Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

37 results found
Article

Apgar score

Apgar score was originally described by Virginia Apgar (American anaesthesiologist, 1909-1974) in 1952. Helpfully, her surname is also a useful mnemonic for remembering the 5 factors: each is graded as 0, 1 or 2 with a total possible score of 10. The lower the score the worse the prognosis. Th...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
Article

Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
Article

Classification of proximal focal femoral deficiency

Classification of proximal femoral deficiency (PFFD) can be complicated and numerous such classifications have been proposed. For a discussion of the condition refer to the article proximal focal femoral deficiency. One of the simplest and most widely used is that proposed by Aitken 1 which is ...
Article

Classification system for malformations of cortical development

Classification system for malformations of cortical development organises a myriad of conditions according to one of three major underlying  mechanisms: abnormal cell proliferation abnormal neuronal migration abnormal cortical organisation As is to be expected a number of conditions fall out...
Article

Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two ...
Article

Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, always remembering that midline abno...
Article

Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora): increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
Article

Frykman classification of distal radial fractures

The Frykman classification of distal radial fractures is based on the AP appearance and encompasses the eponymous entities of Colles fracture, Smith fracture, Barton fracture, chauffeur fracture. It assesses the pattern of fractures, involvement of the radioulnar joint and presence of a distal u...
Article

Germinal matrix haemorrhage (grading)

Grading of germinal matrix haemorrhage has taken several forms over the years. The most commonly used system is the sonographic grading system proposed by Burstein, Papile et al.  Classification grade I restricted to subependymal region/germinal matrix which is seen in the caudothalamic groov...
Article

Graf method for ultrasound classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

The Graf method for ultrasound classification system for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants, combines both alpha and beta angles. There are a number of additional subdivisions, which are often not used clinically.  As a general rule, the alpha angle determines the type and in s...
Article

Hepatoblastoma histological classification

Although hepatoblastomas can be histologically classified into a variety of sub types, it is important to remember that with the possible exception of small cell undifferentiated sub type, prognosis is independent of histology when adjusted for stage gender and age 1. major categories epitheli...
Article

Hunka classification of neonatal septic arthritis of the hip

Type I: Absent or minimal femoral head changes. Type II: A: deformity of the femoral head with intact physis. B: deformity of the femoral head with premature physeal closure. Type III: Pseudarthrosis of the femoral neck. Type IV: A:Complete destruction of the capital femoral epiphysis wit...
Article

Hydronephrosis (grading)

Grading systems of hydronephrosis have been devised to communicate the degree of upper collecting system dilatation. The most common system used (Society of Fetal Ultrasound, SFU) was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant hydronephrosis: grade 0 no dilatation, calyceal walls are ...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
Article

Kasai classification

Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (patent cystic and common bile duct), sometimes with a...
Article

Lasajunias classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Lasjaunias classification, at the time of writing (mid 2016), is one of the two commonly used systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations. It relies on dividing the entity into choroidal or mural types, depending on the number and origin of feeding arteries.  Classification choroid...
Article

Lateral humeral condylar fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children.  Epidemiology They represent ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of elbow fractures in children and are the second most common paediatric elbow fracture after supracondylar fractures. They occur in ...
Article

Necrotising enterocolitis (staging)

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, helping to guide appropriate treatment. In general, stage I and II are managed medically whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnoea, bradycardia emesis, abdominal d...
Article

Oesophageal atresia (classification)

Oesophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-oesophageal fistula and can be divided into1: type A: isolated oesophageal atresia (8%) type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%) type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%) type D: double fistula with intervening atresia (1%) ...
Article

Orthoroentgenogram

Orthoroentgenogram is a radiographic study used to evaluate anatomic leg length and calculate leg-length discrepancies. This study utilises a long ruler placed on the film, and three radiographs including bilateral hips, knees and ankles. Similar studies used to evaluate true leg length include...
Article

Osteogenesis imperfecta classification

The several forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been classified, representing wide variation in appearance and severity, and clinical features vary widely not only between types but within types. Classification OI was initially classified by type according to a scheme developed by Dr Da...
Article

Paediatric mediastinal masses

Paediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses middle mediastinal masses posterior mediastinal m...
Article

Paediatric midface anomalies (classification)

This classification system based on the embryology and anatomy of the nasal cavity, nasofrontal region, and nasolacrimal apparatus as well as anomalies associated with craniofacial syndromes.2 Nasal cavity choanal atresia and stenosis pyriform aperture stenosis Nasofrontal region  conge...
Article

Periventricular leukomalacia classification

One of the methods used for grading of periventricular leukomalacia based on sonographic appearances is as: grade 1: areas of increased periventricular echogenicity without any cyst formation persisting for more than 7 days grade 2: the echogenicity has resolved into small periventricular cyst...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Salter-Harris type II fracture

Salter-Harris type II fractures are the most common physeal fractures that occur in children. The fracture line will include the physis and a portion of the metaphysis, leaving a triangular metaphyseal fragment intact, otherwise known as the Thurston Holland fragment. Salter-Harris fractures ar...
Article

Salter-Harris type III fracture

Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.  The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.  The prognos...
Article

Salter-Thompson classification

  Salter-Thompson classification for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease simplifies the Catterall classification into 2 groups. Based on the radiographic crescent sign, we can distinguish: group a: including Catteral groups I and II, where the crescent sign involves less than 50% of the femoral head. ...
Article

Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are charcaterised by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia  thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
Article

Situs classification

Situs classification can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups : situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs situs inversus: mirror image of normal situs ambiguus: an intermediate configuration with duplication (isomerism) Situs is best thought...
Article

Situs solitus

Situs solitus refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the aortic arch, gastric fundus, cardiac apex, pulmonary fissures and the branching pattern of ...
Article

SUFE grading

Grading of SUFE (slipped upper femoral epiphysis) can be made on both AP and true lateral projections.  On a AP radiograph a line along the superior margin of the femoral neck (line of Klein) should intersect the lateral corner of the epiphysis. As the epiphysis slips, the metaphysis can be di...
Article

Supracondylar fracture

Supracondylar fractures are a classic paediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% are seen in children younger than 10 years of age, with a peak ...
Article

Triplane fracture

Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Yasargil classification of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

The Yasargil classification is one of the two common systems for classifying vein of Galen malformations that is currently in use at the time of writing (mid 2016).  Classification type I: small pure cisternal fistula between the vein of Galen (voG) and either the pericallosal arteries (anteri...

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