Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

908 results found
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Photopsia

Photopsias are a visual phenomenon experienced by individuals with a variety of ocular or optic pathway pathology. In lay terms they represent flashing lights, and can be divided into unstructured or structured photopsias, the latter referring to geometric shapes 2.  Pathology Etiology Causes...
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Phrenic nerve palsy

Phrenic nerve palsy (also known as phrenic nerve paresis or paralysis) has many causes and can be caused by lesions anywhere along the course of the phrenic nerve, as it travels from the neck, to pierce the diaphragm adjacent to the pericardium. Epidemiology No single demographic is affected, ...
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Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganized globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Epidemiology In general, phthisis bulbi involves elderly patients, usually 65-85 years of age 7. Children and adolescents are only rarely affecte...
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Pineal parenchymal tumors

Pineal parenchymal tumors comprise a group of related tumors ranging from the relatively benign to the highly malignant. This group comprises of: pineocytoma 14-30% of pineal parenchymal tumors 2 mature well-differentiated tumor WHO grade I pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differe...
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Pituitary region masses

A simple and popular mnemonic to remember the common suprasellar/parasellar/intrasellar masses is SATCHMO. The more comprehensive list includes: tumors pituitary adenoma (commonest in the adult population) pituitary macroadenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituitary lymphoma...
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Pituitary region masses (most common)

The five most common masses in the pituitary region are: pituitary macroadenoma meningioma aneurysm craniopharyngioma suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma Craniopharyngioma and suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma are common in children, and pituitary macroadenoma, meningioma, aneurysm are mostl...
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Pituitary region mass with intrinsic high T1 signal

Pituitary region mass with an intrinsic high T1 signal, also referred as suprasellar hotspots, are relatively frequently encountered, and the presence of high T1 signal narrows the differential somewhat.  Differential diagnosis pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage/necrosis craniopharyngioma...
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Pituitary tumors

Pituitary tumors, in other words, tumors which arise from the pituitary gland itself, include: pituitary adenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary macroadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituicytoma pituitary metastases spindle cell oncocytoma (rare) Often the term is used more broadly to refer ...
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Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with a number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilical...
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Pleural adhesions

Pleural adhesions usually refers to the formation of fibrotic bands that span the pleural space, between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura.  Pathology They may be local or diffuse. The presence of a pleural adhesion is one of the causes for a pneumothorax not to resolve. Etiology...
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Pleural calcification

Pleural calcification can be the result of a wide range of pathology and can be mimicked by a number of conditions/artifacts. True calcification calcified pleural plaques from asbestos exposure: typically with sparing of the costophrenic angles hemothorax infection involving the pleura: e.g....
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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusions are abnormal accumulations of fluid within the pleural space.  They may result from a variety of pathological processes which overwhelm the pleura's ability to reabsorb fluid. Terminology "Pleural effusion" is commonly used as a catch-all term to describe any abnormal accumul...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Pleural thickening

Pleural thickening is a descriptive term given to describe any form of thickening involving either the parietal or visceral pleura.  It can occur with both benign and malignant pleural disease. According to etiology it may be classified as: benign pleural thickening following recurrent inflam...
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Pleural tumors

There are several tumors that can involve the pleura which can range from being benign to malignant. The list includes: primary pleural tumors malignant pleural mesothelioma pleural fibroma: solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura pleural fibrosarcoma pleural liposarcoma primary pleural lymph...
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Pneumatocele

Pneumatoceles are intrapulmonary air-filled cystic spaces that can have a variety of sizes and appearances. They may contain air-fluid levels and are usually the result of ventilator-induced lung injury in neonates or post-infectious. They should not be mistaken for a cavitating lung mass.  Epi...
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Pneumatosis coli

Pneumatosis coli is a descriptive sign presenting radiographically as intramural gas limited to the colonic wall.  Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Pneumatosis in...
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Pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconioses are a broad group of lung diseases that result from inhalation of dust particles. It is therefore considered part of the spectrum of inhalational lung disease, and also occupational lung diseases. Pathology Etiology The offending agents are mainly mineral dust. They can be broa...
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Pneumonectomy

Pneumonectomy is a radical lung surgery involving complete surgical removal of the lung. It is most commonly performed for a primary lung malignancy. The lung is removed in its entirety providing the patient has adequate pulmonary reserve from the contralateral lung. Recognized post-pneumonecto...
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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a general term in widespread use, defined as infection within the lung. It is due to material, usually purulent, filling the alveoli. Terminology Pneumonia is in contrast to pneumonitis, which is inflammation of the pulmonary interstitium. Of note, some of the interstitial lung di...
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Pneumoparotid

Pneumoparotid refers to air in the parotid gland and can cause unilateral/bilateral parotid swelling. In severe cases it can be associated with subcutaneous emphysema.  Pathology Any profession or recreation that increases oral positive pressure can cause air to reflux up the parotid ducts int...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
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Polyarticular arthropathy

Polyarticular arthropathy can arise from a number of causes. The list includes osteoarthritis erosive osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis psoriatic arthritis Reiter's syndrome ankylosing spondylitis gout CPPD hemochromatosis ochronosis hemophilia acromegaly Jaccoud's arthritis mult...
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Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) >25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centers, particularly in ...
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Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition typically affecting elderly people. It is a multisystem disorder but usually affects the musculoskeletal system. It can manifest in various ways, which are best discussed in the separate articles below: polymyalgia rheumatica (mus...
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Polyostotic bone lesions in adults

Common causes of polyostotic bone lesions in adults include: inflammatory arthritic or synovial-based lesions neoplastic benign nonossifying fibromas (fibroxanthomas) polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (McCune-Albright syndrome) malignant multiple myeloma metastases metabolic primary hyper...
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Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end-stage ren...
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Posterior fossa astrocytoma

Posterior fossa astrocytomas, those arising either from the cerebellum or from the brainstem are most frequently seen in children. Approximately 60% of all pediatric astrocytomas are found in the posterior fossa (20% brainstem, 40% cerebellum). Many types of astrocytoma are found in the posteri...
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Posterior mediastinal mass (differential diagnosis)

The differential diagnosis for a posterior mediastinal mass includes: neoplasm neurogenic tumors - most common  nerve sheath tumors schwannoma neurofibroma malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor parasymphathetic ganglion tumors paraganglioma  chemodectoma pheochromocytoma 3 sympathet...
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Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. A high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
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Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies

Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies are relatively common and should not be mistaken for fractures. They are thought to be both developmental and pathological (e.g. spondylolysis) but are typically asymptomatic and incidental, and considered as anatomical variants. There are six types of poster...
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Post obstructive pulmonary edema

Post-obstructive pulmonary edema is a type of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and is an uncommon but well-described complication of upper airway obstruction. Clinical presentation It essentially occurs in three clinical settings 6: acute airway obstruction chronic upper airway obstruction i...
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Post-sternotomy complications

Post-sternotomy complications comprise of a varied range problem that can occur at varying durations after a median sternotomy. Imaging playing in detection and aiding management. Epidemiology Complication rates for median sternotomy have been reported to range from 0.5-5%, with mortality rate...
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Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
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Pott shunt

A Pott shunt is a form of palliative surgery performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot prior to the ability to repair the defect. It consists of a shunt formed between the descending thoracic aorta and the left pulmonary artery. This does not relieve the right ventricular outflow obstructi...
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Powers ratio

The Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spi...
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Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
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Pregnancy associated breast cancer

Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is usually defined as a breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or one year following delivery. PABC occurs in one out of every 1500-10,000 pregnancies 5-6 and represents up to 3% of all breast malignancies. The incidence may be increasing due to many w...
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Pregnancy of uncertain viability

Pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV) is a term given to an intrauterine pregnancy in a situation where there are not enough criteria (usually on ultrasound grounds) to confidently categorize an intrauterine pregnancy as either viable or a failed pregnancy.  Radiographic features Ultrasound ...
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Preinvasive lesions of the lung

Preinvasive lesions of the lung are those pulmonary lesions that have not yet progressed to malignancy but have the potential to do so. This category includes: squamous dysplasia (SD) of lungs: squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of lung preinvasive adenocarcinoma of the lung 5,6 atypical a...
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Premature closure of a growth plate (differential)

Premature closure of a growth plate subsequently results in a shortened bone, which can occur in a number of situations.  Pathology Common etiologies local hyperemia infection: osteomyelitis juvenile chronic arthritis juvenile rheumatoid arthritis hemophilia arteriovenous malformation t...
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Primary benign cardiac tumors

Primary benign cardiac tumors are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumors include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary beni...
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Primary bone tumors of the spine

The most common tumor of the spine is metastatic deposits. A number of both benign and malignant tumors may arise primarily from the spine. Benign osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteochondroma giant cell tumor (GCT) aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) eosinophilic granuloma (EG) hemangioma Malign...
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Primary immunodeficiency states

The primary immunodeficiency states are a heterogenous group of disorders that occur when there is an impairment of humoral or cell-mediated immunity in the absence of any recognized precipitating cause such as drug therapy or infective agent such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epidemio...
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Primary malignancy of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma mucosal melanoma extramedullary plasmacytoma carcinosarcoma fi...
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Primary malignant cardiac tumors

Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare, and account for only ~25% of primary cardiac tumors, and only a small proportion of all malignant tumors which involve the heart: direct extension of adjacent tumors or metastatic deposits are far more common. Pathology Histologcal types include 1:  ...
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Primary neoplasms of the thymus

Although primary tumors of the thymus are rare, they are the most common causes of a neoplasm of the anterosuperior mediastinum 1. thymoma (staging) one-third are benign two-thirds are malignant invasive thymoma (most) thymic carcinoma (rare) thymolipoma/thymoliposarcoma thymic cyst cong...
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Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise an uncommon group of heterogeneous entities, which include: mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma peritoneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary peritoneal adenomat...
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Primary pneumatosis intestinalis

Primary pneumatosis intestinalis (PPI) is a benign idiopathic condition in which multiple gas-filled cystic lesions are seen in the gastrointestinal tract wall. The changes are usually seen initially on radiography or CT with CT being the more sensitive test. Epidemiology Primary pneumatosis i...
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Primary pulmonary tuberculosis

Primary pulmonary tuberculosis is seen in patients not previously exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology It is most common in infants and children and has the highest prevalence in children under 5 years of age 1. Radiographic features Primary pulmonary tuberculosis manifests as...
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Programmable cerebrospinal fluid shunt

Programmable cerebrospinal shunts are a type of ventriculoperitoneal shunt that can be set to different CSF pressure settings. They are of particular value in normal pressure hydrocephalus and in pediatric patients. The 2010 AJNR article by Lollis et al. 1 provides radiographic features (with r...
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Proptosis

Proptosis refers to forward protrusion of the globe with respect to the orbit. There are many causes of proptosis which can be divided according to location and it is worth remembering that it is not just orbital disease processes that cause proptosis. Terminology Exophthalmos also describes f...
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Prosopagnosia

Prosopagnosia is the inability to recognize faces. There are varying degrees of impairment and only the recognition of familiar faces can be affected. There is usually preservation of other aspects of visual processing and intellectual functioning. With the most extreme impairment the sufferer c...
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Prostate biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound–guided biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient with a positive screening for prostate cancer.  Nowadays, with the MRI capacity for depicting abnormal areas of the prostate, is possible to obtain target...
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Prostate cystic disease

Prostate cystic disease encompasses a wide variety of pathologies that all result in cyst formation within the prostate. Prostatic cysts are common, and ~5-8% men will develop one 4,7. However they are much more common in patients being investigated for infertility, with one study showing a 20%...
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Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity

Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity is a common finding in pelvic MRIs that needs to be differentiated. A prostate directed MRI is usually performed using a multi-parametric technique to differentiate prostate cancer from more benign changes. This includes T2 weighted images, dynamic contr...
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Prostatomegaly

Prostatomegaly is a term used to generally describe enlargement of the prostate gland from whatever cause. Usually, the prostate is considered enlarged on imaging when it measures beyond 30 cc (30 grams) in size.  Terminology The term prostatomegaly is often used interchangeably with benign pr...
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Prosthetic heart valve

Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, the aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualized on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus...
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Protean

Protean in standard English has the meaning of something that appears in many different forms. In the same vein, in radiological usage it is used to describe a condition which can assume multiple different guises. One of its classic uses is for the imaging appearance of osteomyelitis which can l...
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Protrusio acetabuli

Acetabular protrusio (also known as acetabular protrusion) is intrapelvic displacement of the acetabulum and femoral head, so that the femoral head projects medial to the ischioilial line. It should be differentiated from coxa profunda. Pathology Protrusio acetabuli is divided into two types, ...
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Pseudoarthrosis (differential)

A pseudoarthrosis (or pseudarthrosis/ false joint) presents an abnormal union between parts of the bone that fractured spontaneously due to congenital weakness. Differential diagnosis includes: fracture non-union failed bone graft neurofibromatosis type 1 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome osteogenesi...
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Pseudobladder

Pseudobladder refers to a pelvic cystic mass that simulates the urinary bladder. The location of the lesion should allow differentiation from the bladder but if doubt exists and clinical necessity arises, a delayed phase CT or MRI with excreted contrast or IDC-administered retrograde contrast f...
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Pseudobulbar palsy

Pseudobulbar palsy is a clinical syndrome of dysarthria, dysphagia, a hyperactive gag reflex and labile emotional responses. It results from bilateral upper motor neuron brainstem lesions.  This is in contrast to bulbar palsy, which is a lower motor neuron syndrome involving the lowermost crani...
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Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a radiological term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported before treatment, and with...
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Pseudocyst of the humerus

Pseudocyst of the humerus, also referred as a humeral head pseudolesion, is a normal anatomical variant due to increased cancellous bone in the region of the greater tuberosity of the humerus which is seen as a lucent lesion on radiography. Hyperemia and disuse caused by shoulder problems (such...
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Pseudodefect of capitellum

Pseudodefect of capitellum refers to an abrupt contour change of the posterolateral margin of capitellum on coronal sections and is a potential MRI imaging pitfall giving rise to misinterpretations. It occurs because the width of the articular surface of the capitellum is non-uniform and gradual...
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Pseudodislocation of the shoulder

Pseudodislocation of the shoulder results from an occult fracture with distension of the glenohumeral joint due to hemarthrosis that causes inferior displacement of the humeral head compared to the glenoid. This may be mistaken for shoulder joint dislocation. Often, attempts are made to "reloca...
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Pseudohydronephrosis

Pseudohydronephrosis (plural: pseudohydronephroses) refers to normal anatomy or non-significant pathologies that may mimic hydronephrosis. There is usually fluid-density material within a dilated part of the urinary tract, but without other signs of obstruction such as retroperitoneal fat strand...
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Pseudomeningocele

Pseudomeningocele refers to an abnormal collection of cerebrospinal fluid that occurs due to leakage from the CSF-filled spaces surrounding the brain and spinal cord as a result of trauma or surgery. The salient feature of pseudomeningocele is that it contains CSF that communicates with the CSF...
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Pseudopermeative process in bone

A pseudopermeative process in bone has multiple small cortical holes that are then superimposed over the marrow, giving a similar appearance to a permeative process. Most common pathologies that manifest with pseudopermeative appearance (and mimic permeative lesions) include: aggressive osteop...
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Pseudopneumoperitoneum

Pseudopneumoperitoneum describes any gas within the abdominal cavity that masquerades as free intraperitoneal gas or pneumoperitoneum when it is in fact contained within an organ. Correctly identifying pneumoperitoneum is important, but making the diagnosis in error may lead to further unnecessa...
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Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism

Patients with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) have similar clinical and radiological features as pseudohypoparathyroidism but without alterations in parathyroid hormone levels and calcium metabolism. There is often a family history of pseudohypoparathyroidism. 
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Pseudosyndactyly

Pseudosyndactyly refers to a mitten hand deformity of hands and feet in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. It may also be seen in amniotic band syndrome. It should not be confused with true syndactyly which is the actual and complete fusion of fingers. In pseudosyndactyly fingers are fused by thi...
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Psoas index

Psoas index is an imaging marker of sarcopenia, which is a key component of frailty. Using cross sectional imaging, psoas area values are computed 1,2, normalized for height and gender, with a resulting figure for PI in cm2/m2. (RPA + LPA)/height2 Limitations While an effective standardized ...
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Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis

Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis refers to group of conditions where there is a vascular (angiitis) as well as granulomatous component. At least five distinct clinical syndromes are known, which include: eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Churg-Strauss syndr...
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Pulmonary arterial calcification

Pulmonary arterial calcification is the phenomenon which is usually seen in the setting of advanced pulmonary hypertension. It can however be uncommonly present in those without pulmonary hypertension. Pathology The general mechanism in the vast majority is thought to be from high end pulmonar...
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Pulmonary aspergillosis

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a collective term used to refer to a number of conditions caused by infection with a fungus of the Aspergillus species (usually Aspergillus fumigatus). There are a number of recognized pulmonary forms, the number depending on the author 1,3-4 . Each form has specific ...
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Pulmonary bleb

Pulmonary blebs are small subpleural thin walled air containing spaces, not larger than 1 or 2 cm in diameter (with the precise limit varying by source). Their walls are less than 1 mm thick. If they rupture, they allow air to escape into pleural space resulting in a spontaneous pneumothorax.  ...
Article

Pulmonary calcification

Pulmonary calcification has many causes and varying morphology: calcific pulmonary nodules or masses nodules moderate-sized nodules calcified granulomas, e.g. prior thoracic histoplasmosis, recovered miliary tuberculosis (rare) micronodules ​healed varicella pneumonia occupational disease...
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Pulmonary cavitation

Pulmonary cavities are thick-walled abnormal gas-filled spaces within the lung. They are usually associated with a nodule, mass, or area of consolidation. A fluid level within the space may be present. Plain radiography and CT form the mainstay of imaging. Terminology According to the Fleischn...
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Pulmonary complications of cirrhosis

There are several pulmonary complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS): considered the commonest portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) hepatic hydrothorax (HH) intrathoracic portosystemic collateral vessel formation The development of portal hypert...
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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a descriptive term given when there is excess of fibrotic tissue in lung. It can occur in a wide range of clinical settings and can be precipitated by a multitude of causes. The term should not be confused with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which is a progressive fibrotic l...
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Pulmonary fungal disease

Pulmonary fungal disease encompasses a broad spectrum of infections related to fungal sources. They can particularly affect immunocompromised individuals. These include: pulmonary aspergillosis: pulmonary aspergillus infection considered the most important in immunocompromised individuals 5 a...
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Pulmonary hemorrhage

Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rather broad term given to describe any form of bleeding into the lung and can arise from a myriad of causes. In a very traditional sense it is described when the following constellation of clinico-radiological features occur simultaneously 2 (although this is never an ...
Article

Pulmonary hypertension (differential)

Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
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Pulmonary infection

Pulmonary infections are common and are caused by a wide range of organisms. Pathology Micro-organisms responsible may enter the lung by three potential routes: via the tracheobronchial tree most commonly due to inhalation of droplets of secretions from another infected human environmental ...
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Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumors via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the u...
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Pulmonary necrosis

Pulmonary necrosis is seen in a variety of conditions, including 1:  pulmonary infections  Klebsiella pneumoniae - Klebsiella pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae - pulmonary haemophilus influenzae infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa - pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infe...
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Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors

Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are a group of lung tumors which are of neuroendocrine cell lineage. These are thought to arise from Kulchitzky cells and range from being low to high grade. These include: carcinoid tumors of the lung bronchial carcinoid tumors typical bronchial carcinoids a...
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Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
Article

Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection

Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection refers to pulmonary infection caused by one of the large number (at least 150) mycobacterial species other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, certain species are much more common than others. Clinical presentation Some patients are...
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Pulmonary ossification

Pulmonary ossification is a rare finding and is characterized by the presence of mature bone in alveolar or interstitial spaces, either localized or disseminated throughout the lung parenchyma. It can be idiopathic (idiopathic pulmonary ossification) or secondary to chronic lung, cardiac or sys...
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Pulmonary vasculitis

Pulmonary vasculitis refers to vasculitides that affect the lung or pulmonary vessels. If this definition is used, a large group of conditions can fall into this category. The respiratory system may be potentially involved in all systemic vasculitides, although to a variable degree. Pathology ...

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