Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur.
Fractures in these regions can be classified as:
pertrochanteric: intertrochanteric, involving both trochanters
greater trochanteric avulsion ...
True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.
Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues.
There are three forms of true hermaphroditism:
unilateral true hermaphroditism
The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have most recently been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2018) 1.
The identification of...
There are a number of tumours of muscular origin, which overall are relatively uncommon, representing only 1.7% of benign soft tissue tumours, and 10.3% of malignant soft tissue tumours1.
The tumours can be divided according to the type of muscle fiber:
Skeletal muscle origin
Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorized both on the grounds of histology and location.
squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80%
urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra)
adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
Tumours of the meninges are a heterogeneous group of lesions which usually occur as extra-axial masses. Although a large number of lesions that can involve meninges are scattered throughout the WHO classification of CNS tumours, the main entities to be considered include:
meningioma and nume...
Ultrasound assessment of carotid arterial atherosclerotic disease has become the first choice for carotid artery stenosis screening, permitting the evaluation of both the macroscopic appearance of plaques as well as flow characteristics in the carotid artery.
This article focus on internal caro...
The ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules has been developed by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) as part of their 2014 guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer 1.
It allows for stratifying thyroid nodules as benign, suspicious or malignant based on ultrasound appearances t...
Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.
Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS)
The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle:
1. endometrial thickne...
The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock.
type A: fractures involve the t...
Varicocele grading on color Doppler can be done variably. The most elaborate and widely-accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, as below.
For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele.
baseline greyscale study in supine position and measure the diame...
The VASARI (Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images) MRI feature set is a system designed to enable consistent description of gliomas using a set of defined visual features and controlled vocabulary. It is the result of work by The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) who publish relevant guides to use, an...
Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters:
grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter
grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis
grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system
The Weber ankle fracture classification (or Danis-Weber classification) is a simple system for classification of lateral malleolar fractures, relating to the level of the fracture in relation to the ankle joint. It has a role in determining treatment.
below the level of...
The Weiss classification is one of the classification systems used for lateral humeral condyle fractures and is based on the degree of displacement measured on an internal oblique view of the elbow:
type 1: <2 mm displacement
type 2: 2-4 mm displacement
type 3: >4 mm displacement
The degree ...
The WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) grading system uses the Glasgow Coma Scale and presence of focal neurological deficits to grade the severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This grading system was proposed in 1988, and this is one of the accepted systems (although not consider...
The World Health Organization classifies anal canal neoplasms into intraepithelial neoplasms and invasive neoplasms which are further divided to epithelial and non-epithelial tumours and secondary lesions:
squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal
adenocarcinoma of anal canal
The WHO classification of anal margin tumours or perianal skin tumours is:
Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma)
Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma)
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
The WHO classification of CNS tumours is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumours and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumor. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which shou...
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumours is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumours, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich
WHO (World Health Organization) grading of CNS tumours is based on histological characteristics such as cellularity, mitotic activity, pleomorphism, necrosis, and endothelial proliferation (neoangiogenesis). It is used in the WHO classification of CNS tumours.
It should be noted that at the ti...
The WHO grading system is the most widely used system for grading diffuse astrocytomas (at the time of writing i.e. mid-2016) and is an adaptation of the now superseded St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Daumas-Duport grading system).
Grade I is reserved for localised astrocytomas...
Benign renal tumours were histologically classified according to the WHO in 2004 as follows 1:
Renal cell tumours
renal papillary adenoma - renal adenoma
metanephric adenoma of kidney
metanephric adenofibroma of kidney
metanephric stromal tumor of kidn...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumours of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumours and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 805...
Wiberg classification is a system used to describe the shape of the patella based mainly on the asymmetry between the patellar medial and lateral facets on axial views of the patella. Increasing number type indicates a larger degree of asymmetry.
Wiberg type 1 or a
The Winquist classification of femoral shaft fractures is based on fracture comminution and was proposed by Winquist in 1980. This classification is used with regards to management decision making, in determining whether a fracture requires an intramedullary nail or open reduction.
Type 0: no ...
The Yasargil classification is one of the two common systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations that is currently in use at the time of writing (mid 2016).
type I: small pure cisternal fistula between the vein of Galen (voG) and either the pericallosal arteries (anteri...
The Young and Burgess classification is a modification of the Tile classification 1. It is the recommended 5 and most widely used classification system for pelvic ring fractures.
It takes into account force type, severity, and direction, as well as injury instability.
The Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernomas has been proposed as a way of classifying cerebral cavernous malformations, and although not used in clinical practice it is useful in scientific publications that seek to study cavernous malformations.
The classification was proposed in 1994 ...