I: single coiled vessel (dural AV fistula) type II: intramedullary glomus AVM type III: juvenile  type IV: intradural perimedullary (AV fistula) sub t...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all aetiologies. Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as diffe...
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Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumour related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilisation or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement amon...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis denotes the slippage of one vertebra relative to the one below. Spondylolisthesis can occur anywhere but is most frequent, particularly when due to spondylolysis, at L5/S1 and to a lesser degree L4/L5.  Terminology Although etymologically it is directionless (see below) and c...
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Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading the severity of spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification. It divides the superior endplate of the vertebra below into 4 quarters. The grade depends on the location of the posteroinferior corner of the vertebra above. This classification was original...
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Spondylolisthesis Wiltse classification

Spondylolisthesis can be classified according to broad aetiologies as described by Wiltse in 1981 1. Typically when reporting studies with spondylolisthesis the Wiltse type is merely stated without referring to its number, whereas the grade of spondylolisthesis is explicitly stated: e.g. "Grade ...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma (head and neck)

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck are common, being the sixth most common cancer. They can have a cutaneous or mucosal origin. As such there is a wide array of clinical and radiographic manifestations, and are separated into: squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the head and...
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Stahl classification of Kienböck disease

The Stahl classification of Kienböck disease, modified by Lichtman, is the most commonly used staging system and is useful in the treatment of Kienböck disease (avascular necrosis of the lunate). This system divides the disease into four stages:  stage I: normal radiograph stage II: increased...
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Stanford classification of aortic dissection

Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement: type A: A aff...
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St. Anne-Mayo grading system of astrocytomas

The St. Anne-Mayo grading system, also known as the Daumas-Duport grading system, introduced in 1988 was for a time a popular system for grading diffuse astrocytomas but has now largely been replaced by the WHO grading system which is, however, derived from the St Anne-Mayo system and thus share...
Article

Steinberg staging of avascular necrosis

Steinberg staging of avascular necrosis of hip is a commonly used system (at the time of writing, mid-2016) similar to the Ficat and Arlet staging.  It is based on the radiographic appearance and location of lesion. It primarily differs from the other systems by quantifying the involvement of f...
Article

Stewart classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

The Stewart classification for proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based upon fracture location and morphology. It is divided into five types. Classification Type I extra-articular transverse or oblique fracture between base of 5th metatarsal and diaphysis (jones fracture) Type II avulsi...
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SUFE grading

Grading of SUFE (slipped upper femoral epiphysis) can be made on both AP and true lateral projections.  On an AP radiograph a line along the superior margin of the femoral neck (line of Klein) should intersect the lateral corner of the epiphysis. As the epiphysis slips, the metaphysis can be d...
Article

Superior vena cava obstruction (grading)

SVC obstruction can cause SVC syndrome which is the most common condition affecting this vessel. It can be secondary to an extrinsic compression or intraluminal thrombosis/stenosis. Collateral pathways, with the azygos vein being the most important collateral vessel, form in response to severe n...
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Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic paediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
Article

Suzuki staging system for Moyamoya

The staging system for moyamoya disease first described by Suzuki and Takaku in their seminal 1969 article1 is still in use today. Formally, the staging refers to findings on conventional angiography, although there are efforts to apply similar systems to MR angiography.2 Suzuki stage appears t...
Article

Syrinx terminology

There are specific terms used when describing a syrinx or other cystic lesions within the spinal cord 1: hydromyelia: fluid accumulation/dilatation within the central canal, therefore, lined by ependyma syringomyelia: cavitary lesion within cord parenchyma, of any cause (there are many); locat...
Article

Tabar 5-tier grading system

The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...
Article

Talar neck fracture

Talar neck fractures extend through the thinnest cross-sectional portion of the talus, just proximal to the talar head. They represent one of the most common types of talus fracture (~30-50%), along with chip and avulsion fractures of the talus (~40-49%). These fractures are commonly associated ...
Article

Temporal bone fracture

Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of te...
Article

Terms used in radiology

There are numerous terms used in radiology (and clinical medicine more generally) that are worth knowing and this is a list of some of them.  General artifact cyst pseudocyst dehiscence wound dehiscence endophytic exophytic forme fruste gamut iatrogenic idiopathic incidentaloma in ...
Article

Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), also sometimes known as the thoracolumbar injury severity score (TISS), was developed by the Spine Trauma Group in 2005 to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture clas...
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

The two most commonly currently used thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems are the AO classification and the TLICS although a number of other classification systems have been proposed over the years 1. Each has benefits and drawbacks and each incorporates various features in an at...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Article

Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale

The thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grading system was described in 2003 by Higashida et al. 1 as a tool for determining the response of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke. In neurointerventional radiology it is commonly used for patients post endovascular revascularisation. Li...
Article

Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score

The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorises the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / NSTEMI and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thought to have potential to improve...
Article

Thyroid image reporting and data system (TI-RADS)

TI-RADS is a risk stratification system for classifying thyroid lesions and was recently recognized in an American College of Radiology (ACR) white paper1. Its use is being advocated similar to BI-RADS category for breast lesions.  In 2017, a white paper2 was released by the ACR committee on th...
Article

Tillaux fracture

Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement. Epidemiology It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse. Path...
Article

Toast classification in acute ischemic stroke

The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischaemic stroke. large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)* cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)* small-vessel occlusion (lacune)* stroke of other determined aetiology * stroke o...
Article

Todani classification of bile duct cysts

The Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides choledochal cysts into five groups. Classification Type I See: type I choledochal cyst account for 80-90% of all bile duct cysts characterised by fusiform dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct a subclassification has been proposed Ia: ...
Article

Torg's classification for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures

Torg's classification of proximal fifth metatarsal fractures is based on the degree of sclerosis adjacent to the fracture on imaging at the time of presentation to determine the fracture age. Classification Type I narrow fracture line with sharp margins and no widening minimal cortical hyper...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma grading

Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows: transitional cell papilloma benign tumour, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems carcinoma in situ do not penetrate the basement membrane cells resemble those of grade II or III ...
Article

Traumatic abruptio placenta scale

The traumatic abruptio placenta scale (TAPS) was devised to stratify placental injury findings on CT. Since placental abruption is a concern in a pregnant patient who has undergone traumatic injury, CT is occasionally the first imaging modality used to evaluate the placenta. 0: normal homogeneo...

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