The 2005 WHO histological classification of odontogenic tumours lays out a classification system for neoplasms and other tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus. At the time of writing (2016), it is still the most widely used classification system although a new revision is due to come up i...
The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.
nodular lymphocyte predominance
classical Hodgkin lymphoma
Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumours and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.
Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications, starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor 2. This was primarily due to the rar...
The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).
Diagnosis of HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled:
Amsterdam criteria are met
2 or more HNPCC related malignancies
A BIRADS IV lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BIRADS IV lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
BI-RADS classification is proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR), last updated in November 2015, and is a widely used classification system at the time of writing this article (July 2016).
The BI-RADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely acc...
Use only the size of the tumor during evaluation of response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially when the estimated response for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).
The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumour attenuation could p...
The Tanaka criteria, also referred to as the Fukuoka consensus guidelines, is a classification system for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs).
The prior international consensus guidelines (2006) were referred to as the Sendai criteria, which la...
The Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography.
Findings are classified into five categories 1:
normal ovaries identified and no adn...
Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein:
type I: normal
type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre
type III: unilateral narrowing
type IV: bilateral nar...
The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy.
Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals....
LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardised terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
The Lugano classification recommends two methods of visualization for standing lymphoma:
Computer tomography (CT)
Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT)
Response Assessment on CT
CT uses for the standing of all types of lymphoma (if CT is performed for tumor size measure...
Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterised by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) represent a wide spectrum of disease. They consist of a large heterogeneous group of malignancies that are derived from embryonic neural crest tissue found in various organ such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, and gastrointestin...
Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small noninvasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions.
The category includes two types of lesions:
atypical adenomatous h...
PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient.
The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADS v2 6, ...
RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) was updated to version 1.1 in 2009.
For both RECIST 1.0 and 1.1, the requirement for measurable disease at baseline depends on the endpoints of the clinical trial.
The fundamental concept common to both versions of RECIST is that measurabl...
The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumour related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilisation or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease.
Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement amon...
Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following:
vertebral metastases (94%)
may have epidural extension
intradural extramedullary metastases (5%)
intramedually metastases (1%)
Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck are common, being the sixth most common cancer. They can have a cutaneous or mucosal origin. As such there is a wide array of clinical and radiographic manifestations, and are separated into:
squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the head and...
Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorised both on the grounds of histology and location.
squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80%
urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra)
adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
The ultrasound "U" classification of thyroid nodules has been developed by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) as part of their 2014 guidelines on the management of thyroid cancer 1.
It allows for stratifying thyroid nodules as benign, suspicious or malignant based on ultrasound appearances t...
The WHO classification of anal margin tumours or perianal skin tumours is:
Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma)
Paget's disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma)
squamous cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma
The WHO classification scheme for thymic epithelial tumours is one of many classifications systems for thymoma and related tumours, and classifies them according to histology:
spindle cell thymoma
type ab: mixed thymoma
type b1: lymphocyte rich
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumours of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumours and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 805...