Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

27 results found
Article

Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based of the mechanism of injury and position of neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most ...
Article

Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
Article

Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1. At the time of writing (July 2016), it is probably less popular ...
Article

Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarisation/sacralisation; enlargemen...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: ​Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine inju...
Article

Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et. al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov c...
Article

Genant classification of vertebral fractures

The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body. grade 0: normal grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% los...
Article

Levine and Edwards classification

Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolithesis of axis). Classification type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation no angular deviation type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation significant an...
Article

Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures

The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings. Classification A: compression injuries A1: impaction fractures A1.1: endplate impaction A1.2: wedge impaction A1.3...
Article

Modified Memphis criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI. The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are: base of skull fractur...
Article

MRI classification system for lumbar disc degeneration

Disc degeneration can be graded on MRI T2 spin-echo weighted images using a grading system proposed by Pfirrmann 1. This classification is not used on routine spine reports, being more important for research purposes. grade I: disc is homogeneous with bright hyperintense white signal intensity ...
Article

Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures result from high-energy blunt trauma. Epidemiology The exact incidence of these fractures is unknown but are reported to occur in 3-4% patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injuries 3. Clinical presentation History and examination are unreliable, and high...
Article

Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis refers to posterior displacement (backward slip) of a vertebral body relative to one below. Causes include trauma, facet joint osteoarthritis or congenital anomalies (e.g. underdevelopment of the pedicles). 
Article

Retropulsed fragment

A retropulsed fragment is any vertebral fracture fragment that is displaced into the spinal canal, thereby potentially causing spinal cord injury. They usually arise from the vertebral body with or without a portion of the pedicle, and are displaced posteriorly, hence the prefix 'retro'.
Article

Roy-Camille classification of odontoid process fracture

The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1. The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11 or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the g...
Article

Spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS)

The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) helps to assess tumour related instability of the vertebral column. It has been shown to useful in guiding the mobilisation or operative management of patients with neoplastic spinal disease. Studies have reported good inter-observer agreement amon...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following:  vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Article

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a term denoting anterolisthesis of a vertebra relative to the segment below, typically due to spondylolysis (pars interarticularis defects). This term is often used to denote anterolisthesis from any cause (e.g. degenerative spondylosis).  Pathology Location Spondylolisth...
Article

Spondylolisthesis grading system

A commonly adopted method of grading spondylolisthesis is the Meyerding classification, based on the ratio of [overhanging part of the superior vertebral body] to [anteroposterior length of the adjacent inferior vertebral body]:  grade I: 0-25% grade II: 26-50%  grade III: 51-75%  grade IV: ...
Article

Syrinx terminology

There are specific terms used when describing a syrinx or other cystic lesions within the spinal cord: hydromyelia: fluid accumulation/dilatation within the central canal, therefore, lined by ependyma syringomyelia: cavitary lesion within cord parenchyma, of any cause (there are many); located...
Article

Thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)

The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) has been developed by the Spine Trauma Group to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems for determining treatment 1. Classification Classificat...
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems

There are several thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems: three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures (Denis classification) Magerl classification McAfee classification thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS)
Article

Thoracolumbar spinal fractures: McAfee classification

McAfee classification of acute traumatic spinal injuries is based on the three column concept of the spine. CT is needed for accurate assessment. Classification wedge compression: isolated anterior column compression  stable burst: anterior and middle column compression but posterior column i...
Article

Three column concept of spinal fractures

The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification. While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Article

WHO classification of CNS tumours

The WHO classification of CNS tumours is the most widely accepted system for classifying CNS tumours and was based on the histological characteristics of the tumour. Although the most recent version of the 'blue book' is the 4th edition from 2007, an update has been released in 2016 3, which sho...

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