Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,131 results found
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Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported prior to treatment, and with other mali...
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Main differentials in musculoskeletal imaging

Here is a list of some of the most useful differential diagnoses in musculoskeletal imaging. By process: lucent/lytic bone lesions (FEGNOMASHIC) multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions benign lytic bone lesions in patients under 30 diffuse bony sclerosis permeative process in bone pseudo-perme...
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Nuchal fold thickness

Nuchal fold thickness is a parameter that is measured on an obstetric second-trimester scan (at ~18-22 weeks) and should not be confused with nuchal translucency (which is measured in the first trimester).  Pathology The proposed aetiology of increased nuchal thickness is the result of hydrops...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. Also one should know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen weighs >1000...
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Endophthalmitis

Endophthalmitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition that involves intraocular inflammation of any cause. It is distinguished from panopthalmitis in that is does not extend beyond the sclera. It is either infectious or noninfectious in aetiology, but in clinical practice, intraocular inf...
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Diaphyseal lesions

Diaphyseal lesions are unsurprisingly predominantly found centred in the diaphysis.  Differential diagnosis simple bone cyst fibrous dysplasia enchondroma metastases myeloma / plasmacytoma lymphoma osteomyelitis osteoid osteoma round cell tumour, e.g. Ewing sarcoma (children) bone inf...
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Sclerotic clavicle

Sclerotic clavicles have many causes: trauma: fractured clavicle arthritis: osteoarthritis, seronegative arthritides osteitis condensans of the clavicle 1 SAPHO syndrome clavicular tumours metastases osteosarcoma lymphoma osteoblastoma bone island tumour-like lesions eosinophilic gra...
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Dense base of the skull (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a dense base of the skull includes: Fibrous dysplasia Paget's disease Camurati-Engelmann disease Van Buchem disease osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis meningioma  
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Splenic rupture

Atraumatic or spontaneous splenic rupture is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal spleens (both in size an...
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Epiphyseal lesions (differential)

Epiphyseal lesions comprise of tumours and other pathologies that occur around the epiphysis and any epiphyseal equivalent bone. Differential diagnosis Common differential diagnoses include 2-4: chondroblastoma: rare epiphyseal tumour found in young adults; it does not usually extend into the...
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Fetal chylothorax

Fetal chylothorax is defined as the presence of lymphatic fluid within the pleural cavity. Pathology Associations pulmonary hypoplasia hydrops fetalis premature delivery Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound may show echogenic fluid in the pleural cavities Treatment Some of the de...
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Fetal ascites

Fetal ascites refers to the accumulation of free fluid in the fetal abdomen. It is often considered under the same spectrum of hydrops fetalis. Pathology Aetiology any condition that results in hydrops fetalis additional causes include idiopathic bowel perforation (e.g. meconium peritoniti...
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Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3: an irregular bulge in capsule obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour focal capsular retraction and or thicken...
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Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
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Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumour is a lesion which predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1: benign  hepatic haemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant  hepa...
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Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state

Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) (previously known as hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (HONK)) is a serious metabolic derangement that can occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, predominantly those with type 2. While there are no distinct imaging features, it is useful for a radiologist t...
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Hyperdense pulmonary nodules

Hyperdense pulmonary nodules are a subset of pulmonary nodules that have relatively increased attenuation, usually caused by calcification within the nodule. Here, we broadly refer to a nodule as a pulmonary opacity <30 mm. Differential diagnosis calcified pulmonary nodules are a specific grou...
Article

High risk breast lesion

The term high-risk breast lesion is given to a breast lesion that carries an increased risk for the future development of breast cancer or carries suspicion of a more sinister pathology around or in association with the lesion. The term has some overlap with borderline breast disease. Many radio...
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High attenuation lymphadenopathy

High attenuation lymphadenopathy has been described with: Kaposi sarcoma 1,6 Castleman disease carcinoid  angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy (AILD) Kimura disease (due to nodal haemorrhage) 6 metastatic hypernephroma (presumed due to nodal haemorrhage) 6 If there is calcification associat...
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Hereditary renal cancer syndromes

Despite the vast majority of renal cancers being sporadic, there are a number of hereditary renal cancer syndromes: von Hippel Lindau syndrome: predominantly clear cell type tuberous sclerosis: predominantly clear cell type hereditary leiomyomata renal cell cancer syndrome: described in ISUP ...
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Hepatolithiasis

Hepatolithiasis is the presence of bile duct stones within the intrahepatic bile ducts, specifically before the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts.  Epidemiology Hepatolithiasis is common Asia and the Pacific, with a prevalence of ~40%. It is rare in the West with a prevalence of ~...
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Hepatic osteodystrophy

Hepatic osteodystrophy is an often forgotten metabolic bone disease seen in patients with chronic liver disease, in particular cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. These patients have increased risk factors for developing osteoporosis such as hypogonadism, al...
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Hepatic lymphangioma

A hepatic lymphangioma is a rare benign condition that corresponds to focally dilated lymphatic channels in the liver.  Clinical presentation Most cases are asymptomatic. Pathology A lymphangioma is a benign lesion that can occur at almost any location in the body. Hepatic involvement is les...
Article

Hallux valgus

A hallux valgus is a fixed abduction of the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe. It is usually due to metatarsus primus varus which is a medial deviation or adduction of the first metatarsal with an increased first - second metatarsal angle. Radiographic appearance Plain radiograp...
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Haglund deformity

Haglund deformity, also known as a pump bump or Bauer bump or Mulholland deformity, is defined as bony enlargement formed at posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneum. This deformity leads to retrocalcaneal bursitis. Pathology It may result secondary to chronic pressure of rigid shoes. Radiogra...
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Haemothorax

Haemothorax literally means blood within the chest, is a term usually used to describe a pleural effusion due to accumulation of blood. If a haemothorax occurs concurrently with a pneumothorax it is then termed a haemopneumothorax.  A tension haemothorax refers to haemothorax that results from ...
Article

Haemosiderosis

Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfused: t...
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Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology. Terminology Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration of >...
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Haemopneumothorax

Haemopneumothorax is a term given when there is concurrent presence of a haemothorax and well as a pneumothorax. It is a variant of a hydropneumothorax.  Epidemiology Approximately 5% of patients with pneumothorax will have concomitant haemothorax 6 . Pathology It is typically seen in the se...
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Hyperechoic breast lesions

There are a number of lesions that appear hyperechoic on ultrasound. Such lesions can be either completely or partly hyperechoic and comprise of both benign and malignant entities. Benign fat containing breast lesions lipoma of the breast fibroadenolipoma (hamartoma) of the breast focal reg...
Article

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease

Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD) is a disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by periarticular and intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals. The shoulder is the most frequently involved site with classic calcific tendinitis presentation.   Epidemiology H...
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HIV/AIDS (CNS manifestations)

The CNS manifestations of HIV/AIDS (neuroAIDS) occur secondary to a wide range of neurodegenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic processes.  Epidemiology Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, there has been a shift in the epidemiology of CN...
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HIV/AIDS (cardiovascular manifestations)

Cardiovascular manifestations are seen with increased frequency in the HIV/AIDS adult population, and include: pericardial effusions dilated cardiomyopathy (prevalence 8-30%) endocarditis: either infective or non-bacterial thrombotic (marantic) which is associated with malignancy or HIV wasti...
Article

Haemolytic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anaemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: reticulocytosis increased unconjugated bi...
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Hepatisation of the gallbladder

Hepatisation of the gallbladder is a sonographic entity in which the gallbladder lumen is entirely filled with tumefactive sludge giving the gallbladder a similar appearance to liver parenchyma. It is one of the causes of non-visualisation of the gallbladder on sonography. Pathology In the set...
Article

Haematospermia

Haematospermia refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety in patients despite commonly being of benign aetiology. Pathology Aetiology urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease commonest cause in patients <40 ...
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (thoracic complications)

There are many thoracic complications that can occur following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious. Complications Early pulmonary oedema engraftment syndrome diffuse alv...
Article

Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...
Article

Haemoperitoneum

Haemoperitoneum is the presence of blood within the peritoneal cavity. Pathology Aetiology penetrating or non-penetrating abdominal trauma (often with associated organ injury) 1 ruptured ectopic pregnancy ovarian cyst rupture aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm rupture neoplasm rupture acute haem...
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Haemopericardium

Haemopericardium refers to the presence of blood within the pericardial cavity, i.e. a sanguineous pericardial effusion. If enough blood enters the pericardial cavity, then a potentially fatal cardiac tamponade can occur.  Pathology Aetiology There is a very long list of causes 1,4 but some o...
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Haemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in haemochromatosis typically occurs with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. Epidemiology Cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 15-20% of the patients with haemochromatosis.  Clinical presentation Manifesta...
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Clival masses

The differential of a mass involving or arising from the clivus is a relatively narrow one and can be divided into whether the lesion arises from the skull base itself, the intracranial compartment above or the base of skull below. When evaluating the clivus it is important to compare the marro...
Article

Elevated hemidiaphragm

Elevated hemidiaphragms can result from many causes: above the diaphragm 1 decreased lung volume atelectasis/collapse lobectomy/pneumonectomy pulmonary hypoplasia diaphragm 3-7 phrenic nerve palsy diaphragmatic eventration contralateral stroke: usually middle cerebral artery distribut...
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Left upper lobe collapse

Left upper lobe collapse has distinctive features but can be challenging to identify on chest radiographs by the uninitiated. For a general discussion refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The left upper lobe collapses anteriorly becoming a thin sheet...
Article

Epididymal masses

Epididymal masses are most commonly encountered on ultrasonography. Most epididymal masses are benign; malignant lesions are rare. Differential diagnosis Benign solid adenomatoid tumour of the scrotum (most common epididymal mass 4) epididymal leiomyoma sperm granulomas / post vasectomy gra...
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Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci within the epididymal head. If the calcifications are large enough, then they may demonstrate acoustic shadowing. Differential diagnosis chronic epididymitis: e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  traum...
Article

Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic clinical syndrome caused by a pathological excess of circulating free T4 (thyroxine) and/or free T3 (tri-iodothyronine). Terminology Although commonly done, thyrotoxicosis should not be confused nor synonymised with hyperthyroidism, the latter of which is a g...
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Thyroid inflammatory conditions

A number of inflammatory conditions can affect the thyroid gland, which are commonly described as thyroiditides: acute thyroiditis acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST)  autoimmune thyroiditis​ subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis: silent thyroiditis or painless subacute thyroiditis  postpartum t...
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Cardiovascular shunts

Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease. Pathology Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (i.e. 'left-to-right shunt') or ...
Article

Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Tension pneumothorax

Tension pneumothoraces occur when intrapleural air accumulates progressively in such a way as to exert positive pressure on mediastinal and intrathoracic structures. It is a life-threatening occurrence requiring rapid recognition and treatment is required if a cardiorespiratory arrest is to be a...
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Trauma in pregnancy

Trauma is a leading cause of mortality in pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the incidence and severity of abdominal trauma in females.  Epidemiology Trauma affects up to 7% of pregnancies, and the incidence of pregnancy in level 1 trauma patients is estimated to be ~2% 1.  Pathology Aetiology ...
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Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries, ...
Article

Bone deformity from softening

Conditions associated with bone deformity from softening includes: hourglass thorax bowing of long bones acetabular protrusion buckled/compressed pelvis biconcave vertebral bodies / codfish vertebra
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Tear drop sign of the superior mesenteric vein

Tear drop sign of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is one of the important signs in the local staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Its importance lies in its diagnostic, as well as prognostic, significance. This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic f...
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Neoplasms of the appendix

There are a number of neoplasms that can involve the vermiform appendix, some of which are peculiar to this site. Epidemiology Tumours involving the appendix have been found in only about 1% of all appendectomy specimens 9. Epithelial neoplasms and neuroendocrine tumours represent the vast maj...
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Transient lesion of the splenium

Transient lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum, also known as mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible isolated SCC lesion (MERS), are occasionally encountered on MRI studies and may be due to a number of underlying aetiologies. Clinical presentation Unlike other causes of ...
Article

Crazy paving

Crazy paving refers to the appearance of ground-glass opacity with superimposed interlobular septal thickening and intralobular reticular thickening, seen on chest HRCT. It is a non-specific finding that can be seen in a number of conditions.  Pathology Aetiology Common causes: acute respira...
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Swan neck deformity (fingers)

Swan neck deformity is a deformity of the digits that consists of: hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints compensatory flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP)  joints Pathology Swan neck deformity is seen in 3,4: rheumatoid arthritis (classical association) post-tr...
Article

Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging or a bronchocele, is a commonly encountered pathological feature seen in chest radiography and thoracic CT scanning. It is usually defined as airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive.  Pathology Aetiology...
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Bronchial atresia

Bronchial atresia is a developmental anomaly characterised by focal obliteration of the proximal segment of a bronchus associated with hyperinflation of the distal lung.  On imaging, it commonly presents as a proximal focal tubular shaped opacity radiating from the hilum associated with a dista...
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Hepatic attenuation on CT

Hepatic attenuation on CT, reflected by Hounsfield values, depends on a combination of factors including the presence or absence, as well as the phase, of IV contrast administration. Allowing for all these factors, the mean unenhanced attenuation value is around 55 HU 4. Pathology Several int...
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Tonsillar herniation

Tonsillar herniation is a type of cerebral herniation characterised by the inferior descent of the cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum. The terminology of caudally displaced tonsils is discussed in the article on cerebellar tonsillar ectopia. Pathology It is a secondary sign of signif...
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Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck onto the chest and stomach. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) central venous catheters ...
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Gastric band malposition

Gastric band malposition is an early complication from laparoscopic gastric band procedures which are performed for obesity. It can occur as in isolation or with other gastric band complications. As surgical experience of lap gastric banding has accumulated, it has become a relatively rare comp...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

An Erlenmeyer flask deformity refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. Causes include marrow infiltration/expansion lysosomal storage disease Gaucher disease - osteopenia with Leg...
Article

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion

The differential diagnosis of a solitary sclerotic bone lesion is heavily influenced by the age of the patient, and includes: sclerotic metastasis when solitary may be the only one visible of many or the only one imaged enostosis (bone island) osteosarcoma calcifying enchondroma osteoblast...
Article

Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
Article

Small bowel folds (differential)

Regular, smooth generalised thickening oedema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminaemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic oedema infection radiation ischaemia haemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diathesis vasculitides IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura) Buerger d...
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Gastric band erosion

Gastric band erosion or penetration is a potentially serious complication following laparoscopic gastric band surgery for obesity.  Epidemiology Gastric band erosion is a delayed complication observed in between 0.3-14% of patients 1-2. Clinical presentation Patients often present non-specif...
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Skeletal dysplasia

Skeletal dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) refer to an abnormality in bone formation. There is a very wide clinicopathological spectrum and any part of the skeleton can be affected. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is estimated at ~2 per 10,000 live births 3. Pathology Types At least 3...
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Colpocephaly

Colpocephaly is a descriptive term to a disproportionate prominence of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles. It can result from a wide range of congenital insults. Clinical presentation Patient may present with motor abnormalities, cognitive deficit, visual abnormalities, and seizures...
Article

Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffuse ...
Article

Basal ganglia calcification

Basal ganglia calcification is common and is seen in approximately 1% of all CT scans of the brain, depending on the demographics of the scanned population. It is seen more frequently in older patients and is considered a normal incidental and idiopathic finding in an elderly patient but should ...
Article

Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. I high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
Article

Airway foreign bodies in children

Airway foreign bodies in children are potentially fatal, which is why immediate recognition is important. Unfortunately, delayed diagnosis is common. Epidemiology Children under the age of four years are at increased risk of foreign body (FB) aspiration, with a slight male predominance 1.  Cl...
Article

Kim lesion (shoulder)

Kim lesions are superficial tears between the posterior glenoid labrum and glenoid articular cartilage without labral detachment. Failure to identify and treat this lesion may lead to permanent posterior instability.  Pathology It typically results from a postero-inferiorly directed force on t...
Article

Capitolunate angle

The capitolunate angle is the angle between the long axis of the capitate and the mid axis of the lunate on the sagittal imaging of the wrist. In a normal situation it should be less than 30o in the resting (neutral) position. The angle is increased in carpal instability such as with a dorsal i...
Article

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities refer to peripheral opacities of the lungs, sparing the perihilar region. It is a relatively unusual appearance with a relatively narrow differential: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia organising pneumonia (formerly bronchiolitis obliterans with organising pne...
Article

Ultrasound appearances of liver metastases

Ultrasound appearance of liver metastases can have bewildering variation.Caveat: Presence of hepatic steatosis can affect the sonographic appearance of liver lesions. Patterns do exist between ultrasound appearance of the liver metastases and the likely primary, which is sometimes helpful in di...
Article

Visceral artery aneurysms

Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) are abnormal focal dilatations of arteries supplying abdominal organs. Visceral artery aneurysms include both true aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Owing to different clinical manifestations and a unique, specific, pathology, renal artery aneurysms are discussed se...
Article

Subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity

There is a wide range of causes for subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity, both pathological and artifactual.  Differential diagnosis Pathological causes subarachnoid haemorrhage meningitis leptomeningeal carcinomatosis FLAIR vascular hyperintensities in acute stroke 1,4,8 moya moya disease ...
Article

CNS infectious diseases

This article aims to be a collection of articles that represent central nervous system infectious (CNS) diseases.  Classification By organsim The organisms involved in CNS infections vary depending on the specific location of infection. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and prions can all ...
Article

Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
Article

Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end-stage ren...
Article

Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals

Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals is seen in a variety of apparently disparate conditions.  Pathology Aetiology Common causes 2: idiopathic post-infective (e.g. osteomyelitis, yaws, tuberculosis dactylitis) pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism post-traumatic (a...
Article

Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
Article

Skeletal "do not touch" lesions

Skeletal “don’t touch” lesions (also called leave me alone lesions) are so radiographically characteristic lesions that an additional diagnostic tests such as a biopsy are unnecessary and can be frankly misleading and lead to additional unnecessary surgery. Thus a radiologic diagnosis should be ...
Article

Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...
Article

Pulmonary aspergillosis

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a collective term used to refer to a number of conditions caused by infection with a fungus of the Aspergillus species (usually Aspergillus fumigatus). There are a number of recognised pulmonary forms, the number depending on the author 1,3-4 . Each form has specific ...
Article

Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
Article

Ground glass opacification

Ground glass opacification/opacity (GGO) is a descriptive term referring to an area of increased attenuation in the lung on computed tomography (CT) with preserved bronchial and vascular markings. It is a non-specific sign with a wide aetiology including infection, chronic interstitial disease a...
Article

Prostatic utricle cyst

Prostatic utricle cyst (PUC) is an area of focal dilatation that occurs within the prostatic utricle. They are midline cystic masses in the male pelvis and can be very difficult or impossible to distinguish from a Mullerian duct cyst. Epidemiology Utricle cysts are most often detected in the ...

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