Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15 results found
Article

5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiologists (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the new 6-tier BIRADS classification system first published in 1992....
Article

BIRADS 0

BIRADS 0 category is one of six from the breast imaging reporting and data system and is used when imaging is incomplete such as: when further imaging or information is required, e.g. compression, magnification, special mammographic views, ultrasound when requesting previous images not availab...
Article

BI-RADS I

A BIRADS I category under the breast imaging reporting and data system is when no finding is present in an imaging modality (not even a benign finding).
Article

BI-RADS II

BI-RADS II is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have essentially a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat-containing lesions such a...
Article

BI-RADS III

BIRADS III is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. While it is usually classified as benign or probably benign, a finding placed in this category should have a very high probability of being benign. The risk of malignancy in a BIRADS III lesion is considered ...
Article

BI-RADS IV

A BIRADS IV lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BIRADS IV lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
Article

BIRADS V

A BIRADS V lesion under the BIRADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refers to a lesion that is highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BIRADS V lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer wi...
Article

BIRADS VI

BIRADS VI is a new addition to the ACR (American College of Radiology) BIRAD system. The prior classification system was a 5 tier system. The current system is a 6 tier system. According to the current BIRADS tier, patients with biopsy proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be category...
Article

Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BIRADS)

BIRADS classification is proposed by American College of Radiology, last updated in November 2015, and is widely used classification system at the time of writing this article (July 2016). The BIRADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely accepted risk ass...
Article

Breast MRI classification flowchart

The breast MRI classification flowchart (or Tree algorithm) is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five diagnostic criteria that are mainly consistent with BI-RADS though assigning diagnostic weights. Diagnostic cr...
Article

Classification of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

The new pathological classification of DCIS is based on cytonuclear atypia, degree of necrosis, size, and distance from margin/architecture. Low and intermediate grades DCIS require cytologic, architectural and size criteria to be met but high-grade DCIS requires only cytologic criteria; this is...
Article

Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...
Article

Parenchymal patterns in breast imaging

Mammographic density is considered a risk factor for breast cancer, and parenchymal patterns in breast imaging are important in the way in which the effects mammographic screening sensitivity. Women with high-risk density patterns should be screened more frequently and/or with additional views p...
Article

PGMI evaluation system

PGMI (Perfect, Good, Moderate, Inadequate) is a method of evaluation of clinical image quality in mammography developed by the United Kingdom Mammography Trainers Group with the support of the Royal College of Radiographers, aimed to ensure the maintenance of a high standard of mammography in Br...
Article

Tabar 5-tier grading system

The Tabar 5-tier grading system is used to classify mammographic lesions. This should not be confused with the Tabar classification of parenchymal patterns in breast imaging. It is a separate but translatable system to the BI-RADS classification system (please note that Tabar grade 3 ≠ BI-RADS 3...

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