The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorising traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. At the time of writing (mid 2016), 32 differe...
The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 1,6 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
The 1994 revision of the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale is the most widely used liver injury grading system at the time of writing (late 2016).
haematoma: subcapsular, <10% surface area
laceration: capsular tear, <1 cm parenc...
The 1994 revision of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale is the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma at the time of writing (late 2016).
subcapsular haematoma <10% of surface area
capsular laceration <1 cm depth...
Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the ...
The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions:
level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter
level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I
level III: femur distal to level...
The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2.
fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg
above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament
usually considered stable...
Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture or tibial eminence avulsion fracture is a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5.
It is mor...
The Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification of thoracolumbar injuries aims to simplify and universalise the process of classifying spinal injuries and improve interobserver and intraobserver reliability 3.
The AOSpine thoracolumbar classification system consists of only ...
The Bado classification is one of the more widely used classifications for Monteggia fracture-dislocations and mainly focuses on the radial component. Four types are recognised and are generally based on the principle that the direction in which the apex of the ulnar fracture points is the same ...
The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a series of clinical indications and risk factors fo...
There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems:
Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture)
Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture)
Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis)
Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine injur...
This classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) was proposed by Hintermann et al. 1 in 1993 and is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable:
fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion
typically treated with a sp...
There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management.
Complex midfacial fractures consist of multiple facial fractures that cannot be classified as any of the defined complex facial fracture (e.g. Le Fort fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, naso-orbital-ethmoid fracture).
The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier.
explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant
the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable
Degloving injuries can refer to a number of conditions:
degloving soft tissue injury
Morel-Lavallee lesion (closed degloving soft tissue injury)
intramuscular degloving injury
degloving bowel injury
Deltoid ligament injuries involve the deltoid ligament that forms the medial part of the ankle joint. It attaches the medial malleolus to multiple tarsal bones.
Mechanism of injury
It occurs due to eversion and/or pronation injury, or can be associated with lateral ankle fractures.
This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists
Distal fibula fractures are the most common type at the ankle and are usually the result of an inversion injury with or without rotation. They are the extension of a lateral collateral ligament injury.
This classification was proposed by Eaton and Malerich in 1980, and presently (time of writing, August 2016) along with Keifhaber-Stern classification, is the most widely accepted classification of volar plate avulsion injuries 1.
Knowledge of the orthopaedic Eaton classification is practical ...
Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury.
Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures...
The Genant classification of vertebral fractures is based on the vertebral shape, with respect to vertebral height loss involving the anterior, posterior, and/or middle vertebral body.
grade 0: normal
grade 1: mild fracture, 20% to 25% loss of height
grade 2: moderate fracture, 25% to 40% los...
The Gustilo Anderson classification, sometimes referred to as the Gustilo classification is the most widely accepted classification system of open (or compound) fractures.
The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher ris...
The Johansson classification of periprosthetic hip fractures was the first classification system proposed and is the simplest. It is based on the level of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis.
type I: fracture proximal to the tip of the prosthesis with the stem still in contact with the m...
The Judet and Letournel classification is the most widely used classification of acetabular fractures.
It is based on three radiographic views (anteroposterior view, obturator oblique view and Iliac oblique view) and classifies acetabular fractures into ten major fracture patterns, which cons...
This classification was proposed originally by Hastings and later modified by Keifhaber and Stern in 1998. This classification, along with the Eaton classification, is the most widely accepted classification at the time of writing (August 2016) for the management of volar plate avulsion injuries...
Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose in a timely manner because if they are missed, ...
The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used for the classification of the ankle injuries based on injury mechanisms which have predictable patterns and imaging findings. Along with the Weber classification, these systems are useful tools for describing and classifying ankle injuries.
Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
Levine and Edwards classification is used to classify hangman fractures of C2 (also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis).
type I: fracture with <3 mm antero-posterior deviation
no angular deviation
type II: fracture with >3 mm antero-posterior deviation
The Magerl classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures is based on the three column concept by Denis, and the McAfee classification. It relies exclusively on CT findings.
A: compression injuries
A1: impaction fractures
A1.1: endplate impaction
A1.2: wedge impaction
The Marshall classification of traumatic brain injury is a CT scan derived metric using only a few features and has been shown to predict outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury.
This system was first published in 1992 1 building on findings from a large cohort of head injury cases des...
Mayfield classification of carpal instability, also known as perilunate instability classification (carpal dislocations), describes carpal ligament injuries.
Instability has been divided into four stages 1-2:
stage I: scapholunate dissociation (rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid)
Mayo classification of scaphoid fractures divides them into three types according to the anatomic location of the fracture line:
Fractures of the distal third are further divided into distal articular surface and distal tubercle fractures:
McAfee classification of acute traumatic spinal injuries is based on the three column concept of the spine. CT is needed for accurate assessment.
wedge compression: isolated anterior column compression
stable burst: anterior and middle column compression but posterior column i...
The modified Memphis criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma. The presence of one or more of these criteria makes necessary a complementary CTA or DSA study to exclude a BCVI.
The screening protocol criteria for BCVI are:
base of skull fractur...
The Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures is probably the most frequently used along with the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures. Even if an exact knowledge of this classification system is beyond the everyday use of many radiologists, the terminology and factors which i...
Nerve injury classification describes the various features of nerve injury on MRI with respect to pathological events.
grade I: there is increased T2/STIR signal in the nerve, however the muscle appears normal
grade II: increased T2/STIR signal in ne...
Occipital condylar fractures result from high-energy blunt trauma and is a specific and localized type of basilar skull fracture.
The exact incidence of these fractures is unknown but are reported to occur in 3-4% patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injuries 3.
Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2.
The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5.
There are two cl...
Open book pelvic injuries are most often the result of high-energy trauma and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular injuries.
Open book pelvic injuries result from an anteroposterior compression injury to the pelvis and result in a combin...
A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed.
American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST)
grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury
grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury
grade 3: distal lace...
Harrington criteria can be used to predict which skeletal metastases are at high risk of pathological fracture and should undergo prophylactic internal fixation. It preceded the Mirel classification for impending pathological fracture but has not been validated and its use is debated.
Mirel classification is a system used to predict the highest risk of pathological fracture among bones affected by metastases.
involving <1/3 of bone diameter
involving 1/3-2/3 of bone diameter
Several classification systems have been proposed for periprosthetic fractures of the hip:
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) classification
Cooke and Newman (modified Bethea) classification
Vancouver classification: most widely used
Piedmont fractures have been variably defined in the literature. Many suggest that Piedmont fractures are synonymous with Galeazzi fractures. That is a fracture of the radius at the middle and distal third with associated disruption of the distal radioulnar joint.
The initial report about the s...
Pipkin classification is the most commonly used classification for femoral head fractures, which are uncommon but are associated with hip dislocations.
type I: fracture distal to the fovea capitis, a small fracture not involving the weightbearing surface
type II: fracture proxi...
Riseborough and Radin classification of intercondylar fractures of the humerus can be used to classify this injury, which is the result of direct trauma to the olecranon as it is driven as a wedge between the humeral condyles. Four types of fractures can be identified:
type I: no displacement ...
The Rotterdam CT score of traumatic brain injury is a relatively recently described classification aimed at improving prognostic evaluation of patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injuries.
It was published in 2006 1 and is gaining in popularity. Along with the Marshall classification ...
The Roy-Camille classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2 depends on the direction of the fracture line 1.
The level of fracture line as described by the Anderson and D’Alonzo classification, is not predictive of the degree of instability or the risk of non-union. This classific...
The Salter-Harris classification was proposed by Salter and Harris in 1963 1 and at the time of writing (June 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing physeal fractures.
Conveniently the Salter-Harris types can be remembered by the mnemonic SALTR.
Salter-Harris type III fractures are an uncommon, intraarticular fracture physeal fractures that occur in children.
The fracture line is often obliquely orientated through the epiphysis to the physis where it will take a horizontal orientation extending to the edge of the physis.
The Sanders classification system is used to assess intraarticular calcaneal fractures, which are those involving the posterior facet of the calcaneus. This classification is based on the number of intraarticular fracture lines and their location on semicoronal CT images. This classification is ...
Schatzker classification system is one method of classifying tibial plateau fractures.
Increase in type number denotes increasing severity, reflecting an increase in energy imparted to the bone at the time of injury and also an increasingly worse prognosis 1. The most common fracture of the tib...
Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic paediatric injury which require vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle.
Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of te...
The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS) has been developed by the Spine Trauma Group to overcome some of the perceived difficulties regarding the use of other thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems for determining treatment 1.
There are several thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems:
AO classification of thoracolumbar injuries
three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures (Denis classification)
thoracolumbar injury classification and severity scor...
The three column concept of thoracolumbar spinal fractures was initially devised by Francis Denis and presently CT is mandatory for an accurate classification.
While initially developed for classification of thoracolumbar spinal fractures, it can also be applied to the lower cervical spine 3 as...
Tillaux fractures are Salter-Harris III fractures through the anterolateral aspect of the distal tibial epiphysis, with variable amounts of displacement.
It occurs in older children and adolescents when the medial aspect of the distal tibial growth plate has started to fuse.
Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
Trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur.
Fractures in these regions can be classified as:
pertrochanteric: intertrochanteric, involving both trochanters
greater trochanteric avulsion f...
The Vancouver classification of periprosthetic hip fractures proposed by Duncan and Masri is the most widely used classification system. It takes into account the fracture site, the status of the femoral implant, and the quality of surrounding femoral bone stock.
type A: fractures involve the t...
The Weber ankle fracture classification (or Danis-Weber classification) is a simple system for classification of lateral malleolar fractures, relating to the level of the fracture in relation to the ankle joint. It has a role in determining treatment.
below the level of...
The Winquist classification of femoral shaft fractures is based on fracture comminution and was proposed by Winquist in 1980. This classification is used with regards to management decision making, in determining whether a fracture requires an intramedullary nail or open reduction.
Type 0: no ...
The Young and Burgess classification is a modification of the Tile classification 1. It is the recommended 5 and most widely used classification system for pelvic ring fractures.
It takes into account force type, severity, and direction, as well as injury instability.