HALF PRICE OFFER ENDS TODAY! New Elbow X-ray Interpretation Course by Andrew Murphy REGISTER NOW

Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

782 results found
Article

Dural enhancement

Pachymeningeal enhancement, also known as dura-arachnoid enhancement 4, refers to a dural and outer layer of arachnoid pattern of enhancement seen following contrast administration and may occur in the conditions listed below: infection intracranial tumor metastases (meningeal carcinomatosis-...
Article

Dural masses

Dural masses can be the result of a number of different tumors and conditions, although meningiomas are by far the most common. The differential of a dural mass includes: meningioma hemangiopericytoma primary dural lymphoma Rosai-Dorfman disease solitary fibrous tumor of the dura primary i...
Article

Dynamic tracheal collapse

Dynamic tracheal collapse refers to collapse of the trachea during expiration. It is perhaps best assessed on CT in the end expiratory phase. An inspiratory series is also useful for comparative purposes. The term excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to abnormal and exaggerated bulgin...
Article

Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem. Odynophagia is the term for painful swallowing. Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluate the e...
Article

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a type of soft-tissue calcification, which occurs in damaged or necrotic tissue, while the serum level of calcium and phosphorus are normal. It may progress to ossification, in which case a cortical and trabecular bone pattern is visible. An often cited a...
Article

Echogenic fetal lung lesions

Echogenic fetal lung lesions on antenatal ultrasound can be detected in a number of situations. They include: Airway obstructions: lung are often enlarged and echogenic bilaterally congenital high airways obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) tracheal atresia congenital tracheal stenosis laryngeal a...
Article

Echogenic renal pyramids (differential)

Echogenic renal pyramids in children can be due to many different causes.  Differential diagnosis Nephrocalcinosis Iatrogenic (most common cause) furosemide (frusemide) vitamin D steroids Non-iatrogenic idiopathic hypercalcemia Williams syndrome hyperparathyroidism milk-alkali syndrom...
Article

Elevated diaphragm

Elevated diaphragm refers to the symmetrical elevation of both domes of the diaphragm. Pathology Etiology There is some overlap with causes of an elevated hemidiaphragm.  Technical  supine position poor inspiratory effort Patient factors obesity pregnancy Diaphragmatic pathology paral...
Article

Elevated hemidiaphragm

An elevated hemidiaphragm may result from direct and indirect causes which include: above the diaphragm 1 decreased lung volume atelectasis/collapse prior lobectomy or pneumonectomy pulmonary hypoplasia diaphragm 3-7 phrenic nerve palsy diaphragmatic eventration contralateral stroke: ...
Article

Elevated prolactin (differential)

Elevated prolactin can be due to a number of causes, including elevated production/secretion as well as reduced inhibition.  Prolactin is controlled by numerous homeostatic mechanisms, with tonic secretion of prolactin inhibitory hormone (dopamine) by the hypothalamus having a dominant effect 1...
Article

Empty gestational sac

Empty gestational sacs can be due to a number of causes: anembryonic pregnancy (also known as "blighted ovum") early pregnancy (intrauterine): by 5.5 weeks gestational age, a yolk sac should be identifiable by transvaginal ultrasound pseudogestational sac with an ectopic pregnancy gestationa...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. Contrast this with abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue, rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the standalone term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there...
Article

Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family

Although sporadic viral encephalitis is most commonly due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) the extended herpesvirus family consists of many other viruses many of which can also infect the central nervous system. Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family include 1:   herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
Article

Endobronchial metastases

Endobronchial metastases are an uncommon form of intrathoracic metastases. They are much less common than intrapulmonary metastases. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation varies and includes: hemoptysis cough post-obstructive pneumonitis from distal obstruction Pathology Frequen...
Article

Endometrial fluid

Fluid in the endometrial cavity can result from a number of causes if excessive and associated with distension.  Pathology There are essentially three types of fluid:  hydrometra: simple fluid hematometra: hemorrhagic content / clot pyometra: pus Premenopausal normal (i.e. physiological) ...
Article

Endometrial microcalcifications

Endometrial microcalcifications can arise from a vast range pathologies but are usually of benign in etiology. Epidemiology They have an increased incidence with older age, postmenopausal state, atrophic endometrium, and endometrial polyps.  Associations In some cases they are associated wit...
Article

Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
Article

Enlarged azygos vein

An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph. Terminology Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorr...
Article

Enlarged echogenic fetal kidneys

Enlarged echogenic fetal kidneys can be associated with a number of pathologies that include: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) 1 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) 3: the large cysts may not form in utero and the kidneys may initially appear as enlarged a...
Article

Enlarged extraocular muscles (differential)

There is a short list of causes for enlarged extraocular muscles. The differential can be narrowed by the clinical history, known systemic illness, pattern of specific muscles involved, the muscle morphology, as well as concurrent findings outside the muscles 3: inflammatory, infectious, and de...
Article

Enlarged posterior fossa 'CSF' space

An enlarged posterior fossa 'CSF' space posterior to the cerebellum has a number of differentials that include: mega cisterna magna epidermoid cyst arachnoid cyst Careful attention to the cerebellum needs to paid as also to be considered are: cerebellar atrophy Dandy-Walker malformations ...
Article

Enlarged pulmonary trunk on chest radiography (differential)

The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:  normal may appear prominent in young patients especially women projectional rotation lordotic view rotation of the heart pectus excavatum left lower lobe collapse pulmonary arterial hyp...
Article

Enlarged sella turcica (differential)

Enlargement of sella turcica can be seen in situations including the following: empty sella syndrome slight globular enlargement of the sella with no erosion, destruction or posterior displacement of dorsum sellae intracranial hypertension enlargement with erosion of anterior cortex of dorsu...
Article

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette on a frontal (or PA) chest x-ray can be due to a number of causes 1: cardiomegaly (most common cause by far) pericardial effusion anterior mediastinal mass prominent epicardial fat pad expiratory radiograph AP projection (e.g supine radiographs taken w...
Article

Enteritis

Enteritis (plural: enteritides) refers to inflammation of the small bowel. When associated with inflammation of the stomach, the term gastroenteritis is used which is usually caused by infection. Pathology Etiology infection infective enteritis eosinophilic enteritis ischemia inflammatory...
Article

Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci within the epididymal head. If the calcifications are large enough, then they may demonstrate acoustic shadowing. Differential diagnosis chronic epididymitis, e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  traum...
Article

Epididymal lesions

Epididymal lesions are most commonly encountered on ultrasonography. Most epididymal lesions are benign; malignant lesions are rare. They can comprise of  Benign solid lesions adenomatoid tumor of the scrotum: most common epididymal mass 4 epididymal leiomyoma papillary cystadenoma of the e...
Article

Epiglottic enlargement

Epiglottic enlargement is often seen on lateral neck radiographs and it's accepted to confirm clinical suspicion of acute epiglottitis only on this finding 1. However, an enlarged epiglottitis has a wide range of differentials that should be considered. neoplasm hemangioma lymphangioma carci...
Article

Epiphora

Epiphora (plural: epiphoras) represents excessive tearing of the eye and is a common clinical presentation to ophthalmological practice. It is most frequently due to an obstruction of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. Less commonly, overproduction of tears may be responsible.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Epiphyseal lesions (differential)

Epiphyseal lesions comprise tumors and other pathologies that occur around the epiphysis and any epiphyseal equivalent bone. Differential diagnosis Common differential diagnoses include the following 2-4: chondroblastoma: rare epiphyseal tumor found in young adults; it usually does not extend...
Article

Epithelial ovarian tumors

Ovarian epithelial tumors account for the majority of all ovarian tumors (60-70%) and their malignant forms represent >90% of ovarian cancers 1. They can range from being benign to highly malignant. Epidemiology There is a difference in frequency of ovarian tumor subtypes depending on menopaus...
Article

Erlenmeyer flask deformity

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (EFD), also known as metaphyseal flaring, refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relatively reduced constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis as a result of undertubulation.  The name refers to the resembl...
Article

Erosion of superior aspects of ribs (differential)

Differential diagnosis of erosion of the superior aspects of the ribs include:  hyperparathyroidism rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma neurofibromatosis poliomyelitis progeria
Article

Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1,2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
Article

Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically the interphalangeal joints, 1st carpometacarpal joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints clas...
Article

Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumor is a lesion which predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1: benign  hepatic hemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant  hepati...
Article

Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
Article

Expansile lytic lesions without cortical destruction of bone (differential)

Expansile lytic bone lesions without cortical destruction can result from various benign and malignant neoplastic pathologies, causes include 1: unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst (eccentric) enchondroma chondromyxoid fibroma (eccentric) non-ossifying fibroma (eccentric) desmoplasti...
Article

Extra-axial masses (differential)

Extra-axial masses of the intracranial compartment have a wide range of differentials, ranging from benign developmental cysts to malignant tumors.  Differential diagnosis neoplasms chordoma choroid plexus papilloma/carcinoma cranial nerve schwannoma meninges meningioma solitary fibrous ...
Article

Extraconal orbital lesions

Extraconal orbital lesions include lesions which arise from structures within the extraconal orbital space and those extending from adjacent structures into the orbits. Differential diagnosis Intraorbital lesions dermoid cyst: most common lesion in pediatrics  lacrimial gland lesions dacryo...
Article

Extraneural spread of intracranial neoplasm

Extraneural spread of primary intracranial neoplasm is distinctly uncommon, occurring far less frequently than CSF spread.  The most frequent neoplasms to do so, in decreasing order of frequency, are: glioblastoma (GBM) meningioma medulloblastoma
Article

Extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment

Knowing extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment is useful to help generate a meaningful differential diagnosis: Intermuscular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma fibromatosis ganglion leiomyosarcoma nodular fasciitis neurogenic tumors synovial cyst Intra-articular lipoma a...
Article

Extratesticular cystic lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for extratesticular cystic lesions includes: hydrocele epididymal cyst spermatocele hematoma hematocele loop of bowel from an inguinal hernia abscess pyocele post-vasectomy varicocele Very rarely, a scrotal mesothelioma may present as a cystic mass.
Article

Extratesticular scrotal mass (differential)

Extratesticular scrotal masses (non-testicle and non-epididymis) are mostly mesenchymal in origin and benign 1.  Benign lesions lipoma (most common) leiomyoma of the scrotum neurofibroma granular cell tumor angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor fibrous pseudotumor fibrous hamartoma of infancy...
Article

Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
Article

Failed early pregnancy

Failed early pregnancy refers to the death of the embryo and therefore, miscarriage. The most common cause of embryonic death is a chromosomal abnormality. Radiographic features Ultrasound Findings diagnostic of pregnancy failure crown-rump length (CRL) of ≥7 mm and no heartbeat on a transva...
Article

Fat containing brain lesions

Intracranial fat is uncommon and a wide range of differentials should be considered. Neoplastic intracranial dermoid cyst intracranial teratoma intracranial lipoma pericallosal lipoma quadrigeminal cistern lipoma suprasellar cistern lipoma cerebellopontine angle lipoma choroid plexus li...
Article

Fat containing breast lesions

Fat containing breast lesions generally have some radiolucent component on mammography. Pathology They are generally classified at BIRADS II lesions. Common breast lipoma breast hamartoma fat necrosis within the breast/oil cyst intramammary lymph node: classically has a central fatty hilu...
Article

Fat containing cardiac lesions

Fat containing cardiac lesions have a limited differential diagnosis. These include 1-4: normal aging/physiologic: mostly subepicardial, more in the right ventricle (especially right ventricular outflow tract) than left ventricle lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum chronic myocar...
Article

Fat containing liver lesions

Fat containing liver lesions represent a variety of benign and malignant liver lesions may contain macroscopic and/or intracytoplasmic fat in sufficient quantities enabling characterization on imaging studies. Most fat-containing liver lesions (80%) in patients with cirrhosis are malignant, most...
Article

Fat containing renal lesions

There are numerous fat-containing renal lesions, including: renal angiomyolipoma renal cell carcinoma (often has calcifications when contains macroscopic fat) Wilms tumor renal oncocytoma renal or perirenal lipoma/liposarcoma Non-mass lesions may also occasionally contain fat: renal junct...
Article

Fat containing solitary pulmonary nodule

The differential of a fat containing solitary pulmonary nodule is very narrow. In a well circumscribed smooth or lobulated mass (especially if it has been largely stable in size over time) presence of fat is essentially pathognomonic of a pulmonary hamartoma, and usually not further assessment ...
Article

Fat containing thoracic lesions

There is a long list of fat containing thoracic lesions. They may involve the mediastinum, lung, pleura or chest wall. Differential diagnosis includes:  intrapulmonary: fat containing pulmonary lesions pulmonary hamartoma endobronchial lipoma intrapulmonary lipoma lipoid pneumonia myeloli...
Article

Fatty mediastinal masses (differential)

Fatty mediastinal masses are relatively uncommon, and the differential diagnosis is brief, including 1-4: lipoma liposarcoma thymolipoma benign mature teratoma lipoblastoma extravasation of lipid-rich hyperalimentation fluid 3 fibrofatty replacement of the central portion of mediastinal l...
Article

Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects

Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects can occur with a number of pathologies. Individual entities omphalocele gastroschisis cloacal exstrophy bladder exstrophy Syndromes/complexes limb body wall complex OEIS complex omphalocele-radial ray (ORR) complex Pentalogy of Cantrell amniotic ...
Article

Fetal ascites

Fetal ascites refers to the accumulation of free fluid in the fetal abdomen. It is often considered under the same spectrum of hydrops fetalis. Pathology Etiology any condition that results in hydrops fetalis additional causes include idiopathic bowel perforation (e.g. meconium peritonitis...
Article

Fetal bowel dilatation

Fetal bowel dilatation can occur from many causes, which include: intestinal atresias: mainly distal anal atresia apple-peel intestinal atresia ileal atresia jejunal atresia jejuno-ileal atresia Hirschsprung disease megacystis microcolon hyperperistalsis syndrome 4 congenital chloride d...
Article

Fetal brain tumors

Fetal brain tumors are uncommon and tends to have very different pathological spectrum than that observed in adults; in order of decreasing frequency: fetal intracranial teratoma: most common tumor by far astrocytoma/glioblastoma: next most common craniopharyngioma: papillary type primitive ...
Article

Fetal cardiac tumors

Fetal cardiac tumors refer to primary cardiac tumors that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumors are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumor types that present ...
Article

Fetal chylothorax

Fetal chylothorax is defined as the presence of lymphatic fluid within the pleural cavity of the fetus. Pathology Associations pulmonary hypoplasia hydrops fetalis premature delivery Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound may show echogenic fluid in the pleural cavities Treatment S...
Article

Fetal clenched hands

Fetal clenched hands are an antenatal ultrasound observation where the fetal hands are in a constant (permanently) clenched position as if being unable to extend. Pathology Some authors 3 suggest  that the abnormal posture results in part from: muscle variations along the radial margin of the...
Article

Fetal death in utero

Fetal death in utero (FDIU), also known as intrauterine death (IUD), is the term used when the death of a fetus occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. Prior to this, it is considered a miscarriage. Terminology IUD is often also used as an abbreviation for an intrauterine contraceptive device...
Article

Fetal intra-abdominal cysts (differential)

Fetal intra-abdominal cystic lesions can arise from a number of physiological and pathological causes. Physiological fetal gastric dilatation / fetal gastric bubble (can be pathological if there is a gastric outlet obstruction normal fetal gallbladder Pathological No color flow fetal chole...
Article

Fetal intracranial calcification

Fetal intracranial calcification refers to intracranial calcification detected in utero. This can arise from a number of pathologies which include: in utero infections fetal toxoplasmosis infection: calcification tends to be randomly distributed fetal cytomegalovirus infection1: calcificatio...
Article

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions can arise from a number of pathologies, including: Non-tumourous fetal arachnoid cyst  fetal choroid plexus cyst fetal connatal cyst fetal porencephalic cyst fetal interhemispheric cyst fetal subependymal cyst dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly Blake pouc...
Article

Fetal intracranial hemorrhage

Fetal intracranial hemorrhage may occur either within the cerebral ventricles, subdural space or infratentorial fossa. Pathology Hemorrhages can occur in a number of situations: mechanical trauma, e.g. maternal abdominal blunt or birth trauma severe fetal hypoxia background fetal thrombocyt...
Article

Fetal intrahepatic calcification

Fetal intrahepatic calcification can be a relatively common finding. Calcifications in the liver can be single or multiple and in most cases in which isolated hepatic calcific deposits are detected, there is usually no underlying abnormality. The presence of isolated intrahepatic calcification ...
Article

Fetal limb bowing

Fetal limb bowing may be a feature of skeletal dysplasia, particularly if it is severe. A mild degree of lateral bowing of the femur can occur as part of normal variation. Conditions associated with fetal limb bowing include: campomelic dysplasia 1 thanatophoric dysplasia 2: particularly type...
Article

Fetal pleural effusion

Fetal pleural effusions (FPE) refer to an accumulation of pleural fluid in utero. It can refer to either a fetal chylothorax or a fetal hydrothorax. Pathology A fetal pleural effusion can occur as part of hydrops fetalis, in association with other anomalies without hydrops or in isolation - pr...
Article

Fetal rib fractures

Fetal rib fractures can be caused by certain skeletal dysplasias. These include: osteogenesis imperfecta: type II - one of the classical causes of fetal rib fractures achondrogenesis: type Ia - Houston-Harris sub type
Article

Fetal tumors

Although rare, a number of tumors may be diagnosed antenatally. These fetal tumors are a diverse and a unique group of conditions, and include: neuroblastoma: most common tumor overall teratomas sacrococcygeal teratoma head and neck teratoma/epignathus mediastinal teratoma intrapericardial...
Article

Fetal ventriculomegaly (differential)

Fetal ventriculomegaly (ventricle width >10 mm) is an important finding in itself and it is also associated with other central nervous system abnormalities. For more information, see the main article fetal ventriculomegaly. Differential diagnosis Fetal ventriculomegaly can be thought of in ter...
Article

Fibropolycystic liver disease

Fibropolycystic liver disease is a collective term for a group of congenital liver and biliary abnormalities resulting from abnormal development of the ductal plates.  Disease in this group include: congenital hepatic fibrosis biliary hamartomas autosomal dominant polycystic disease Caroli d...
Article

Fibrous lesions

The differential for fibrous lesions is wide and includes: non-ossifying fibroma fibrous dysplasia osteofibrous dysplasia / adamantinoma desmoplastic fibroma fibromatoses, e.g.  plantar fibromatosis palmar fibromatosis malignant fibrous histiocytoma / fibrosarcoma dermatofibrosarcoma p...
Article

Floating meniscus

Floating meniscus (also known as meniscal avulsion) occurs in acute traumatic settings when the meniscotibial coronary ligaments get disrupted leading to avulsion of the meniscus from the tibial plateau. Radiographic features MRI Displacement of the meniscus for 5 mm or more from the tibial p...
Article

Flowing ossifications

Flowing ossifications are seen in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).They are defined as heterotopic ossifications involving the anterior longitudinal ligament, paraspinal connective tissues and annulus fibrosus of at least four contiguous vertebral bodies and are originally describ...
Article

Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions

Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions are best seen on MRI, although with narrow window width they can also be appreciated on CT. Epidemiology Their prevalence is estimated at ~3% of bone and soft tissue tumors 1. Differential diagnosis Their presence is non-specific, as they are seen in...
Article

Focal calvarial thinning

Focal calvarial thinning can result from a number of causes. They include: bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (normal variant) most common arachnoid cyst mega cisterna magna peripherally located tumors (e.g. oligodendroglioma) See also calvarial thinning calvarial thickening
Article

Focal gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Focal gallbladder wall thickening is an imaging finding that includes both benign and malignant etiologies. cholecystoses cholesterolosis adenomyomatosis masses gallbladder polyps gallbladder carcinoma: look for infiltration into adjacent organs, metastases, lymphadenopathy, bile duct dil...
Article

Focal gas collection in right upper quadrant (differential)

Focal gas collection in right upper quadrant on plain radiographs can occur from a number of pathologies. Things to consider are: enterobiliary fistula: common types include cholecystoduodenal fistula and cholecystocolic fistula. It may occur with: gallstone ileus (being most common) 3 perfor...
Article

Focal hypodense hepatic lesions on non-enhanced CT (differential)

Focal hypodense hepatic lesions on a non-contrast CT scan can result from a number of pathological entities, including: neoplasms benign hepatic hemangioma adenoma biliary hamartoma: von Meyenberg complexes 2 malignant hepatoma/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) hepatic lymphoma hepatic ha...
Article

Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
Article

Gamut

Gamuts in radiology refer to the complete list of differential diagnoses for any radiological finding. We include gamut as a section for articles on Radiopaedia.org. History and etymology According to Maurice Reeder, writing in the preface of his own eponymous text on gamuts, it was the trailb...
Article

Gas in the urinary bladder

There are numerous causes of gas in the urinary bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include 1: iatrogenic indwelling urinary catheter is by far the most common cause cystoscopy, etc. emphysematous cys...
Article

Gasless abdomen

A gasless abdomen refers to a paucity of gas on abdominal radiography, and the specific cause can usually be identified when the patient's history is known. Common causes include: small bowel obstruction bowel ischemia congenital atresia ascites pancreatitis gastroenteritis large abdomina...
Article

Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Etiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less common than other malignancies as...
Article

Generalized increased bone density in adults

The causes of generalized increase in bone density in adult patients, also known as generalized or diffuse osteosclerosis, can be divided according to broad categories:  hematological disorders myelosclerosis marrow cavity is narrowed by endosteal new bone patchy lucencies due to the persist...
Article

Generalized increased bone density in children

The causes of generalized increased bone density in pediatric patients can be divided according to a broad category of causes: skeletal dysplasias osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis metabolic renal osteodystrophy poisoning lead dense metaphyseal bands cortex and flat bones may also be slight...
Article

Generalized increase in hepatic echogenicity

Causes of generalized increase in hepatic echogenicity include: diffuse fatty change cirrhosis: and/or coarsening chronic hepatitis 3: and/or coarsening diffuse infiltration or deposition malignant process granulomata  tuberculosis brucellosis sarcoidosis glycogen storage disease hemo...
Article

Generalized osteopenia

Generalized osteopenia refers to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffuse metastase...
Article

Generalized periosteal reaction

The list of causes of a generalized periosteal reaction overlaps that of symmetrical periosteal reaction, and includes 1,2: vascular stasis (common) congenital syphilis fluorosis Gaucher disease hypertrophic osteoarthropathy pachydermoperiostosis hypervitaminosis A infantile cortical hyp...
Article

Generalized reduced hepatic echogenicity

Causes of generalized reduction of liver echogenicity on ultrasound include: acute hepatitis diffuse malignant infiltration See also generalized increase in liver echogenicity hepatic attenuation on CT
Article

Giant cell carcinoma of the lung

Giant cell carcinomas of the lung are a rare type of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) classified under sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lungs. Epidemiology They represent less than 0.5% of all NSCLC 2. There is a recognized association with smoking 1.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are n...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.