Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

21 results found
Article

2001 WHO classification of hepatic hydatid cysts

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hepatic hydatid cysts is used to assess the stage of hepatic hydatid cyst on ultrasound and is useful for deciding on its appropriate management, depending on the stage of the cyst. This classification was proposed by the WHO in 2001 and...
Article

AAST injury scoring scales

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorising traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. At the time of writing (mid 2016), 32 differe...
Article

AAST liver injury scale

The 1994 revision of the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale is the most widely used liver injury grading system at the time of writing (late 2016).  Classification grade I haematoma: subcapsular, <10% surface area laceration: capsular tear, <1 cm  parenc...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis (diagnostic criteria)

There are several sets of diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), with some overlap and contradictions. At the time of writing (July 2016), these are the most widely used sets of diagnostic criteria. Asian 2008 AIP diagnostic criteria both criteria I to be fulfilled one criter...
Article

Balthazar score

The Balthazar score is a subscore within the CT severity index (CTSI) for grading of acute pancreatitis.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score: grading of pancreatitis (A-E) grading the extent of pancreatic necrosis The Balthazar score was originally used alone, but the addition of a sc...
Article

Bismuth-Corlette classification

The Bismuth-Corlette classification is a classification system for perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, which is based on the extent of ductal infiltration.   Classification type I limited to the common hepatic duct, below the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts type II in...
Article

Child-Pugh score

The Child-Pugh score is a scoring system to measure the severity of chronic liver disease inclusive of cirrhosis. The intention is to provide a system with which clinicians can objectively communicate about liver function. The score is composed from several categories: total bilirubin, μmol/l ...
Article

CT severity index in acute pancreatitis

The CT severity index (CTSI) is based on findings from a CT scan with intravenous contrast to assess the severity of acute pancreatitis. The severity of computed tomography findings have been found to correlate well with clinical indices of severity.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score:...
Article

Diffuse hepatic steatosis (grading)

Grading of diffuse hepatic steatosis on ultrasound has been used to communicate to the clinician about the extent of fatty changes in the liver.  Grading grade I: increased hepatic echogenicity with visible periportal and diaphragmatic echogenicity grade II: increased hepatic echogenicity wit...
Article

Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of sub types, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated sub type, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epitheli...
Article

Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
Article

Komi classification of bile duct cysts

Komi classification of bile duct cysts, as stated by Komi et al, divides anomalous union of the pancreatico-bile ducts (AUPBD) into 3 types based on the angle of union of the ducts 1. Classification type I: union of the ducts at a right angle to each other type Ia: without dilatation or  typ...
Article

LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

LR2 cirrhosis-associated nodule

LR2 cirrhosis-associated nodules are defined as "probably benign" according to the LI-RADS classification system. They are a common finding in a cirrhotic liver and do not need to be mentioned in the report.  Radiographic features The nodule must demonstrate all of the following: diameter <20...
Article

Meandering main pancreatic duct

Meandering main pancreatic duct (MMPD) comprises of a reverse Z-type and loop-type of pancreatic ducts. These ductal variants are found in ERCP and MRCP studies. The exact incidence is not known. Increased incidence of meandering pancreatic duct has been reported in patients with idiopathic re...
Article

MELD score

The MELD score (Model for End-stage Liver Disease) is a classification used to grade liver dysfunction in preparation for liver transplantation. It is an estimate of 3 month mortality. The components of the score are: serum creatinine (mg/dl) if dialysis twice in last week, then bilirubin is ...
Article

Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) classification

Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) is the unified transplantation network in the United States and runs under the administration of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). OPTN classification is the part of the imaging policy of UNOS that consists of in order to determine the ...
Article

Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lace...
Article

Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis (2012) is an international multidisciplinary classification of acute pancreatitis severity. It is an update of the 1991 Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis. The worldwide consensus aims for an internationally agreed-upon classifi...
Article

Todani classification of bile duct cysts

The Todani classification of bile duct cysts divides choledochal cysts into five groups. Classification Type I See: type I choledochal cyst account for 80-90% of all bile duct cysts characterised by fusiform dilation of the extrahepatic bile duct a subclassification has been proposed Ia: ...

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