ACC/AHA classification of coronary lesions is a system use to classify coronary arterial calcific plaque burden. It is classified as
discrete (<10 mm)
nonangulated segment <45º
little or no calcification
less than totally occlusive
not ostial in location...
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are:
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan, which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for early risk stratificat...
For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to be made, patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria.
global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations:
severe dilatation of the ri...
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a subtype of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is due to left ventricular dysfunction.
left heart failure
congestive cardiac failure
Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems:
1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system
Elliott et al. classification system: published by the European Society of Cardiology Workin...
Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction".
It was initially classified according to the 1995 World Health Organization / International Society and Fed...
The Carpentier classification divides mitral valve regurgitation into three types based on leaflet motion 1:
type I: normal leaflet motion
annular dilation, leaflet perforation
regurgitation jet directed centrally
type II: excessive leaflet motion
papillary muscle rupture, chordal rupture, ...
Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.
In a large study in the U...
Conotruncal heart defects are a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause of symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero.
They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2.
Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System (CAC-DRS) is a structured reporting scheme for all non-contrast CT scans in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, which can help in communication between clinicians and radiologists. These guidelines have been recommended by the Society of C...
The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) is a standardized findings communication method and clinical decision aid relevant to coronary CT angiography. The system was created by a collaboration of the Society for Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), American Colle...
A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased (pulmonary plethora) or decreased pulmonary vascularity :
increased pulmonary vascularity
total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II)
transposition of the...
The Elliott et al. classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers, and young adults.
Although hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can generally describe a hypertrophied and non-dilated left ventricle due ...
Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image' and refers to finding normally-asymmetric bilateral structures to be similar. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types:
Mirror image of the structures on the left side o...
The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
Overall visual assessment of coronary artery calcification is a simple scoring system for risk assessment of coronary heart disease mortality by an overall "gestalt" of none, mild, moderate or heavy coronary artery calcification. It is comparable to the Agatston score but has the advantage of be...
The Perugini grading scale is a semi-quantitative method of scoring cardiac uptake following injection of 99mTc-DPD, 99mTc-Pyrophosphate or 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy in the investigation of cardiac amyloidosis.
grade 0: no cardiac uptake and normal bone uptake
grade 1: cardiac up...
There are numerous causes of pulmonary hypertension, and thus not surprisingly there have been many classification systems.
In 2003, the 3rd World Symposium on PAH met in Venice and produced an updated classification system (this has been further revised in the Dana Point classification of pulm...
The classification system for pulmonary hypertension was revised at the 4th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension held in Dana Point, California, in 2008 1.
This system is as follows:
group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension
1.1: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension
1.2: heritable ...
In 2013, the 5th World Symposium on pulmonary hypertension took place in Nice, France and modified the classification system for pulmonary hypertension.
The modified system divides pulmonary hypertension into five groups:
group 1: pulmonary arterial hypertension (disorders of the pulmonary ar...
RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
The segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries has been originally developed and published by the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and the American Heart Association (AHA). It is widely used for the description of coronary findings in particular within the scope of coronary artery disease.
Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification 7 is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement:
type A: A a...
The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorizes the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thou...
The tuberous sclerosis diagnostic criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and have been updated in 2012 by the International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group (at time of writing - 2019) 1.
The identification of either a TSC1...