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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

782 results found
Article

Resorptive (obstructive) atelectasis

Resorptive or obstructive atelectasis is a form of lung collapse that is due to obstruction of the airways supplying a lung segment or lobe. It is a term used to distinguish atelectasis identified on imaging based on the underlying pathophysiology to guide diagnosis. Clinical presentation The ...
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Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.  Pathology It is p...
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Retained gallstone

Retained gallstones, also called dropped or slipped gallstones, are common during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.1–20%, and occur when gallstones are inadvertently spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Clinical presentation Many cases of dropped gallstones will be...
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Retrorectal developmental cysts

Retrorectal developmental cysts are rare and mostly congenital benign lesions found in the retrorectal space:  spectrum of cystic teratomas retrorectal epidermoid cyst retrorectal dermoid cyst retrorectal teratoid cyst enteric cysts duplication cyst of the rectum tailgut duplication cyst ...
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Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities refer to peripheral opacities of the lungs, sparing the perihilar region. It is a relatively unusual appearance with a fairly narrow differential: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia organizing pneumonia (formerly bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumon...
Article

Rhizomelic dwarfism

Rhizomelic dwarfism is a type of dwarfism where the dominant feature is proximal (i.e. femoral, humeral) limb shortening. Pathology The following conditions fall under the heading of rhizomelic dwarfism 3 metatropic dysplasia achondrogenesis rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata achondropla...
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Rib notching

Rib notching refers to deformation of the superior or inferior surface of the rib. It can affect a single rib (from trauma or solitary masses e.g. schwannoma) or can affect multiple ribs. Differential diagnosis The differentials differ according to whether it is the superior or inferior surfac...
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Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial (RA) enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial (LA) enlargement. Pathology Etiology Enlargement of the right atrium (RA) can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hype...
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Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileoceca...
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Right lower lobe collapse

A right lower lobe (RLL) collapse has distinctive features, and is usually relatively easily identified. The absence of overlying cardiomediastinal outline makes it easier to appreciate than left lower lobe collapse.  Findings of lower lobe collapse can be grouped together as they are almost id...
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Right lower lobe consolidation

Right lower lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right lower lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
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Right middle lobe collapse

Right middle lobe collapse (or simply termed middle lobe collapse) has distinctive features, but can be subtle on frontal chest radiographs.  For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse.   It is important to note that of all the lobes, the right middle lobe is the mo...
Article

Right middle lobe consolidation

Right middle lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right middle lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of ca...
Article

Right upper lobe collapse

Right upper lobe collapse has distinctive features, and is usually easily identified on frontal chest radiographs; much more so than left upper lobe collapse. For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Chest radiograph Collapse of the right ...
Article

Right upper lobe consolidation

Right upper lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right upper lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
Article

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) include: Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1) undescended testis 10-40x increased risk  around 10% of all tumors are associated with undescended testis higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal or...
Article

Round atelectasis

Round atelectasis, also known as rounded atelectasis, folded lung or Blesovsky syndrome, is an unusual type of lung atelectasis where there is infolding of a redundant pleura. The way the lung collapses can at times give a false mass-like appearance. Pathology Two theories have been put forwar...
Article

Sacral lesions

A very wide range of lesions can occur in and around the sacrum.  Tumors primary sacral tumors malignant sacral chordoma: most common primary sacral tumor 1 chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma / pPNET osteosarcoma: often arises from Paget disease in this location multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma ...
Article

Sacroiliitis (differential)

Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the sacroiliac joint) can be a manifestation of a wide range of disease processes. The pattern of involvement is helpful for narrowing down the differential diagnosis. Usually bilateral and symmetrical  enteropathic arthritis Crohn disease ulcerative colitis a...
Article

Salivary gland tumors

Salivary gland tumors are variable in location, origin, and malignant potential.  Pathology In general, the ratio of benign to malignant tumors is proportional to the gland size; i.e. the parotid gland tends to have benign neoplasms, the submandibular gland 50:50, and the sublingual glands and...
Article

Sausage digit

The term sausage digit refers to the clinical and radiologic appearance of diffuse fusiform swelling of a digit due to soft-tissue inflammation from underlying arthritis or dactylitis.  Pathology The common causes of sausage digit are psoriatic arthropathy osteomyelitis sickle cell anemia ...
Article

Scalp hematoma

A scalp hematoma usually occurs following an injury at delivery although they are commonly seen with head trauma. Classification There are three types of hematoma, which are defined by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull peri...
Article

Scapholunate angle

The scapholunate angle is the angle between the long axis of the scaphoid and the mid axis of the lunate on the sagittal imaging of the wrist. In a normal situation, it should be between 30 and 60o in the resting (neutral) position. The scapholunate angle is abnormal in carpal instability: inc...
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Scapular fracture

Scapula fractures are uncommon injuries, representing ~3% of all shoulder fractures. Pathology Mechanisms of injury requires high energy trauma (e.g. motor vehicle accidents account for 50% of scapular fractures) direct trauma to the shoulder region indirect trauma through falling on outstr...
Article

Scham sign (hip)

The Scham sign of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is one of the subtle signs that may be seen on the AP view of an adolescent hip with early slip. In the normal adolescent hip, an intraarticular portion of the diaphysis of the collum overlies the posterior wall of the acetabulum inferiomedial...
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Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
Article

SCIWORA

SCIWORA is the abbreviation of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality 1,2. This can be an indication for MRI when there is a persisting, objective myelopathy after a traumatic event with normal plain film and CT findings. It accounts for ~10% of spinal cord injuries.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Sclerosing bone dysplasias

Sclerosing bone dysplasias comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders (skeletal dysplasias) united by the presence of sclerosis of one form or another. Some of these entities are thought to be related (e.g. osteopoikilosis, melorheostosis and Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome) 1.  They include: cra...
Article

Sclerosing cholangitis

There are three forms of sclerosing cholangitis: primary sclerosing cholangitis IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis secondary sclerosing cholangitis
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Sclerotic bone metastases

Sclerotic or blastic bone metastases can arise from a number of different primary malignancies including 1-4: prostate carcinoma (most common) breast carcinoma (may be mixed) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) carcinoid medulloblastoma neuroblastoma mucinous adenocarcinoma of the gastroint...
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Sclerotic clavicle

Sclerotic clavicles have many causes: trauma: fractured clavicle arthritis: osteoarthritis, seronegative arthritides osteitis condensans of the clavicle 1 SAPHO syndrome clavicular tumors metastases osteosarcoma lymphoma osteoblastoma bone island tumor-like lesions eosinophilic granu...
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Scrotal infections

The scrotum and its content are subject to a number of infective processes including:  scrotal cellulitis scrotal abscess Fournier gangrene epididymitis epididymo-orchitis orchitis testicular abscess scrotal filariasis
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Scrotal tunica cyst

Scrotal tunica cysts are paratesticular cystic lesions. They include: tunica vaginalis cysts tunica albuginea cysts Radiographic features Ultrasound  Typically seen as a simple appearing paratesticular cystic lesion not in the region of the epididymis. See also paratesticular lesions
Article

Secondary organizing pneumonia

Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) refers to organizing pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) in which no cause is present.  Pathology Etiology SOP can be attributed to the following causes 1: Prior infection bacteria ...
Article

Segmental atelectasis

Segmental atelectasis refers to collapse of one or several segments of a lung lobe. It is a morphological subtype of lung atelectasis. It is better appreciated on CT and Its radiographic appearance can range from being a thin linear to a wedge shaped opacity then does not abut an interlobar fiss...
Article

Sensorineural hearing loss

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) refers to deafness secondary to conditions affecting the inner ear, internal acoustic canal, cerebellopontine angle, or vestibulocochlear nerve. Pathology Conditions that cause sensorineural hearing loss can be divided by location: inner ear bony labyrinth ...
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Seronegative spondyloarthritis

Seronegative spondyloarthritides, also known as spondyloarthropathies (SpA), are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes linked by common clinical features and immunopathologic mechanisms. The subtypes of spondyloarthritis are usually distinguished on the basis of history and clinical findings. Te...
Article

Shaggy heart border

The shaggy heart border is a descriptive term referring to the ill definition of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. Due to its imprecise nature, some caution is advised against its use in radiological reports 4. It usually implies pleural disease on the mediastinal interface 3 and ma...
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Shifting granuloma sign

Shifting granuloma sign refers to a shift in the location of a parenchymal lesion visible on prior films that may be seen in the presence of atelectasis. For example, this occurs when a calcified granuloma is present in a lung and a significant parenchymal collapse "shifts" it from one location...
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Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when it is under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-parietal diameter. It can occur in isolated or in associati...
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Shortened fetal humerus

Shortened fetal humerus is a morphological description and is usually defined when the humeral length falls below the 5th percentile or less than 0.9 as predicted by the biparietal diameter (BPD). It can occur in isolation or in association with a number of other anomalies. The humeral length i...
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Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals/metatarsals

Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals and less commonly metatarsals is seen in a variety of apparently disparate conditions.  Pathology Etiology Common causes 2: idiopathic post-infective (e.g. osteomyelitis, yaws, tuberculosis dactylitis) pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseudohypopara...
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Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are characterized by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
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Short stem hip arthroplasty

Short stem hip arthroplasties are a special type of hip joint replacement where as the name states the stem is shorter than usual. It is known by various trade names including the NANOS system. In selected patients it is thought to result in fewer complication rates 1.
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Short umbilical cord

Short umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord is 50-70 cm 1-2, a short cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is under 35-40 cm in length at term 1-2.  Pathology Associations Recognized associations include chromosomal anomalie...
Article

Simultanagnosia

Simultanagnosia is the inability of one to perceive more than one object at a time. It is a characteristic symptom of Bálint syndrome and can also be seen with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA).
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Sincipital encephalocele

Sincipital encephaloceles are congenital herniations of cerebral parenchyma through a cranial defect. There are three main types 1,2: frontonasal encephalocele (~50%): more common in Asia and Latin America 4 naso-ethmoidal encephalocele (30%): more common in North America 4 naso-orbital (naso...
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Single layer periosteal reaction

Single layer (or lamellar) periosteal reaction is a uniformly dense, single thin layer of new bone about 1-2 mm from the cortical surface. It usually denotes a acute or subacute pathological process. Passive hyperemia causes increased osteoblastic activity and production of new bone. Pathology ...
Article

Single pleural based mass (differential)

The differential for a single pleural mass is essentially the same as that for multiple pleural masses with the addition of a few entities.  tumors pleural tumors solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (pleural fibroma) mesothelioma localized mediastinal malignant mesothelioma metastatic pl...
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Sinonasal disease

The nasal passage and paranasal sinuses (collectively sinonasal) plays host to a number of diseases and conditions, which can be collectively termed sinonasal disease. One way of classifying separate entities is as follows: inflammatory and infective conditions sinusitis acute sinusitis Pott...
Article

Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
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Skeletal dysplasia

Skeletal dysplasia (also known as osteochondrodysplasia) refers to any abnormality in bone formation. There is a very wide clinicopathological spectrum and any part of the skeleton can be affected. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is estimated at ~2 per 10,000 live births 3. Pathology Typ...
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Skeletal lesions with giant cells

There are a number of skeletal lesions with giant cells on histology, which may occasionally lead to mischaracterization of the lesion. Below is a list of lesions with giant cells as an important histological feature, to aid in differential diagnosis if the histological diagnosis of a lesion do...
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Skeletal metastasis

Skeletal metastases (a.k.a. bone metastases) are common and result in significant morbidity in patients with metastatic disease. Although the diagnosis is often straightforward, especially as in many cases there is a well-documented history of metastatic malignancy, sometimes they may mimic beni...
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Skeletal muscle edema on MRI (differential)

The presence of intramuscular edema (increased high T2/STIR signal) on MRI carries an extremely broad differential. They include: trauma effects of direct injury or tear denervation injury: denervation changes in muscles early myositis ossificans inflammatory myopathies dermatomyositis po...
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Skin thickening on mammography (differential)

The presence of skin thickening on mammography is variably defined, usually being more than 2 mm in thickness. It can result from a number of both benign and malignant causes. They include: Malignant inflammatory breast cancer: one of the most concerning causes of skin thickening: this usually...
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Skull base angle

The skull base angle allows the diagnosis of platybasia and basilar kyphosis. There are several different techniques that may be used on sagittal images from MRI or CT. Traditionally, basal angle measurements were based on plain skull images. With the advent and generalization of MR imaging it ...
Article

Skull tumors

Skull tumors can be (as with tumors anywhere else) both primary and secondary, and benign or malignant. Primary Benign osteoma ossifying fibroma osteoblastoma hemangioma giant cell tumor (GCT) aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) epidermoid and dermoid cysts chondroma Malignant osteosarcoma c...
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Small bowel folds (differential)

Regular, smooth generalized thickening edema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic edema infection radiation ischemia hemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diathesis vasculitides IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura) Buerger diseas...
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Small bowel imaging

Small bowel imaging aims at assessment of the disorders of small intestine. Imaging techniques barium follow through fluoroscopic enteroclysis conventional CT CT enteroclysis MR enteroclysis CT enterography MR enterography capsule endoscopy
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Small bowel ischemia

Small bowel ischemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying etiologies (each discussed separately) bei...
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Small for date fetus

A small for dates fetus can result from a number of factors Fetal factors aneuploidy trisomy triploidy skeletal dysplasia(s) structural anomalies (syndromes) Maternal factors Common hypertension medication(s): fetal Warfarin syndrome hydantoin embryopathy (Dilantin TM) cytotoxic dru...
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Small lung volume (differential diagnosis)

The following differential diagnoses can be considered when small lung volumes are seen: pulmonary fibrosis prior surgery, e.g. lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery pleural disease, e.g. pleural thickening skeletal deformities, e.g. kyphosis, scoliosis systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
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Small placenta

A small placenta if observed on antenatal ultrasound can arise from a number of situations. They include: variation in placental morphology: where only part of the placenta is seen bilobed placenta: with only one lobe seen succenturiate lobe: with either main lobe or succenturiate lobe not se...
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Smoking related lung disease

Smoking related lung diseases are the respiratory manifestations of disease that are related to the smoking of tobacco. Smoking affects the lungs in numerous ways, and can be classified under the following headings: smoking related-interstitial lung diseases (SR-ILD) respiratory bronchiolitis ...
Article

Snake eyes (facial nerve)

Snake eyes, also known as snail eyes, is a term used to refer to the appearance of the facial nerve on coronal CT within its canal in the petrous temporal bone as the tympanic segment doubles back next to the labyrinthine segment. Anteriorly, these two segments converge at the geniculate ganglio...
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Soft tissue calcification

Soft tissue calcification is commonly seen and caused by a wide range of pathology. Differential diagnosis There is a wide range of causes of soft tissue calcification 1: dystrophic soft tissue calcification (most common) chronic venous insufficiency 2 vascular arterial calcification phle...
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Soft tissue lesions with predominately low T1 and T2 signal (differential)

Soft tissue lesions with predominately low T1 and T2 signal have a reasonably long differential, including:  Common air densely calcified/ossified lesions foreign body gout flow voids arteriovenous fistula aneurysm post-operative changes  hematoma, chronic plantar fibromatosis pigmen...
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Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and pediatric population are listed below. A...
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Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid lesions with enhancement are by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. Differential diagnosis macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the origin is wi...
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Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of mature new bone adjacent to the cortex. It denotes a longstanding pathological process. Pathology It has been associated with: osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteos...
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Solitary filling defect of the ureter (differential)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has some differentials, including: within the lumen calculus sloughed papilla blood clot benign polyp within the wall transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tuberculosis  metastasis endometriosis When multiple fi...
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Solitary ill-defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Ill-defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be caused by following entities 1: intraosseous hemangioma chondroblastoma osteoblastoma giant cell tumor fibrosarcoma of bone malignant fibrous histiocytoma chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma angiosarcoma multiple myeloma intraoss...
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Solitary lucent skull lesion

Solitary lucent lesion of the skull is a relatively frequent finding. The differential is heavily influenced by the patient's age. Older adult/elderly metastasis/malignancy breast cancer lung cancer melanoma thyroid cancer renal cell cancer multiple myeloma epidermoid and dermoid hema...
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Solitary pulmonary nodules

Solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is defined as a relatively well defined round or oval pulmonary parenchymal lesion equal to or smaller than 30 mm in diameter. It is surrounded by pulmonary parenchyma and/or visceral pleura and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia 9. ...
Article

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion

The differential diagnosis of a solitary sclerotic bone lesion is heavily influenced by the age of the patient, and includes: sclerotic metastasis solitary either because no others are present or no others have been imaged enostosis (bone island) osteosarcoma calcifying enchondroma osteobl...
Article

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent center

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent center have a number of differentials: neoplastic osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma infective Brodie abscess tuberculosis syphilis yaws
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Solitary well defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Well defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be seen with following conditions 1-2: subchondral geodes or cysts intraosseous ganglion intraosseous tophus (gout) unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst glomus tumor enchondroma epidermoid inclusion cyst chondroblastoma non-ossifying fi...
Article

Somatostatinoma

Somatostatinomas are a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor. They may represent around 1% of all gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Clinical presentation The presentation can be variable. Patients with functional somatostatinoma may present with an "inhibitory syndrome" which is a tria...
Article

Sonographic values in obstetrics and gynecology

Obstetric and gynecological ultrasound is rampant with numerous cut off values. Some of these get revised over the years. The following list is a useful aid to refer to and revise. 1 mm rate of increase of a mean sac diameter per day in early pregnancy 2 mm generally accepted value for a thi...
Article

Speckled anterior horn of lateral meniscus

The speckled appearance of the anterior horn of lateral meniscus is a feature that can be seen as a normal variant on MRI scans. It is usually seen near its central attachment site. It is often explained by fibers of the anterior cruciate ligament and the covering synovium inserting into the men...
Article

Spiculated periosteal reaction

Spiculated periosteal reaction represents spicules of new bone forming along vascular channels and the fibrous bands that anchor tendons to bone (Sharpey fibers). A spiculated periosteal reaction signifies a rapid underlying process that prevents formation of new bone under the raised periosteum...
Article

Spinal cord compression

Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency, usually requiring prompt surgical decompression to prevent permanent neurological impairment. If the spinal roots below the conus medullaris are involved, it is termed cauda equina syndrome. Pathology Etiology There are numerous causes of cord ...
Article

Spinal dysraphism

Spinal dysraphisms refer to a broad group of malformations affecting the spine and/or surrounding structures in the dorsum of the embryo. They are a form of neural tube defect. Pathology The neural tube is formed by the lengthwise closure of the neural plate, in the dorsum of the embryo. The ...
Article

Spinal epidural cystic lesions (differential)

Spinal epidural cystic lesions are fluid-filled lesions within the spinal canal but outside the thecal sac. Their clinical significance is as a potential contributor to spinal cord or nerve root impingement. The differential diagnosis for spinal epidural cysts consists of several entities that d...
Article

Spinal epidural mass

The differential diagnosis for a spinal epidural mass includes: epidural metastasis epidural abscess herniated nucleus pulposus epidural hematoma epidural arteriovenous malformation epidural angiolipoma epidural lipomatosis
Article

Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardrop...
Article

Spinal hematoma

Spinal hematomas are a rare clinical entity and are often idiopathic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial, lest they cause permanent neurological damage. Identifying the location of the hematoma is important for treatment, as is distinguishing it, to the extent possible, from other entit...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
Article

Spinal vascular malformations

Spinal vascular malformations (SVM) are rare but knowledge of them is important as if undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to serious complications.  Pathology There are two main types of SVMs 1,2: spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF): 70% of SVMs pial: small, large, or giant dural AVF (DA...
Article

Splenic abscess

Splenic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localized collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic or fungal agents. They uncommonly affect the spleen due to its efficient reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity and, consequently, are more likely seen in...
Article

Splenic amyloidosis

Splenic amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity. Most often it is associated with either systemic amyloidosis or hepatic amyloidosis. Epidemiology In general, splenic involvement in amyloidosis is rather frequent (5-10% of cases 6,7). Clinical presentation Symptoms include abdominal mass a...
Article

Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur is various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of etiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where ...

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