Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,140 results found
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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis (plural: pancreatitides) refers to inflammation involving the pancreas.  It has various forms which can be classified in many many ways according to time of onset, etiological agent or associated pathology. acute pancreatitis interstitial edematous pancreatitis necrotizing pancr...
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Pantaloon hernia

A pantaloon hernia (dual hernia, Romberg hernia or saddle bag hernia) is defined as ipsilateral, concurrent direct and indirect inguinal hernias. Hernial sacs are present on both sides of the inferior epigastric vessels, and separated by the posterior wall of the inguinal canal brought down by t...
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Papillary lesions of the breast

Papillary lesions of the breast comprise a wide group and range from benign to malignant. Pathology They develop as tufts of epithelium with a fibrovascular core that arborize into branching papillae and protrude into the duct lumen. Benign papilloma of breast / intraductal papilloma of the b...
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Paralabral cyst

Paralabral cysts are type of cyst located adjacent to a cartilage labrum of large joints. They are typically described in the shoulder and hip. Please refer to the sub-articles of discussion of these. paralabral cyst of the shoulder paralabral cyst of the hip
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Parasyndesmophytes

Parasyndesmophytes or floating syndesmophytes are, as the name suggests, paravertebral dystrophic soft tissue calcifications or heterotopic ossifications. Pathology They are known to be seen in psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis 4. Radiographic features Initially they begin at a dist...
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Paratesticular lesions

Paratesticular lesions have a long list of differential diagnoses: epididymal cyst (most common epididymal mass) adenomatoid tumor (most common epididymal tumor) scrotal tunica cysts tunica vaginalis cyst tunica albuginea cyst hydrocele scrotal haematocele varicocele scrotolith (scrotal...
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Paratesticular tumors

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testicle within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorized as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Etiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common par...
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Parkinson-plus syndrome

Parkinson-plus syndrome refers to a loose group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by features of Parkinson disease but with other neurological symptoms/signs. They have a poor response to levodopa, and mostly have fairly characteristic neuroimaging features.  Conditions incl...
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Parotid enlargement

Parotid enlargement (also known as parotidomegaly) has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative, and congenital c...
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Passive atelectasis

Passive atelectasis, also known as relaxation atelectasis, refers to a form of lung atelectasis due to loss of the negative pressure state in the pleural space. With a loss of the negative intrapleural pressure, the lung is no longer held against the chest wall and is said to relax back to its n...
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Patella alta

Patella alta, or a high riding patella, describes a situation where the position of the patella is considered high. It may be idiopathic or may result secondary to a patellar tendon rupture.  Epidemiology Associations Several conditions are known to be associated with patella alta, including:...
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Patella baja

Patella baja (or patella infera) is an abnormally low lying patella, which is associated with restricted range of motion, crepitations, and retropatellar pain. If longstanding, extensor dysfunction may ensue with significant morbidity.  It is seen in a variety of clinical scenarios including 1: ...
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Patellar tendon rupture

Patellar tendon rupture is one of the extensor mechanism of the knee injuries and occurs almost invariably at either the patellar or tibial insertion of the patellar tendon, when in the setting of trauma, and is often associated with a small avulsion fracture. Most commonly, it is at the superi...
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Patellar tumors

Patellar tumors are extremely rare. They can be either benign or malignant primary bone tumors, or metastases.  Epidemiology Patellar tumors represent just 0.1% of all primary bone tumors 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with anterior knee pain and/or a palpable mass 1,3. Path...
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Pathological gas

Some medical conditions are characterized by the presence of pathological gas i.e. gas/air found in a space, tissue, or organ, where it would not normally be expected to be. Terminology prefix 'pneumo' is common, especially when it refers to gas within a body space/cavity e.g. pneumothorax em...
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Patterns of bone contusion in knee injury

Pattern of bone contusion in knee injuries can give clues for the mechanism and associated injuries.  Radiographic features Five classic bone contusion patterns have been described 1-4: pivot-shift injury valgus stress to flexed and externally rotated knee contusion pattern: posterolateral ...
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Patterns of neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury

Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injuries can manifest in different patterns of involvement depending on the severity and timing of the insult. When considering the perinatal maturation process of the brain and the severity of an insult, it is possible to understand the various manifestations. T...
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Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or teardrop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Etiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder inc...
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Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A pedunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumor, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma hemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation trac...
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Pelvic digit

Pelvic digit, also known as a pelvic rib, pelvic finger or 11th finger, is a rare congenital abnormality where there is development of bony tissue in the soft tissue pelvis and less commonly in the abdomen. They can be associated with one or more pseudoarticulation. They are usually unilateral, ...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcinom...
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Pelvic pain in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with pelvic pain in the exam.  Most examinations are performed using ultrasound. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram. Only...
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Pencil-in-cup deformity

Pencil-in-cup deformity is the description given to one of the appearances on plain radiograph in psoriatic arthritis. The appearance results from periarticular erosions and bone resorption giving the appearance of a pencil in a cup. Although classically described with psoriatic arthritis, thi...
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Penetrating traumatic neck injury

Penetrating traumatic neck injury can be a potentially devastating injury due to the high density of crucial anatomical structures within the neck.  Epidemiology Young males are highly represented in patients with a traumatic neck injury. In one study, 11:1 ratio of males to females were ident...
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Periampullary tumors

Periampullary tumors are those that arise within 2 cm of the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. Tumors that fall under this group include four main types of tumors 1,4 that will be approached in their specific articles: pancreatic head/uncinate process tumors: includes pancreatic ductal adenoca...
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Periarticular soft tissue calcification

Common causes of periarticular soft tissue calcification include: myositis ossificans post surgical dystrophic calcification or heterotopic bone formation calcific tendinitis or bursitis gout CPPD HADD calcific periarthritis (fingers and toes) tuberculous arthritis scleroderma hyperpar...
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Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Etiology uremia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, the location ...
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Pericardial fat pads

Pericardial fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle. They are adipose tissues surrounding the heart composed of the epicardial fat, which lies between the myocardium and visceral pericardium, and paracardial fat, which is adherent and external to the parietal pericardi...
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Perifissural lung nodules

Perifissural lung nodules (PFNs) are a type of intrapulmonary nodules that, most of the times, represent pulmonary lymph nodes.  Terminology  Although perilymphatic pulmonary nodules can also be perifissural in distribution, they should be distinguished from PFNs, as they are usually associate...
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Perigestational hemorrhage

Perigestational hemorrhage refers to hemorrhage that occurs around the fetus during the gestational period. The spectrum of hemorrhage includes: chorionic hemorrhage: caused by the separation of the chorion from the endometrium  subchorionic hemorrhage: most common type, occurs between the cho...
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Perilymphatic lung nodules

Perilymphatic lung nodules follow perilymphatic channels and on imaging are typically subpleural, occur along fissures, interlobular septae and adjacent to the bronchovascular bundles. Differential diagnosis Lung nodules in a perilymphatic distribution can be seen in association with a number ...
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Perinephric fluid collection post renal transplant

Perinephric fluid collections are commonly seen after renal transplantation. The appearance of a perinephric fluid collection is often nonspecific but may be partially differentiated by when the transplant occurred. Radiographic features Early post-transplant period (<4 weeks) hematoma ultra...
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Periosteal new bone formation in children

Periosteal reaction in the pediatric population, also known as periostitis in children, is relatively common occurrence and can result from many causes. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for multiple bone periostitis include but not limited to the following: physiological peri...
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Periosteal reaction

Periosteal reaction, also known as periostitis or periosteitis, is a non specific radiographic finding that occurs with periosteal irritation. Periosteal reactions may be broadly characterized as benign or aggressive, or more specifically broken down by pattern. Classification Benign versus ag...
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Periportal hyperechogenicity

Periportal hyperechogenicity can result from many causes including: pneumobilia cholecystitis schistosomiasis of the portal region recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (oriental) inflammatory bowel disease: has been described to give "echo-rich" periportal cuffing 2​
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Periportal hypoechogenicity

Periportal hypoechogenicity can result from many causes: orthotopic liver transplant rejection congestive hepatomegaly malignant lymphatic obstruction cholangitis viral hepatitis See also periportal hyperechogenicity periportal halo
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Peritoneal calcification

Peritoneal calcification is seen in a limited number of conditions that result in calcification of peritoneal structures. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is small: psammoma bodies in malignancy (most frequently cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary): fine sand-like calcification pseudomyxoma p...
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Peroneal tubercle hypertrophy

Peroneal tubercle hypertrophy refers to the presence of an unusually large peroneal tubercle. Radiographic features Two bony projections or protuberances may be seen from the lateral wall of the calcaneus – the peroneal tubercle and the retrotrochlear eminence. The peroneal tubercle is presen...
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Per vaginal bleeding in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with per vaginal bleeding in the exam.  Premenopausal embedded IUD lost IUD submucosal fibroid Pregnancy related perigestational hemorrhage intrauterine fetal demise ectopic pregnancy ruptured ectopic cervical ectopic  int...
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Pes planus

Pes planus (also called flatfoot) is a deformity of the foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is abnormally flattened. Pathology It results from loss of the medial longitudinal arch and can be either rigid or flexible. These deformities are usually flexible, which means that on non-weig...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
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Petrous apex lesions (differential)

There is a wide differential diagnosis of petrous apex lesions: asymmetrical marrow / asymmetrical pneumatization non-expansile fat signal intensity on all sequences petrous apex cephalocoele 4 CSF signal intensity on all sequences petrous apicitis congenital cholesteatoma  restricted di...
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Phleboliths

Phleboliths are literally "vein stones", and represent calcification within venous structures. They are particularly common in the pelvis where they may mimic ureteric calculi, and are also encountered frequently in venous malformations. There is an association with Maffucci syndrome.  Radiogra...
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Photopsia

Photopsias are a visual phenomenon experienced by individuals with a variety of ocular or optic pathway pathology. In lay terms they represent flashing lights, and can be divided into unstructured or structured photopsias, the latter referring to geometric shapes 2.  Pathology Etiology Causes...
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Phrenic nerve palsy

Phrenic nerve palsy has many causes, and can be caused by lesions anywhere along the course of the phrenic nerve, as it travels from the neck, to pierce the diaphragm adjacent to the pericardium. Epidemiology No single demographic is affected, as there are numerous causes of a phrenic nerve pa...
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Phthisis bulbi

Phthisis bulbi, also known as end-stage eye, is an atrophic scarred and disorganized globe that may result from a variety of severe ocular insults.  Pathology The globe is reduced in size (usually <20 mm) with a thickened/folded posterior sclera. Dystrophic calcification is common, and osseous...
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Pineal parenchymal tumors

Pineal parenchymal tumors comprise a group of related tumors ranging from the relatively benign to the highly malignant. This group comprises of: pineocytoma 14-30% of pineal parenchymal tumors 2 mature well-differentiated tumor WHO grade I pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differe...
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Pituitary region masses

A simple and popular mnemonic to remember the common suprasellar/parasellar/intrasellar masses is SATCHMO. The more comprehensive list includes: tumors pituitary adenoma (commonest in the adult population) pituitary macroadenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituitary lymphoma...
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Pituitary region masses (most common)

The five most common masses in the pituitary region are: pituitary macroadenoma meningioma aneurysm craniopharyngioma suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma Craniopharyngioma and suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma are common in children, and pituitary macroadenoma, meningioma, aneurysm are mostl...
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Pituitary region mass with intrinsic high T1 signal

Pituitary region mass with an intrinsic high T1 signal, also referred as suprasellar hotspots, are relatively frequently encountered, and the presence of high T1 signal narrows the differential somewhat.  Differential diagnosis pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage/necrosis craniopharyngioma...
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Pituitary tumors

Pituitary tumors, in other words, tumors which arise from the pituitary gland itself, include: pituitary adenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary macroadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituicytoma pituitary metastases spindle cell oncocytoma (rare) Often the term is used more broadly to refer ...
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Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with a number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilical...
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Pleural adhesions

Pleural adhesions usually refers to the formation of fibrotic bands that span the pleural space, between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura.  Pathology They may be local or diffuse. The presence of a pleural adhesion is one of the causes for a pneumothorax not to resolve. Etiology...
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Pleural calcification

Pleural calcification can be the result of a wide range of pathology and can be mimicked by a number of conditions/artifacts. True calcification calcified pleural plaques from asbestos exposure: typically with sparing of the costophrenic angles hemothorax infection involving the pleura: e.g....
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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusions are abnormal accumulations of fluid within the pleural space.  They may result from a variety of pathological processes which overwhelm the pleura's ability to reabsorb fluid. Terminology "Pleural effusion" is commonly used as a catch-all term to describe any abnormal accumul...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Pleural thickening

Pleural thickening is a descriptive term given to describe any form of thickening involving either the parietal or visceral pleura.  It can occur with both benign and malignant pleural disease. According to etiology it may be classified as: benign pleural thickening following recurrent inflam...
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Pleural tumors

There are several tumors that can involve the pleura which can range from being benign to malignant. The list includes: primary pleural tumors malignant pleural mesothelioma pleural fibroma: solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura pleural fibrosarcoma pleural liposarcoma primary pleural lymph...
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Pneumatocele

Pneumatoceles are intrapulmonary air-filled cystic spaces that can have a variety of sizes and appearances. They may contain air-fluid levels and are usually the result of ventilator-induced lung injury in neonates or post-infectious. They should not be mistaken for a cavitating lung mass.  Epi...
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Pneumatosis coli

Pneumatosis coli is a descriptive sign presenting radiographically as intramural gas limited to the colonic wall.  Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Pneumatosis in...
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Pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconioses are a broad group of lung diseases that result from inhalation of dust particles. It is therefore considered part of the spectrum of inhalational lung disease, and also occupational lung diseases. Pathology Etiology The offending agents are mainly mineral dust. They can be broa...
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Pneumonectomy

Pneumonectomy is the complete surgical removal of the lung. It is most commonly performed for a primary lung malignancy. The lung is removed in its entirety providing the patient has adequate pulmonary reserve from the contralateral lung. Recognized post-pneumonectomy complications include: po...
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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a general term in widespread use, defined as infection within the lung. It is due to material, usually purulent, filling the alveoli. Terminology Pneumonia is in contrast to pneumonitis, which is inflammation of the pulmonary interstitium. Of note, some of the interstitial lung di...
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Pneumoparotid

Pneumoparotid refers to air in the parotid gland and can cause unilateral/bilateral parotid swelling. In severe cases it can be associated with subcutaneous emphysema.  Pathology Any profession or recreation that increases oral positive pressure can cause air to reflux up the parotid ducts int...
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Pneumoretroperitoneum

Pneumoretroperitoneum is by definition presence of gas within the retroperitoneal space. Pathology Pneumoretroperitoneum is always abnormal and has a relatively small differential: perforated retroperitoneal hollow viscus duodenum peptic ulcer disease blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma ...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
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Polyarticular arthropathy

Polyarticular arthropathy can arise from a number of causes. The list includes osteoarthritis erosive osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis psoriatic arthritis Reiter's syndrome ankylosing spondylitis gout CPPD hemochromatosis ochronosis hemophilia acromegaly Jaccoud's arthritis mult...
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Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) >25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centers, particularly in ...
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Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition typically affecting elderly people. It is a multisystem disorder but usually affects the musculoskeletal system. It can manifest in various ways, which are best discussed in the separate articles below: polymyalgia rheumatica (mus...
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Polyostotic bone lesions in adults

Common causes of polyostotic bone lesions in adults include: inflammatory arthritic or synovial-based lesions neoplastic benign nonossifying fibromas (fibroxanthomas) polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (McCune-Albright syndrome) malignant multiple myeloma metastases metabolic primary hyper...
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Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end-stage ren...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
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Posterior fossa astrocytoma

Posterior fossa astrocytomas, those arising either from the cerebellum or from the brainstem are most frequently seen in children. Approximately 60% of all pediatric astrocytomas are found in the posterior fossa (20% brainstem, 40% cerebellum). Many types of astrocytoma are found in the posteri...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) infarct

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) occlusion may cause infarction of any of the vascular territory of the PICA, namely the posterior inferior cerebellum, inferior cerebellar vermis and lateral medulla. Epidemiology Typically considered the most common territory involved in cerebellar ...
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Posterior mediastinal mass (differential diagnosis)

The differential diagnosis for a posterior mediastinal mass includes: neoplasm neurogenic tumors - most common  nerve sheath tumors schwannoma neurofibroma malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor parasymphathetic ganglion tumors paraganglioma  chemodectoma pheochromocytoma 3 sympathet...
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Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. A high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
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Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies

Posterior vertebral fusion anomalies are relatively common and should not be mistaken for fractures. They are thought to be both developmental and pathological (e.g. spondylolysis) but are typically asymptomatic and incidental, and considered as anatomical variants. There are six types of poster...
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Post obstructive pulmonary edema

Post-obstructive pulmonary edema is a type of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and is an uncommon but well-described complication of upper airway obstruction. Clinical presentation It essentially occurs in three clinical settings 6: acute airway obstruction chronic upper airway obstruction i...
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Post-sternotomy complications

Post-sternotomy complications comprise of a varied range problem that can occur at varying durations after a median sternotomy. Imaging playing in detection and aiding management. Epidemiology Complication rates for median sternotomy have been reported to range from 0.5-5%, with mortality rate...
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Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
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Pott shunt

A Pott shunt is a form of palliative surgery performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot prior to the ability to repair the defect. It consists of a shunt formed between the descending thoracic aorta and the left pulmonary artery. This does not relieve the right ventricular outflow obstructi...
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Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
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Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
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Pregnancy associated breast cancer

Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is usually defined as a breast breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or one year following delivery. PABC occurs in one out of every 1500-10,000 pregnancies 5-6 and represents up to 3% of all breast malignancies. The incidence may be increasing due to...
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Pregnancy of uncertain viability

Pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV) is a term given to an intrauterine pregnancy in a situation where there are not enough criteria (usually on ultrasound grounds) to confidently categorize an intrauterine pregnancy as either viable or a failed pregnancy.  Radiographic features Ultrasound ...
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Preinvasive lesions of the lung

Preinvasive lesions of the lung are those pulmonary lesions that have not yet progressed to malignancy but have the potential to do so. This category includes: squamous dysplasia (SD) of lungs: squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of lung preinvasive adenocarcinoma of the lung 5,6 atypical a...
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Premature closure of a growth plate (differential)

Premature closure of a growth plate subsequently results in a shortened bone, which can occur in a number of situations.  Pathology Common etiologies local hyperemia infection: osteomyelitis juvenile chronic arthritis juvenile rheumatoid arthritis hemophilia arteriovenous malformation t...
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Primary benign cardiac tumors

Primary benign cardiac tumors are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumors include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary beni...
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Primary bone tumors of the spine

The most common tumor of the spine is metastatic deposits. A number of both benign and malignant tumors may arise primarily from the spine. Benign osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteochondroma giant cell tumor (GCT) aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) eosinophilic granuloma (EG) hemangioma Malign...
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Primary immunodeficiency states

Primary immunodeficiency states are heterogenous group of disorders that occur when there is an impairment of humoral or cell-mediated immunity in the absence of any recognized precipitating cause such as drug therapy or infective agent such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epidemiology ...
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Primary malignancy of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma mucosal melanoma extramedullary plasmacytoma carcinosarcoma fi...
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Primary malignant cardiac tumors

Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare, and account for only ~25% of primary cardiac tumors, and only a small proportion of all malignant tumors which involve the heart: direct extension of adjacent tumors or metastatic deposits are far more common. Pathology Histologcal types include 1:  ...
Article

Primary neoplasms of the thymus

Although primary tumors of the thymus are rare, they are the most common causes of a neoplasm of the anterosuperior mediastinum 1. thymoma (staging) one-third are benign two-thirds are malignant invasive thymoma (most) thymic carcinoma (rare) thymolipoma/thymoliposarcoma thymic cyst cong...

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