Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,110 results found
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Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are characterised by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
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Focal gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Focal gallbladder wall thickening is an imaging finding that includes both benign and malignant aetiologies. cholecystoses cholesterolosis adenomyomatosis masses gallbladder polyps gallbladder carcinoma: look for infiltration into adjacent organs, metastases, lymphadenopathy, bile duct di...
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Intramedullary spinal metastasis

Intramedullary spinal metastases are rare, occurring in ~1% of autopsied cancer patients, and are less common than leptomeningeal metastases. Intramedullary lesions may result from: growth along the Virchow-Robin spaces haematogenous dissemination direct extension from leptomeninges Epidemi...
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Oligohydramnios

Oligohydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is less than expected for gestational age. Often these fetuses have <500 mL of amniotic fluid. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence can be up to ~6% of pregnancies 4. Pathology Causes The causes of oligohydramnios are pr...
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Pulmonary cavity

Pulmonary cavities are gas-filled foci of the lung in the centre of a nodule, mass, or area of consolidation. They are usually evident on plain radiography and/or CT. They are typically thick-walled and their walls must be greater than 2-5 mm. They may be filled with gas as well as fluid +/- gas...
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Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) >25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centres, particularly in ...
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Small for date fetus

A small for dates fetus can result from a number of factors Fetal factors aneuploidy trisomy triploidy skeletal dysplasia(s) structural anomalies (syndromes) Maternal factors Common hypertension medication(s): fetal Warfarin syndrome hydantoin embryopathy (Dilantin TM) cytotoxic dru...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
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Pericarditis

Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Pathology In general, infection is the most common cause of pericarditis. Infection accounts for two-thir...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses frequently occur, many of which are relatively specific for the region.  Pathology Cerebellopontine angle masses can be divided into four groups, based on imaging characteristics:  enhancing mass mass with high T1 signal on MRI mass with CSF intensity/den...
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Non-accidental injuries

Non-accidental injuries (NAI) represent both ethical and legal challenges to treating physicians. Radiologists are often the first to suspect NAI when confronted with particular injury patterns, and a knowledge of these is essential if the opportunity to save a child from future neglect is not ...
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Airway foreign bodies in children

Airway foreign bodies in children are potentially fatal, which is why immediate recognition is important. Unfortunately, delayed diagnosis is common. Epidemiology Children under the age of four years are at increased risk of foreign body (FB) aspiration, with a slight male predominance 1.  Cl...
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Complications of hip joint replacements

Complications of hip joint replacements are common and are essential for the radiologist to be aware in the assessment of the radiographs with hip prostheses. They are many and can occur at various time intervals following the initial surgery: aseptic loosening: considered to be the most common...
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Sacroiliac joint disease (differential)

Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the sacroiliac joint) can be a manifestation of a wide range of disease processes. The pattern of involvement is helpful for narrowing down the differential diagnosis. Usually bilateral and symmetrical  enteropathic arthritis​ Crohn disease ulcerative colitis a...
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Scalp haematoma

A scalp haematoma usually occurs following an injury at delivery although they are commonly seen with head trauma. Classification There are three types of haematoma, which are defined by their location within the scalp, particular their location as related to the galea aponeurosis and skull pe...
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Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases

Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases are not uncommon, occurring in ~5% (range 0.7-10.4%) of internal malignancies, and representing 2% of skin cancers. The Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a well known cutaneous metastasis. Pathology These metastases can come from haematogenous or lymphatic spre...
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Haglund deformity

Haglund deformity, also known as a pump bump, Bauer bump, or Mulholland deformity, is defined as bony enlargement formed at posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneum. This deformity leads to retrocalcaneal bursitis. Pathology It may result secondary to chronic pressure of rigid shoes. Radiograp...
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Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that helps, especially when under the pressure of the exam situation. Differentials from the sections of the sieve can be considered in turn, helping to extend the list in a structured way. They include: 5I 3-Scotland VITAMIN VITAMIN C...
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Twin pregnancy

Twin pregnancies are the most common multifetal pregnancies.  Epidemiology Multifetal pregnancies account for ~ 1% of all pregnancies but are seen in much higher numbers in populations where in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a common practice, most of which are twin pregnancies. Classification ...
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Multifocal breast cancer

Multifocal breast cancer refers to two or more individual breast cancers diagnosed at the same time within the same quadrant of the same breast 1. 
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Cancer

Cancer is clearly a huge topic and this page is merely a starting point for what will become a much larger article that links to a myriad of articles and cases. For further information about staging in cancer, see the separate article. Some of the headings are taken from the AJCC cancer staging ...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Gastric band

A gastric band is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss. It is now the most popular form of bariatric surgery, largely replacing gastric bypass procedures 1. Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adj...
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Fetal intracranial cystic lesions

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions can arise from a number of pathologies, including: Non-tumourous fetal arachnoid cyst  fetal choroid plexus cyst fetal connatal cyst fetal porencephalic cyst fetal interhemispheric cyst fetal subependymal cyst dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly Blake pouc...
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Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
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Obesity

Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2. It is described as being a "modern epidemic" due to increased rates of metabolic syndrome and other complications in these patients, along with a high and increasing prevalence.  Epidemiology Obesity rates vary around the wor...
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Solitary pulmonary nodules

Solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is defined as a relatively well defined round or oval pulmonary parenchymal lesion equal or smaller than 30 mm in diameter. It is surrounded by pulmonary parenchyma and/or visceral pleura and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia 9. Qu...
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Extratesticular cystic lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for extratesticular cystic lesions includes: hydrocele epididymal cyst spermatocele haematoma haematocele loop of bowel from an inguinal hernia abscess pyocele post-vasectomy varicocele Very rarely, a scrotal mesothelioma may present as a cystic mass.
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Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old mesoblastic nephro...
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Endobronchial metastases

Endobronchial metastases are an uncommon form of intrathoracic metastases. They are much less common than intrapulmonary metastases. Clinical presenation The clinical presentation varies and includes: haemoptysis cough post-obstructive pneumonitis from distal obstruction Pathology Frequen...
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Cervical incompetence

Cervical incompetence refers to a painless spontaneous dilatation of the cervix and is a common cause of second trimester pregnancy failure. Epidemiology The estimated incidence varies geographically and generally thought to be around 1-1.5% of all pregnancies 1,15. Clinical presentation Typ...
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Hepatisation of the gallbladder

Hepatisation of the gallbladder is a sonographic entity in which the gallbladder lumen is entirely filled with tumefactive sludge giving the gallbladder a similar appearance to liver parenchyma. It is one of the causes of non-visualisation of the gallbladder on sonography. Pathology In the set...
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Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1,2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
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Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with a number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anaemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilica...
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Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...
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Intraventricular metastases

Intraventricular metastases are a very rare finding. A few intracranial tumours and some extracranial tumours metastasize to the ventricles. The most common site of intraventricular metastasis is the trigone of the lateral ventricles due to high vascularity of the choroid plexuses. The next most...
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Scheuermann disease

Scheuermann disease, also known as juvenile kyphosis, juvenile discogenic disease 11, or vertebral epiphysitis, is a common condition which results in kyphosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine. The diagnosis is usually made on plain film. Epidemiology occurs in ~5% (range 0.4-8%) of the ...
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Hypomyelinating disorders

Hypomyelinating disorders are a heterogeneous subset of white matter disorders characterised by abnormally low amounts of myelination. In distinction to other myelin disorders, hypomyelination is a permanent deficiency in myelin deposition rather than myelin destruction (i.e. demyelination) or ...
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Complications of cranial radiotherapy

Complications of cranial radiation therapy are fairly common, particularly in long-term survivors, and especially in paediatric patients. Cranial radiotherapy is used for a variety of brain tumours, either in isolation or in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. Complications from irradiati...
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Myelination pattern on MRI

Myelination of the brain during infancy progresses in an orderly and predictable fashion which can be assessed with MRI.  At term (40 weeks corrected gestation) only certain structures are myelinated: dorsal brainstem ventrolateral thalamus lentiform nuclei central corticospinal tracts pos...
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Right lower lobe collapse

Right lower lobe collapse has distinctive features, and is usually relatively easily identified. The absence of overlying cardiomediastinal outline makes it easier to appreciate than left lower lobe collapse.  For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse.   Radiograph...
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Right middle lobe collapse

Right middle lobe collapse (or simply termed middle lobe collapse) has distinctive features, but can be subtle on frontal chest radiographs.  For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse.   It is important to note that of all the lobes, the right middle lobe is the mo...
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Unilateral testicular lesions

The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.  Neoplastic Common seminoma (40-50% of tumours) non seminomatous germ cell tumours: testicular teratoma testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only) testicular choriocarcinoma testicular embry...
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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that has a varied presentation and requires two or more unprovoked seizures at least 24 hours apart for diagnosis. MRI is the modality of choice for epilepsy, most often investigating for an underlying cause, especially in adults.  Epidemiology Epilep...
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Aortic nipple

An aortic nipple is seen in about 10% of PA chest x-rays on the lateral surface of the aortic arch/aortic knob. It represents the left superior intercostal vein. When prominent, superior vena cava obstruction should be considered as the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral path...
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Adrenal lesions (differential)

Adrenal lesions cover a broad spectrum from benign to neoplastic entities. Due to increased use of cross-sectional imaging they are frequently detected as incidental lesions ("incidentalomas"). If found incidentally, please refer to the Management of incidental adrenal masses: American College o...
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Adrenal haemorrhage

Adrenal haemorrhage can result from a variety of traumatic and non-traumatic causes. When unilateral, it is often clinically silent. In contrast, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can lead to catastrophic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical presentation The large majority of patients with unilateral a...
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Seronegative spondyloarthritis

Seronegative spondyloarthritides, also known as spondyloarthropathies (SpA), are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes linked by common clinical features and common immunopathologic mechanisms. The subtypes of spondyloarthritis are usually distinguished on the basis of the patient’s history and c...
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Skeletal "do not touch" lesions

Skeletal “don’t touch” lesions (also called leave me alone lesions) are so radiographically characteristic lesions that an additional diagnostic tests such as a biopsy are unnecessary and can be frankly misleading and lead to additional unnecessary surgery. Thus a radiologic diagnosis should be ...
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Chondrocalcinosis

Although frequently used as a synonym for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD), chondrocalcinosis simply means visible calcification of both hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. Epidemiology It has a reported prevalence of 5-15% 2 and is thought to increase with age. Pat...
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Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
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Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2,500 to 5,000 live births 6,8. T...
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Coccydynia

Coccydynia refers to pain in and among the area of the coccyx. It is characterised by coccygeal pain which is typically provocated by pressure. It may remain unclear in origin owing to the unpredictability of the source of pain 1. Epidemiology No accurate data about the frequency of coccydynia...
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Basal ganglia calcification

Basal ganglia calcification is common and is seen in approximately 1% of all CT scans of the brain, depending on the demographics of the scanned population. It is seen more frequently in older patients and is considered a normal incidental and idiopathic finding in an elderly patient but should ...
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Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
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Pituitary region masses

A simple and popular mnemonic to remember the common suprasellar/parasellar/intrasellar masses is SATCHMO. The more comprehensive list includes: tumours pituitary adenoma (commonest in the adult population) pituitary macroadenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituitary lymphom...
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Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall can occur in a number of situations: cholecystitis acute cholecystitis chronic cholecystitis gallbladder empyema 7 xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis 11 acalculous cholecystitis11 postprandial physiological state (pseudothickening) gallbladder o...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/haemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necros...
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Liver tumours

Liver tumours, like tumours of any organ, can be classified as primary or secondary. Metastases Liver metastases are by far the most common hepatic malignancy, with many of the most common primaries readily seeding to the liver. This is especially the case with gastrointestinal tract tumours, ...
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Multilayered periosteal reaction

Multilayered periosteal reaction, also known as a lamellated or onion skin periosteal reaction, demonstrates multiple concentric parallel layers of new bone adjacent to the cortex, reminiscent of the layers on an onion. The layers are thought to be the result of periods of variable growth 2. Pa...
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Codman triangle periosteal reaction

Codman triangle is a type of periosteal reaction seen with aggressive bone lesions. With aggressive lesions, the periosteum does not have time to ossify with shells of new bone (e.g. as seen in single layer and multilayered periosteal reaction), so only the edge of the raised periosteum will oss...
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Sunburst appearance (bone)

Sunburst appearance is a type of periosteal reaction giving the appearance of a sunburst secondary to an aggressive periostitis. It should not be confused with the sunburst sign of meningioma vascularity.  The sunburst appearance occurs when the lesion grows too fast and the periosteum does not...
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Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of new bone adjacent to the cortex. It can be seen in: osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteosarcoma chondrosarcoma fibrous dysplasia non-ossifying fibroma osteoblast...
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Disorganised periosteal reaction

Disorganised or complex periosteal reaction has spicules with random orientation and appearance. It can be seen in highly aggressive processes: osteosarcoma metastasis osteomyelitis chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma stress fracture malignant fibrous histiocytoma spindle cell sarcoma See also...
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Spiculated periosteal reaction

Spiculated periosteal reaction represents spicules of new bone forming along vascular channels and the fibrous bands that anchor tendons to bone (Sharpey fibres). A spiculated periosteal reaction signifies a rapid underlying process that prevents formation of new bone under the raised periosteum...
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Single layer periosteal reaction

Single layer periosteal reaction is a uniformly dense, single thin layer of new bone about 1-2 mm from the cortical surface. Passive hyperaemia causes increased osteoblastic activity and production of new bone. It is seen in: premature infants for up to 6 months early fracture healing osteosa...
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Conductive hearing loss

Conductive hearing loss is caused by a range of developmental, congenital or acquired pathology to the external, middle or inner ear. Pathology Essentially any process that obstructs or disrupts the passage of sound waves through the outer or middle ear can cause conductive hearing loss and th...
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Complications following gastric banding

There are many complications that can occur following gastric banding. It is helpful to divide these into early and late post-surgical complications. Clinical presentation Although the exact mode of presentation can vary depending on the underlying complication common modes of presentation tha...
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Cystic lung disease

Cystic lung disease is an umbrella term used to group the conditions coursing with multiple lung cysts.  Pathology A lung cyst is a gas-filled structure with perceptible wall typically 1 mm in thickness but can be up to 4 mm. The diameter of a lung cyst is usually <1 cm. By conventional defini...
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Tubulinopathy

Tubulinopathy refers to a wide spectrum of cortical malformations that result from defects in genes encoding the tubulin protein that regulates neuronal migration during brain development. Clinical presentation Some series report a high prevalence of seizures during infancy which may the initi...
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Solitary lucent skull lesion

Solitary lucent lesion of the skull is a relatively frequent finding. The differential is heavily influenced by the patient's age. Older adult/elderly metastasis/malignancy breast cancer lung cancer melanoma thyroid cancer renal cell cancer multiple myeloma epidermoid and dermoid haem...
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Endometrial fluid

Fluid in the endometrial cavity can result from a number of causes if excessive and associated with distension.  Pathology There are essentially three types of fluid:  hydrometra: simple fluid haematometra: haemorrhagic content / clot pyometra: pus Premenopausal normal (i.e. physiological...
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Sacral lesions

A very wide range of lesions can occur in and around the sacrum.  Tumours primary sacral tumours malignant sacral chordoma: most common primary sacral tumour 1 chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma / pPNET osteosarcoma: often arises from Paget's disease in this location multiple myeloma/plasmacyt...
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Posterior mediastinal mass (differential diagnosis)

The differential diagnosis for a posterior mediastinal mass includes: neoplasm neurogenic tumours - most common  nerve sheath tumours schwannoma neurofibroma malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour parasymphathetic ganglion tumours paraganglioma  chemodectoma phaeochromocytoma 3 symp...
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Hydrocephalus versus atrophy

Accurately determining whether hydrocephalus or atrophy (compensatory enlargement of the CSF spaces) is the cause of ventriculomegaly can be, at times, challenging in image interpretation. Radiographic features Features that favour hydrocephalus include: dilatation of the temporal horns lack...
Article

Crazy paving

Crazy paving refers to the appearance of ground-glass opacity with superimposed interlobular septal thickening and intralobular septal thickening, seen on chest HRCT. It is a non-specific finding that can be seen in a number of conditions.  Pathology Aetiology Common causes: acute respirator...
Article

Toxoplasmosis vs lymphoma

Toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are frequently differential diagnoses in patients with HIV/AIDS and as treatment is substantially different distinguishing the two is important.  In many instances, the imaging appearance is classic and differentiation is not problematic; however, in 50-80% of cases, ...
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Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent centre

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent centre have a number of differentials: neoplastic osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma infective Brodie abscess tuberculosis syphilis yaws
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Neuroblastoma vs Wilms tumour

Both neuroblastoma and Wilms tumour occur in early childhood and typically present as large abdominal masses closely related to the kidneys. Distinguishing between the two is important, and a number of features are helpful. Neuroblastoma calcification very common: 90% encases vascular structu...
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Heterogeneous vs heterogenous

The words heterogeneous and heterogenous are commonly used in radiological and medical description and reporting. They are often incorrectly used interchangeably, as they have significantly different meanings. Heterogeneous refers to a structure with dissimilar components or elements. For examp...
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Pulmonary bleb

Pulmonary blebs are small subpleural thin walled air containing spaces, not larger than 1-2 cm in diameter. Their walls are less than 1 mm thick. If they rupture, they allow air to escape into pleural space resulting in a spontaneous pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Blebs are a very common finding ...
Article

Epiphyseal lesions (differential)

Epiphyseal lesions comprise tumours and other pathologies that occur around the epiphysis and any epiphyseal equivalent bone. Differential diagnosis Common differential diagnoses include 2-4: chondroblastoma: rare epiphyseal tumour found in young adults; it usually does not extend into the me...
Article

Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatoses (NF) comprise a number of clinically and genetically distinct inherited conditions that carry a high risk of tumour formation. They fall under the wider classification of phakomatoses. The tumours particularly involve the central and peripheral nervous systems: neurofibromatos...
Article

Hyperechoic breast lesions

There are a number of lesions that appear hyperechoic on ultrasound. Such lesions can be either completely or partly hyperechoic and include both benign and malignant entities. Benign fat containing breast lesions lipoma of the breast fibroadenolipoma (hamartoma) of the breast focal regions...
Article

Storage disorders

Storage disorders comprise a bewildering collection of inherited metabolic conditions which share the accumulation of a metabolite within various cells in the body due to dysfunction of specific enzymes or transport proteins. Accumulation of metabolites eventually results in cellular and/or orga...
Article

Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes: mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary peritoneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary periton...
Article

Papillary lesions of the breast

Papillary lesions of the breast comprise a wide group and range from benign to malignant. Pathology They develop as tufts of epithelium with a fibrovascular core that arborize into branching papillae and protrude into the duct lumen. Benign papilloma of breast / intraductal papilloma of the b...
Article

Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease (MVD) mostly comprises two main functional abnormalities, which can occur in isolation or in combination: mitral regurgitation mitral stenosis In addition, other pathologies that affect the mitral valve include: mitral valve prolapse mitral annular calcification mitral...
Article

Sclerotic bone metastases

Sclerotic or blastic bone metastases can arise from a number of different primary malignancies including 1-5: prostate carcinoma (most common) breast carcinoma (may be mixed) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) carcinoid medulloblastoma neuroblastoma mucinous adenocarcinoma of the gastroint...
Article

Hyperattenuating paranasal sinus opacification

Hyperattenuating paranasal sinus opacification can arise in a number of situations: fungal sinus disease inspissated secrections acute haemorrhage into sinus (haemosinus) Differential diagnosis In some situations can consider early calcification within the sinus.
Article

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are a device used to shunt cerebrospinal fluid in the treatment of hydrocephalus. As the name suggests, a catheter is placed with its tip in the ventricle. The external portion of the catheter is connected to a valve that regulates the flow of CSF based on a pre...
Article

Osteoporosis circumscripta cranii

Osteoporosis circumscripta cranii (also known as osteolysis circumscripta) refers to discrete radiolucent regions of the skull on plain radiographs. They are often seen in context of the lytic (incipient-active) phase of Paget disease of the skull, but may be observed in other circumstances as w...

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