The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 3-4 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
Bähren classification of left varicoceles:
type 0: no evidence of venous reflux in internal spermatic vein (ISV)
type I: single ISV with insufficient or absent valve
type II: single ISV with ≥ 2 ostia to renal vein; may be branches to ascending lumbar/retroperitoneal veins
IIa: insufficient ...
The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment.
Germ cell tumours are classified into two broad groups: seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). The later is then divided further according to histology.
non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT)
yolk sac tu...
The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature.
1: least aggressive
5: most aggressive
These two scores are then added together t...
The Goldman classification of urethral injuries is a more widely accepted classification than one proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Goldman classification is based on the anatomical location of the urethral injury and was initially proposed by Colapinto a...
Grading systems of hydronephrosis have been devised to communicate the degree of upper collecting system dilatation. The most common system used (Society of Fetal Ultrasound, SFU) was originally designed for grading neonatal and infant hydronephrosis:
no dilatation, calyceal walls are ...
PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) refers to a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer. It is designed to be used in a pre-therapy patient.
The original PI-RADS score was annotated, revised and published as the second version, PI-RADSv2 6 by...
RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelium are graded histologically as follows:
transitional cell papilloma
benign tumour, not a carcinoma but sometimes included in classification systems
carcinoma in situ
do not penetrate the basement membrane
cells resemble those of grade II or III ...
Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorised both on the grounds of histology and location.
squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80%
urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra)
adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters:
grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter
grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis
grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system