Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

908 results found
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≤11 ribs (differential)

≤11 ribs is associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and skeletal dysplasias, including: Down syndrome (trisomy 21) campomelic dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome) short rib polydactyly syndromes trisomy 18 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion...
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Abnormally thickened endometrium (differential)

Abnormally thickened endometrium on imaging may occur for a number of reasons which may be categorized based on whether or not they are related to pregnancy. Etiologies may also be classified based on whether the patient is premenopausal or postmenopausal. Differential diagnosis Pregnancy-rela...
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Abnormal testicular Doppler flow (differential)

Abnormal testicular Doppler flow (arterial, venous, or both) can be a differential challenge. Always remember than the patient's presenting history helps quite a bit in narrowing the differential. Reduced flow partial testicular torsion (<360 degrees) venous outflow is obstructed first, resul...
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Absent fetal stomach on ultrasound (differential)

Non-visualization of the fetal stomach on ultrasound can occur with various physiological as well as pathological processes. It becomes a significant sonographic observation >14 weeks of gestation (about the time the fetus begins to swallow). Causes include: physiological emptying: transient ...
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Achilles tendon thickening

Achilles tendon thickening can occur for a number of reasons. The Achilles tendon has an average AP diameter of 6 mm 1. Thickening of the tendon is when it exceeds 8 mm in AP diameter and can result from: Achilles tendinosis/tear post-surgical thickening retrocalcaneal bursitis degeneration...
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Acro-osteolysis

Acro-osteolysis (plural: acro-osteolyses) refers to resorption of the distal phalanx. The terminal tuft is most commonly affected. It is associated with a heterogeneous group of pathological entities and, some of which can be remembered by using the mnemonic PINCH FO. When there is linear bone ...
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Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy (differential)

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy is a subset of the differential diagnosis for generalized airspace opacification and includes: post-obstructive causes (usually chronic, but 'new' changes can occur) primary lung cancer pulmonary metastases lymphoma/leukemia infection prim...
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Acute bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the larger differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of acute bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful way to consider the huge list is via the material within the airways: infecti...
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Acute unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification.   Differential diagnosis The exhaustive list of all possible causes would be huge, but a useful framework includes: pus, i.e. infection bacterial pneumonia fungal pneumonia viral p...
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Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous hemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison disease patients only occasionally develop calcification.  Pathology Etiology Hemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abdomi...
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Adult cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)

Cervical lymphadenopathy in an adult can result from a vast number of conditions. They include: malignancy metastases  from head and neck tumors lymphoma other neoplastic lesions Castleman disease Kaposi sarcoma infection bacterial infection viral infection Epstein-Barr virus herpes ...
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Air space opacification

Air space opacification is a descriptive term that refers to filling of the pulmonary tree with material that attenuates x-rays more than the surrounding lung parenchyma. It is one of the many patterns of lung opacification and is equivalent to the pathological diagnosis of pulmonary consolidati...
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Air space opacities

The differential for air space opacities is extensive, and needs to be interpreted in context of chronicity (previous imaging) and clinical context. It is therefore useful to divide airspace opacities as follows: acute airspace opacities with lymph node enlargement acute airspace opacities: un...
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Altered breast density between two mammograms

Mammographic screening detects early breast cancers and thereby reduces potential mortality. However, its sensitivity is inversely related to breast density 1.  Altered density between two mammograms can arise in a number of situations: Affecting both breasts: interval commencement/cessation ...
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Alternating radiolucent and radiodense metaphyseal lines

Alternating radiolucent and radiodense metaphyseal lines can be seen with a number of conditions and the differential diagnosis is wide: growth arrest lines bisphosphonate therapy rickets: especially those on prolonged treatment, e.g. vitamin D dependent rickets osteopetrosis chemotherapy ...
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Amorphous calcifications (breast)

Amorphous calcifications, previously known as indistinct calcifications, are a morphological descriptor for breast calcifications that are small and/or hazy such that no clearly defined shape/form can be ascribed.  Pathology Many benign and malignant conditions may be seen in association with ...
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Anterior knee pain

Anterior knee pain is common with a variety of causes which can be divided anatomically using a layered approach1 from superficial to deep: Superficial soft tissues prepatellar bursitis Morel-Lavallée lesion infrapatellar bursitis  Extensor mechanism quadriceps tendinosis / partial tear q...
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Anterior vertebral body beaking

Anterior vertebral body beaking occurs in a number of conditions and may emanate from the central portion or the lower third of the vertebral body. Middle third Morquio syndrome 1 (middle for Morquio) Lower third Hurler syndrome 2 achondroplasia 3 pseudoachondroplasia 4 cretinism 5 Down ...
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Apical pleural cap

Apical pleural cap refers to a curved density at the lung apex seen on chest radiograph. Epidemiology The frequency of apical pleural thickening increases with age 3. Pathology It arises from a number of causes: pleural thickening/scarring idiopathic: chronic ischemic etiology is favored f...
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Apple core sign (colon)

The apple core sign, also known as the napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. Differential diagnosis The appearance of the apple-core lesion of the colon also can be caused by other diseas...
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Ascending aorta dilatation

Dilatation of the ascending aorta is a common finding in the elderly but unusual in younger patients. Pathology In adults, an ascending aortic diameter greater than 4 cm is considered to indicate dilatation 4. Aneurysmal dilatation is considered when the ascending aortic diameter reaches or ex...
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Asymmetry in breast size

Asymmetry in breast size can arise from a number of factors. Pathology Breasts are rarely absolutely the same size or volume. Normal variation is common. Most females have slight discrepancies in breast size. Asymmetric progressive breast enlargement is unusual but known. The role of the breas...
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Asymmetry (mammography)

Asymmetries in mammography represents a spectrum of morphological descriptors for a unilateral fibroglandular-density finding seen on one or more mammographic projections that does not meet criteria for a mass. The term refers to a density finding and should not be confused with asymmetry in bre...
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Bands in gestational sacs

Band like structures in the gestational sac is not an uncommon finding in the first trimester or second ultrasounds and can represent a number of varying conditions These include uterine synechiae amniotic bands amniotic shelf circumvallate placenta chorio-amniotic separation velamentous ...
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Basal ganglia and thalamus signal abnormalities

Basal ganglia and thalamus signal abnormalities occur in a wide variety of conditions. Ischemia/hypoxia, metabolic disorders and toxins, particularly those that affect the respiratory chain, have a predilection for affecting the basal ganglia as they are highly metabolically active.  They can b...
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Basal ganglia calcification

Basal ganglia calcification is common and is seen in approximately 1% of all CT scans of the brain, depending on the demographics of the scanned population. It is seen more frequently in older patients and is considered a normal incidental and idiopathic finding in an elderly patient but should ...
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Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity

There are many causes of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity, but the majority relate to deposition of T1-intense elements within the basal ganglia such as: calcium idiopathic calcification calcium and phosphate abnormalities hepatic failure acquired non-wilsonian hepatocerebral degeneration W...
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Basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity

The causes of basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity can be remembered using the mnemonic LINT: lymphoma ischemia hypoxia venous infarction (internal cerebral vein thrombosis) neurodegenerative / metabolic autoimmune encephalitis (e.g. anti-D2 dopamine antibody encephalitis) Creutzfeldt-Jakob di...
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Basal ganglia T2 hypointensity

Basal ganglia T2 hypointensities can be caused by any of the following and is commonly remembered using the mnemonic ChOMP. childhood hypoxia old age multiple sclerosis Parkinson disease: more in globus pallidus Parkinson-plus syndrome: more in putamen deoxyhemoglobin of hemorrhage hemosi...
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Basilar invagination

Basilar invagination, also called basilar impression, is a congenital or acquired craniocervical junction abnormality where the tip of the odontoid process projects above the foramen magnum.  Terminology The terms basilar invagination and basilar impression are often used interchangeably becau...
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Bat wing opacities (lungs)

Bat wing or butterfly pulmonary opacities refer to a pattern of bilateral perihilar shadowing. It is classically described on a frontal chest radiograph but can also refer to appearances on chest CT 3,4. Differential diagnosis Bat wing pulmonary opacities can be caused by: pulmonary edema (es...
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Benign lytic bone lesions

Benign lytic bone lesions encompass a wide variety of entities.  A useful starting point is the FEGNOMASHIC mnemonic. This article is a stub, which means it needs more content. You can contribute to Radiopaedia too. Just register and click edit... every little bit helps. See also malignant l...
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Bilateral adrenal gland enlargement

The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited: adrenal hyperplasia micronodular adrenal hyperplasia macronodular adrenal hyperplasia adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) 2 adrenal metastases adrenal hemorrha...
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Bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (differential)

Bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can result from a number of causes and generally implies a systemic process. They include: autoimmune diseases, e.g.: rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma dermatomyositis 5 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) psoriasis Sjögren syndrome lymphoma leukemia di...
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Bilateral middle cerebellar peduncle lesions

Involvement of both middle cerebellar peduncles is uncommon, but has a relatively long list of differential diagnoses, including 1: neurodegenerative diseases multiple systemic atrophy (MSA) olivopontocerebellar atrophy Shy-Drager syndrome spinocerebellar atrophy metabolic diseases  adre...
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Bilateral renal enlargement

Bilateral renal enlargement can arise from a number of causes which include 1: diabetic nephropathy (common) renal involvement with lymphoma acute interstitial nephritis vasculitis / autoimmune HIV nephropathy leukemia autosomal recessive polycystic kidneys (ARPKD) adult dominant polycys...
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Bilateral testicular lesions

Bilateral testicular lesions have a relatively limited differential diagnosis.  Differential diagnosis Neoplastic  lymphoblastic leukemia (acute or chronic) lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's) primary testicular lymphoma is rare but the testes are often the site of lymphoma/leukemia recurrence due to ...
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Bile duct dilatation (differential)

Bile duct dilatation can be due to several etiologies. Clinical presentation Variable, depending on underlying cause, but usually: right upper quadrant pain jaundice Radiographic features Ultrasound Harmonic imaging is useful when assessing the biliary system, as it improves the clarity o...
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Bile duct wall thickening (differential)

Thickening of the bile duct wall can stem from a variety of etiologies. Radiographic features Ultrasound bile duct wall thickening bile duct walls are typically not visible when normal possible narrowing of the ducts with obstruction possible secondary signs of cholangitis, including debri...
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Bladder wall thickening (differential)

Differential diagnosis for bladder wall thickening depends on whether the bladder is adequately distended. The bladder wall may be thickened if: >3 mm when distended >5 mm when nondistended If the bladder is not distended, then it is difficult to exclude artifactual thickening from a collapse...
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Bone deformity from softening

Conditions associated with bone deformity from softening includes: hourglass thorax bowing of long bones acetabular protrusion buckled/compressed pelvis biconcave vertebral bodies / codfish vertebra
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Bone lesions with sequestrum

There are several bony lesions that can involve or produce a sequestrum. They include: Common Brodie abscess: osteomyelitis Less common eosinophilic granuloma certain soft tissue tumors (with bony extension)  malignant fibrous histiocytoma lymphoma metastasis (especially from breast ca...
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Bone mineral density

Bone mineral density (BMD) is defined as the amount of mineral (calcium hydroxyapatite) per unit of bone. Radiographic features BMD can be measured by various methods with DEXA the most prevalent gamma rays: replaced by radiographic methods single-energy photon absorptiometry (SPA) was super...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Bowel wall thickening

Bowel wall thickening is a useful finding on imaging studies and has a number of different causes. Pathology The reason for bowel wall thickening depends on the underlying etiology but includes submucosal edema, hemorrhage, and neoplastic infiltration. Radiographic features In describing bow...
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Breast calcifications

Breast calcifications are deposits of calcium salts in the breast, which are radio-opaque on mammography. The majority are benign, but they can be associated with cancer. The ability to diagnose and appropriately manage the significant microcalcifications and differentiate them from innocuous fi...
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Breast density

Breast density refers to the amount of fibroglandular tissue in a breast relative to fat. It can significantly vary between individuals and within individuals over a lifetime. Classification There are four descriptors for breast density on mammography in the 5th edition of BI-RADS 1,2: a: the...
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Breast lumps

Breast lumps have different characteristics that allow simplification of differential diagnosis by breaking down the vast list into sections. Consider whether the lump fits into one of these categories. Spiculated lesion Spiculation is a feature of neoplasms and all masses that display spicula...
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Bridging of the pubic symphysis (differential)

Bridging (or fusion) of the pubic symphysis can be associated with various systemic and local causes, including 1-3: ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis surgical fusion post-traumatic post-infectious post-radiation therapy osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis osteitis pubis myo...
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Bronchial wall thickening

Bronchial wall thickening is an imaging descriptor used to describe abnormal thickening of bronchial walls and can arise from a vast number of pathological entities. It is one of the causes of peribronchial cuffing. The presence of bronchial wall thickening usually (but not always) implies infl...
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Bulging duodenal papilla

Bulging duodenal papilla​ is a conical or cylindrical protuberance at the medial aspect of the descending or horizontal duodenum at the site of the sphincter of Oddi. It is a finding on small bowel follow-though (and endoscopy) and has a relatively long differential. On cross-sectional imaging, ...
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Calcification of the external ear (differential)

Calcification of the external ear (auricular cartilage) may arise from a number of causes, including: hyperparathyroidism gout and pseudogout relapsing polychondritis frostbite trauma ochronosis sarcoidosis diabetes mellitus adrenal insufficiency
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Calcification of the globe (differential)

Calcification of the globe has many causes, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal drusen: 1% population...
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Calcific axillary lymphadenopathy (differential)

Calcific axillary lymphadenopathy is in general, more concerning than axillary lymphadenopathy alone and is particularly so if it contains microcalcifications. While this is concerning for malignancy, it can also occur from occasional nonmalignant causes Causes include metastatic axillary lymp...
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Calcific cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)

Calcific cervical lymphadenopathy is uncommon and has a limited differential diagnosis, including malignant and benign etiologies. The most frequent causes include 1: malignancies (more common) metastatic thyroid carcinoma (most common; papillary or medullary types) 2,5 metastatic adenocarcin...
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Calcified mediastinal lymph nodes (differential)

There are numerous causes of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Common causes include: infectious granulomatous diseases tuberculosis histoplasmosis sarcoidosis silicosis treated lymphoma Uncommon causes include: Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) pneumonia metastases thyroid carcinoma: papi...
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Calcified pulmonary densities (differential)

Calcified pulmonary (lung parenchymal) densities can occur in a number of conditions. Micronodules healed varicella pneumonia 1 pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis occupational lung diseases silicosis coal workers pneumoconiosis stannosis baritosis See the main article on calcified pulmon...
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Calcified pulmonary embolus

Calcification associated with pulmonary emboli is usually associated with chronic pulmonary embolism. Calcification is occasionally related to prior congenital cardiac repairs 1. Differential diagnosis If it is purely high attenuating, consider polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) embolism into the ...
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Calcified pulmonary nodules

Calcified pulmonary nodules are a subset of hyperdense pulmonary nodules and a group of nodules with a relatively narrow differential. Pathology Etiology The most common cause of nodule calcification is granuloma formation, usually in the response to healed infection.   healed infection cal...
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Calcifying pulmonary metastases

Calcifying pulmonary metastases are rare. These should not be confused with metastatic pulmonary calcification. Pathology Calcification in metastases can arise through a variety of mechanisms: bone formation in tumors osteoid origin, calcification and ossification of tumor cartilage, dystrophi...
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Calvarial thickening

Calvarial thickening can occur from a number of causes. These include: idiopathic chronic ventricular shunting 1 antiepileptics phenytoin 3 osteopetrosis 2 fibrous dysplasia acromegaly anemias (largely associated with massive hematopoiesis) Paget disease hyperparathyroidism certain sc...
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Cardiac calcification

Cardiac calcification is a broad term for any calcification affecting the valves, coronary arteries, aortic root, endocardium, myocardium, and/or pericardium. Pathology Causes of cardiac calcification are: coronary artery disease (most common) coronary artery aneurysms, e.g. in Kawasaki dise...
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Cardiomegaly

Cardiomegaly is a catch-all term to refer to enlargement of the heart, and should not be confused with causes of enlargement of the cardiomediastinal outline, or enlargement of the cardiac silhouette.  Pathology Etiology There are many etiologies for cardiomegaly: congestive heart failure i...
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Cardiophrenic angle lesions

The cardiophrenic space is usually filled with fat. However, lesions originating above or lower to the diaphragm can present as cardiophrenic angle lesions. The more common lesions encountered include: pericardial fat pad pericardial cyst pericardial fat necrosis Morgagni's hernia lymphade...
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Cardiovascular shunts

Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease. Pathology Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (i.e. 'left-to-right shunt') or ...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also known as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of interna...
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Carotid pacemaker

Carotid pacemakers, also known as implantable carotid sinus stimulators, are devices that deliver activation energy, via carotid leads, to the carotid baroreceptors. This is sometimes offered for drug-resistant hypertension. The baroreceptors send signals to the brain and the signals are interpr...
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Carpal angle

Carpal angle is defined by two intersecting lines, one in contact with the proximal surface of the scaphoid and the lunate and the other line through the proximal margins of the triquetrum and the lunate. Its normal value is between 130° and 137°. It is increased (>139°) in:  bone dysplasia D...
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Cartilaginous lesions

The differential for cartilaginous lesions includes: osteochondroma enchondroma juxtacortical chondroma chondromyxoid fibroma chondroblastoma chondrosarcoma See also fibrous lesions osteoid lesions
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Causes of abnormal lunate signal on MRI

There are several important causes of an abnormal lunate signal on MRI, the most frequent causes being Kienbock disease (25%), ulnar impaction syndrome (25%) and intraosseous ganglia (20%).1 Appreciation of the pattern of bone signal change can often allow the correct diagnosis to be made. Kien...
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Causes of ascending aorta calcification

There are relatively few causes of calcification of the ascending aorta 1-3: atherosclerosis (this usually spares the ascending aorta) aortitis syphilis Takayasu arteritis idiopathic
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Causes of a small aorta

Causes of a small aorta include: Williams syndrome Takayasu arteritis giant cell arteritis neurofibromatosis midaortic syndrome small aorta syndrome idiopathic
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Cavernous sinus mass

A cavernous sinus mass has a wide differential including:  meningioma orbital apical inflammation with cavernous sinus involvement (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) infection  schwannoma  any of the cranial nerves traversing the cavernous sinus: III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI trigeminal schwannoma is ...
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Cavitating pneumonia

Cavitating pneumonia is a complication that can occur with severe necrotizing pneumonia and in some publications, it is used synonymously with the latter term 2.  It is a rare complication in both children and adults. Cavitation associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is separately discussed...
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Cavitating pulmonary metastases

Cavitating pulmonary metastases refer to pulmonary metastases which then tend to cavitate. The term is similar but may not be identical to cystic pulmonary metastases in which the wall of the former may be thicker. Epidemiology Cavitation is thought to occur in around 4% of lung metastases 2. ...
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Central bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Central bronchiectasis is typically seen in: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) congenital tracheobronchomegaly (a.k.a. Mounier Kuhn syndrome) cystic fibrosis Williams Campbell syndrome (rare) See a...
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Centrilobular lung nodules

Centrilobular lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for small 5-10 mm lung nodules which are anatomically located centrally within secondary pulmonary lobules. The term is applied on the basis of location of the nodule and not its morphology that is they may be well defined or p...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses are relatively common. Although a diverse range of pathologies may be seen in this region, the most common by far is a vestibular schwannoma. Pathology Cerebellopontine angle masses can be divided into four groups, based on imaging characteristics:  enhanci...
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Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is the morphological presentation of brain parenchymal volume loss that is frequently seen on cross sectional imaging. Rather than being a primary diagnosis, it is the common endpoint for range disease processes that affect the central nervous system. Though often no identifiabl...
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Cerebral herniation

Cerebral herniation, also referred to as acquired intracranial herniation, refers to shift of cerebral tissue from its normal location, into an adjacent space as a result of mass effect. It is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis.  Pathology There are a number of differe...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/hemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necrosi...
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Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Cervical spine injury

Cervical spine injuries can involve the cervical vertebral column, intervertebral discs and cervical spine ligaments, and/or cervical spinal cord. The cervical spine accounts for ~50% of all spinal injuries.  Epidemiology 5-10% of patients with blunt trauma have a cervical spine injury 1.  Pa...
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Childhood malignancies

Unfortunately the pediatric population is susceptible to malignancies. The most common entities, in overall order of frequency, are 1-4: leukemia/lymphoma: ~35% * acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 23% Hodgkin disease: 5% acute myelogenous leukemia: 4% central nervous system malignancies: ~20% ...
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Cholangitis

Cholangitis is a relatively broad descriptive term referring to inflammation of the bile ducts.  It has many forms and can arise from a number of situations: primary sclerosing cholangitis chemotherapy induced cholangitis eosinophilic cholangitis 5 infective cholangitis EBV cholangitis ac...
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Chondrocalcinosis

Chondrocalcinosis (plural: chondrocalcinoses) is a descriptive term indicating the presence of gross calcium deposition within articular cartilage, i.e. both hyaline and fibrocartilage. Terminology Chondrocalcinosis articularis was an early term for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition d...
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Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Etiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomegal...
Article

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
Article

Chronic encephalitides

There are several viral and prion infections which can result in a chronic encephalitis with slow progression into brain atrophy. These have a very poor prognosis with no effective treatment. Some of these include: progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
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Chronic interstitial pneumonitis

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term where an interstitial pneumonia has a prolonged course. It can arise of a range of etiologies. The term does not usually imply a specific radiographic pattern and includes UIP, NSIP or other pattern. As a general rule there is little o...
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Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency

Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency has a number of causes. Primary adrenal insufficiency is termed Addison disease. Pathology Causes idiopathic atrophy: autoimmune adrenalitis 1 tuberculosis 1: 25% calcify fungal disease 1 histioplasmosis blastomycosis coccidioidomycosis AIDS 1 sarc...
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Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
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Chronic unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnoses for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic unilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: neoplastic post obstructive lymphoma lymphocytic ...