Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are:
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI)
Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for an early risk stratific...
For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy to be made patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria.
global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations:
severe dilatation of the right vent...
Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems:
1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system
Elliott et al classification system: published by the European Society of Cardiology Working...
Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. A cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction".
It was initially classified according to the 1995 WHO/ISFC system as follows:
Conotruncal heart defects are a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero.
They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2.
A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora):
increased pulmonary vascularity
total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II)
transposition of the ...
The Elliott et al classification system of cardiomyopathies is one of the cardiomyopathy classification systems. This was published by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. This places emphasis on phenotypic classification 1-2.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy and is the leading cause of sudden death (from arrhythmias) in infants, teenagers and young adults.
There is no gender predilection and has a prevalence of around 0.3-0.5% in the general population 4.
Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types:
Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorises the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / NSTEMI and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thought to have potential to improve...