Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

908 results found
Article

Pulsatile exophthalmos

Pulsatile exophthalmos or pulsatile proptosis is a clinical symptom characterized by protrusion and pulsation of the eyeball that can occur due to various causes: caroticocavernous fistulas neurofibromatosis type 1 (with sphenoid wing dysplasia) 2 arteriovenous malformation trauma (orbital r...
Article

Pulsatile tinnitus

Pulsatile tinnitus is a specific type of tinnitus and refers to the perception of rhythmic noise, usually in time with the patient's heartbeat, in the absence of an external source, which is most commonly but not exclusively due to underlying vascular pathology. Clinical presentation Patients ...
Article

Pure ground glass nodules

Pure ground glass lung nodules are a subtype of ground glass lung nodules where there is no associated solid component. They have been shown to represent various pathologies such as 1,3 adenocarcinoma in situ of lung minimally-invasive adenocarcinoma of lung invasive adenocarcinoma of lung ...
Article

Purely intrasellar pituitary mass

Purely intrasellar pituitary masses have a similar differential as the more generic pituitary region mass gamut, or the mnemonic SATCHMO, although some entities are far more common than others. Differential diagnosis pituitary hyperplasia pituitary microadenoma Rathke cleft cyst intracrania...
Article

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis (plural: pyelonephritides) refers to an upper urinary (renal) tract infection with associated renal pelvis, renal calyceal and renal parenchymal inflammation, and comprises a heterogeneous group of conditions. bacterial pyelonephritis chronic pyelonephritis renal tuberculosis ...
Article

Pyometrium

Pyometrium refers to infection of the endometrial cavity with resulting expansion due to accumulated pus (pyometra). The postmenopausal demographic are most commonly affected due to the association with uterine malignancy. Pathology Causes endometritis / pelvic inflammatory disease uterine ...
Article

Pyopneumothorax

Pyopneumothorax (also known as infected hydropneumothorax or empyemic hydropneumothorax) is a pleural collection of pus and air. It may be thought of a variant of a thoracic empyema with air containing components although the etiology may be different. Clinical presentation The patient usually...
Article

Quantitative computed tomography (overview)

Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can refer to quantitative computed tomography - bone (in BMD assessment) quantitative computed tomography - thoracic imaging
Article

Rachitic rosary

Rachitic rosary refers to expansion of the anterior rib ends at the costochondral junctions and is most frequently seen in rickets as nodularity at the costochondral junctions. Differential diagnosis Other causes of this appearance include:  scurvy the costochondral junction is more angular ...
Article

Ranawat's line

Ranawat's line is the perpendicular distance between the center of the sclerotic ring of C2 and a line drawn along the axis of the C1 vertebra. Normal value is 17 mm in males and 15 mm in females. It is decreased in basilar invagination. History and etymology Chitranjan S Ranawat is an Americ...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
Article

Rectal foreign bodies

Rectal foreign bodies are not uncommon in emergency departments around the world and potentially cause management difficulties. Epidemiology The incidence varies according to the region, said to be uncommon in Asia and most common in Eastern Europe 1. Typically patients are male with a wide ra...
Article

Red marrow depletion (differential)

Complete fatty replacement of red marrow with fat on MRI can occur in a number of situations which includes: aplastic anemia chemotherapy regional radiation therapy See also bone marrow
Article

Reeder and Felson's Gamuts in Radiology

Reeder and Felson's Gamuts in Radiology, first published in 1975, provided comprehensive lists of radiological differential diagnoses, or gamuts, and was a bestseller for many years. The current publisher is Springer. The first edition was edited and, primarily, written by Ben Felson and Mauric...
Article

Regional osteopenia

Regional osteopenia describes a localized or regional decrease in bone mineral density.   Pathology Etiology disuse osteopenia (usually an aggressive osteoporosis with pseudopermeative pattern) immobilization of fractures paralyzed segments bone and joint infections complex regional pain ...
Article

Renal artery dissection

Renal artery dissection may occur as a result of the following processes 1: aortic dissection extending to involve the renal artery iatrogenic (e.g. catheterization) trauma atherosclerosis fibromuscular dysplasia connective tissue disease (eg. Marfan syndrome) idiopathic
Article

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
Article

Renal cortical defect

Renal cortical defects have a variety of causes, and present on imaging as an area of focal cortical thinning or absence of renal cortex, sometimes accompanied by focal caliectasis.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for a renal cortical defect includes 1,2: renal scarring re...
Article

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal papillary necrosis refers to ischemic necrosis of the renal papillae. Necrosis also occurs in the medullary pyramids. Clinical features Patients can present with both acute episodes or chronic renal papillary necrosis. Calyceal or ureteral obstruction by sloughed papillae manifest with f...
Article

Renal pseudotumor

A renal pseudotumor is a mass that will simulate a tumor on imaging but is composed of non-neoplastic tissue. There are many examples 1: Developmental prominent column of Bertin persistent fetal lobulation dromedary hump splenorenal fusion cross-fused renal ectopia renal hilar lip Infect...
Article

Renal transplant

Renal transplantation is one, if not the most, common transplant procedures undertaken worldwide. Consequently, purposeful and incidental imaging of renal transplants and renal transplant-related complications are increasingly common. These include acute renal transplant rejection and chronic re...
Article

Renal vein varices

Renal vein varices develop for various reasons and are usually asymptomatic. Clinical presentation Renal vein varices are usually asymptomatic. Some patients may present with flank pain and/or hematuria. Pathology Etiology chronic renal vein thrombosis nutcracker syndrome retroaortic le...
Article

Residual breast cancer

A residual breast cancer is a remaining portion of the original primary breast cancer after an incomplete resection or following radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The term is particularly used in assessing patients who have had neo-adjuvant chemo +/- radiotherapy.
Article

Resorptive (obstructive) atelectasis

Resorptive or obstructive atelectasis is a form of lung collapse that is due to obstruction of the airways supplying a lung segment or lobe. It is a term used to distinguish atelectasis identified on imaging based on the underlying pathophysiology to guide diagnosis. Clinical presentation The ...
Article

Respiratory chain metabolic toxins

A number of toxins affect the respiratory chain and result in typical changes within the brain. Pathology carbon monoxide inhibits electron transfer and avidly binds to hemoglobin displacing oxygen globus pallidus typically affected see: carbon monoxide poisoning methanol metabolized to f...
Article

Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is a term to denote when the respiratory system fails in one or both of its gas exchange functions: oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. This results in arterial oxygen and/or carbon dioxide levels being unable to be maintained within their normal range. While it is no...
Article

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors or RECIST refers to a set of published rules used to assess tumor burden in order to provide an objective assessment of response to therapy. They were initially introduced in 2000 and have undergone subsequent revision in 2009 (RECIST 1.1). For the ev...
Article

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.  Pathology It is p...
Article

Retained gallstone

Retained gallstones, also called dropped or slipped gallstones, are common during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.1–20%, and occur when gallstones are inadvertently spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Clinical presentation Many cases of dropped gallstones will be...
Article

Retrolisthesis

The term retrolisthesis (more rarely the synonyms retrospondylolisthesis or posterolisthesis) refers to posterior displacement of a vertebral body relative to one below. Pathology Causes include: trauma facet joint osteoarthritis congenital anomalies: e.g. pedicle underdevelopment Radiogra...
Article

Retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation

Retroperitoneal lymphatic malformations are rare benign cystic lesions of vascular origin that show lymphatic differentiation. For a broader discussion, please refer to the parental article on lymphangioma.  Terminology These malformations were formerly called lymphangiomas. This expression is...
Article

Retropulsed fragment

A retropulsed fragment is any vertebral fracture fragment that is displaced into the spinal canal, thereby potentially causing spinal cord injury. They usually arise from the vertebral body with or without a portion of the pedicle, and are displaced posteriorly, hence the prefix 'retro'.
Article

Retrorectal developmental cysts

Retrorectal developmental cysts are rare and mostly congenital benign lesions found in the retrorectal space:  spectrum of cystic teratomas retrorectal epidermoid cyst retrorectal dermoid cyst retrorectal teratoid cyst enteric cysts duplication cyst of the rectum tailgut duplication cyst ...
Article

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities refer to peripheral opacities of the lungs, sparing the perihilar region. It is a relatively unusual appearance with a relatively narrow differential: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia organizing pneumonia (formerly bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pne...
Article

Rhizomelic dwarfism

Rhizomelic dwarfism is a type of dwarfism where the dominant feature is proximal (i.e. femoral, humeral) limb shortening. Pathology The following conditions fall under the heading of rhizomelic dwarfism 3 metatropic dysplasia achondrogenesis rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata achondropla...
Article

Rib fractures

Rib fractures are a common consequence of trauma and can cause life-threatening complications. Pathology The 4th-10th ribs are the most commonly fractured 1. Fractures of the 1st-3rd ribs are associated with high-energy trauma 3. When the rib is fractured twice, the term floating rib is used ...
Article

Rib notching

Rib notching refers to deformation of the superior or inferior surface of the rib. It can affect a single rib (from trauma or solitary masses e.g. schwannoma) or can affect multiple ribs. Differential diagnosis The differentials differ according to whether it is the superior or inferior surfac...
Article

Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial enlargement. Pathology Causes Enlargement of the right atrium can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hypertension cor pul...
Article

Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
Article

Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileoceca...
Article

Right lower lobe collapse

A right lower lobe (RLL) collapse has distinctive features, and is usually relatively easily identified. The absence of overlying cardiomediastinal outline makes it easier to appreciate than left lower lobe collapse.  Findings of lower lobe collapse can be grouped together as they are almost id...
Article

Right lower lobe consolidation

Right lower lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right lower lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
Article

Right middle lobe collapse

Right middle lobe collapse (or simply termed middle lobe collapse) has distinctive features, but can be subtle on frontal chest radiographs.  For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse.   It is important to note that of all the lobes, the right middle lobe is the mo...
Article

Right middle lobe consolidation

Right middle lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right middle lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of ca...
Article

Right upper lobe collapse

Right upper lobe collapse has distinctive features, and is usually easily identified on frontal chest radiographs; much more so than left upper lobe collapse. For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Chest radiograph Collapse of the right ...
Article

Right upper lobe consolidation

Right upper lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right upper lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
Article

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) include: Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1) undescended testis 10-40x increased risk  around 10% of all tumors are associated with undescended testis higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal or...
Article

Round atelectasis

Round atelectasis, also known as rounded atelectasis, folded lung or Blesovsky syndrome, is an unusual type of lung atelectasis where there is infolding of a redundant pleura. The way the lung collapses can at times give a false mass-like appearance. Pathology Two theories have been put forwar...
Article

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

In many centers, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has become the most common bariatric procedure for morbid obesity.  In this operation, the stomach is stapled or divided to form a small pouch (typically <30 mL in volume), which empties into a Roux limb of the jejunum of varying length (ty...
Article

Rule of 4 of the brainstem

The rule of 4 of the brainstem was devised by Peter Gates, an Australian neurologist, in 2003 in order to simply explain the anatomy of the brainstem and basis of brainstem stroke syndromes to the non-neurologist and medical student 1-3. This article summarizes Gates' four rules, associated impo...
Article

Sacral lesions

A very wide range of lesions can occur in and around the sacrum.  Tumors primary sacral tumors malignant sacral chordoma: most common primary sacral tumor 1 chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma / pPNET osteosarcoma: often arises from Paget's disease in this location multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma...
Article

Sacroiliitis (differential)

Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the sacroiliac joint) can be a manifestation of a wide range of disease processes. The pattern of involvement is helpful for narrowing down the differential diagnosis. Usually bilateral and symmetrical  enteropathic arthritis Crohn disease ulcerative colitis a...
Article

Salivary gland tumors

Salivary gland tumors are variable in location, origin and malignant potential.  Pathology In general, the ratio of benign to malignant tumors is proportional to the gland size; i.e. the parotid gland tends to have benign neoplasms, the submandibular gland 50:50, and the sublingual glands and ...
Article

Sarcoidosis (head and neck manifestations)

Head and neck manifestations of sarcoidosis can have three main forms: orbital involvement: orbital sarcoidosis parotid gland involvement nodal involvement: cervical lymphadenopathy in sarcoidosis
Article

Scalp hematoma

A scalp hematoma usually occurs following an injury at delivery although they are commonly seen with head trauma. Classification There are three types of hematoma, which are defined by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull peri...
Article

Scapholunate angle

The scapholunate angle is the angle between the long axis of the scaphoid and the mid axis of the lunate on the sagittal imaging of the wrist. In a normal situation, it should be between 30 and 60o in the resting (neutral) position. The scapholunate angle is abnormal in carpal instability: inc...
Article

Scapular fracture

Scapula fractures are uncommon injuries, representing ~3% of all shoulder fractures. Pathology Mechanisms of injury requires high energy trauma (e.g. motor vehicle accidents account for 50% of scapular fractures) direct trauma to the shoulder region indirect trauma through falling on outstr...
Article

Scham sign (hip)

The Scham sign of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is one of the subtle signs that may be seen on the AP view of an adolescent hip with early slip. In the normal adolescent hip, an intraarticular portion of the diaphysis of the collum overlies the posterior wall of the acetabulum inferiomedial...
Article

Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
Article

Sciatic hernia

Sciatic hernia is a rare type of pelvic floor hernia, which occurs through either the greater or lesser sciatic foramina. It can contain variable structures. See also curlicue ureter sign
Article

SCIWORA

SCIWORA is the abbreviation of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality 1,2. This can be an indication for MRI when there is a persisting, objective myelopathy after a traumatic event with normal plain film and CT findings. It accounts for ~10% of spinal cord injuries.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Sclerosing bone dysplasias

Sclerosing bone dysplasias comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders (skeletal dysplasias) united by the presence of sclerosis of one form or another. Some of these entities are thought to be related (e.g. osteopoikilosis, melorheostosis and Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome) 1.  They include: cra...
Article

Sclerosing cholangitis

There are three forms of sclerosing cholangitis: primary sclerosing cholangitis IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis secondary sclerosing cholangitis
Article

Sclerotic bone metastases

Sclerotic or blastic bone metastases can arise from a number of different primary malignancies including 1-5: prostate carcinoma (most common) breast carcinoma (may be mixed) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) carcinoid medulloblastoma neuroblastoma mucinous adenocarcinoma of the gastroint...
Article

Sclerotic clavicle

Sclerotic clavicles have many causes: trauma: fractured clavicle arthritis: osteoarthritis, seronegative arthritides osteitis condensans of the clavicle 1 SAPHO syndrome clavicular tumors metastases osteosarcoma lymphoma osteoblastoma bone island tumor-like lesions eosinophilic granu...
Article

Scrotal infections

The scrotum and its content are subject to a number of infective processes including:  scrotal cellulitis scrotal abscess Fournier gangrene epididymitis epididymo-orchitis orchitis testicular abscess
Article

Scrotal tunica cyst

Scrotal tunica cysts are paratesticular cystic lesions. They include: tunica vaginalis cysts tunica albuginea cysts Radiographic features Ultrasound  Typically seen as a simple appearing paratesticular cystic lesion not in the region of the epididymis. See also paratesticular lesions
Article

Secondary organizing pneumonia

Secondary organizing pneumonia (SOP) refers to organizing pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Pathology Etiology SOP can be attributed to the following causes 1: Prior infection bacteria atypical pneumonias (e.g. Legi...
Article

Segmental atelectasis

Segmental atelectasis refers to collapse of one or several segments of a lung lobe. It is a morphological subtype of lung atelectasis. It is better appreciated on CT and Its radiographic appearance can range from being a thin linear to a wedge shaped opacity then does not abut an interlobar fiss...
Article

Sensorineural hearing loss

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) refers to deafness secondary to conditions affecting the inner ear, internal acoustic canal, cerebellopontine angle, or vestibulocochlear nerve. Pathology Conditions that cause SNHL can be divided by location: inner ear bony labyrinth otosclerosis (and othe...
Article

Seronegative spondyloarthritis

Seronegative spondyloarthritides, also known as spondyloarthropathies (SpA), are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes linked by common clinical features and immunopathologic mechanisms. The subtypes of spondyloarthritis are usually distinguished on the basis of history and clinical findings. Te...
Article

Shaggy heart border

The shaggy heart border is a descriptive term referring to the ill definition of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. Due to its imprecise nature, some caution is advised against its use in radiological reports 4. It usually implies pleural disease on the mediastinal interface 3 and ma...
Article

Shifting granuloma sign

Shifting granuloma sign refers to a shift in the location of a parenchymal lesion visible on prior films that may be seen in the presence of atelectasis. For example, this occurs when a calcified granuloma is present in a lung and a significant parenchymal collapse "shifts" it from one location...
Article

Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when it is under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-parietal diameter. It can occur in isolated or in associati...
Article

Shortened fetal humerus

Shortened fetal humerus is a morphological description and is usually defined when the humeral length falls below the 5th percentile or less than 0.9 as predicted by the biparietal diameter (BPD). It can occur in isolation or in association with a number of other anomalies. The humeral length i...
Article

Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals/metatarsals

Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals and less commonly metatarsals is seen in a variety of apparently disparate conditions.  Pathology Etiology Common causes 2: idiopathic post-infective (e.g. osteomyelitis, yaws, tuberculosis dactylitis) pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseudohypopara...
Article

Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are characterized by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
Article

Short stem hip arthroplasty

Short stem hip arthroplasties are a special type of hip joint replacement where as the name states the stem is shorter than usual. It is known by various trade names including the NANOS system. In selected patients it is thought to result in fewer complication rates 1.
Article

Short umbilical cord

Short umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord is 50-70 cm 1-2, a short cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is under 35-40 cm in length at term 1-2.  Pathology Associations Recognized associations include chromosomal anomalie...
Article

Shoulder instability

Shoulder instability is tendency of the glenohumeral joint to sublux or dislocate due to loss of its normal functional or anatomical stabilizers: static or anatomical: articular surface  labrum glenohumeral ligaments glenohumeral joint capsule coroacoacromial arch negative adhesive forces...
Article

Silicone injection and insertion (cosmetic)

Silicone injection into various parts of the body has been used in many countries to achieve what are perceived to be cosmetic improvements. Most common sites for such injections are the breasts, face, and buttocks, although anywhere can be targeted.  This article is a general discussion of the...
Article

Simultanagnosia

Simultanagnosia is the inability of one to perceive more than one object at a time. It is a characteristic symptom of Bálint syndrome and can also be seen with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA).
Article

Sincipital encephalocele

Sincipital encephaloceles are congenital herniations of cerebral parenchyma through a cranial defect. There are three main types 1,2: frontonasal encephalocele (~50%): more common in Asia and Latin America 4 naso-ethmoidal encephalocele (30%): more common in North America 4 naso-orbital (naso...
Article

Single layer periosteal reaction

Single layer periosteal reaction is a uniformly dense, single thin layer of new bone about 1-2 mm from the cortical surface. Passive hyperemia causes increased osteoblastic activity and production of new bone. It is seen in: premature infants for up to 6 months early fracture healing osteosar...
Article

Single pleural based mass (differential)

The differential for a single pleural mass is essentially the same as that for multiple pleural masses with the addition of a few entities.  tumors pleural tumors solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (pleural fibroma) mesothelioma localized mediastinal malignant mesothelioma metastatic pl...
Article

Sinonasal disease

The nasal passage and paranasal sinuses (collectively sinonasal) plays host to a number of diseases and conditions, which can be collectively termed sinonasal disease. One way of classifying separate entities is as follows: inflammatory and infective conditions sinusitis acute sinusitis pott...
Article

Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Skeletal "do not touch" lesions

Skeletal “do not touch” lesions (also called leave me alone lesions) are so characteristic radiographically, that further diagnostic tests such as a biopsy are unnecessary and can be frankly misleading and lead to additional unnecessary surgery. Thus a radiologic diagnosis should be made without...
Article

Skeletal dysplasia

Skeletal dysplasia (also known as osteochondrodysplasia) refers to any abnormality in bone formation. There is a very wide clinicopathological spectrum and any part of the skeleton can be affected. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is estimated at ~2 per 10,000 live births 3. Pathology Typ...
Article

Skeletal lesions with giant cells

There are a number of skeletal lesions with giant cells on histology, which may occasionally lead to mischaracterization of the lesion. Below is a list of lesions with giant cells as an important histological feature, to aid in differential diagnosis if the histological diagnosis of a lesion do...
Article

Skeletal metastasis

Skeletal metastases are common and result in significant morbidity in patients with metastatic disease. Although the diagnosis is often straightforward, especially as in many cases there is a well-documented history of metastatic malignancy, sometimes they may mimic benign disease or other prima...
Article

Skeletal muscle edema on MRI (differential)

The presence of intramuscular edema (increased high T2/STIR signal) on MRI carries an extremely broad differential. They include: trauma effects of direct injury or tear denervation injury: denervation changes in muscles early myositis ossificans inflammatory myopathies dermatomyositis po...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.