Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,114 results found
Article

Protrusio acetabuli

Acetabular protrusio (also known as acetabular protrusion) is intrapelvic displacement of the acetabulum and femoral head, so that the femoral head projects medial to the ischioilial line. It should be differentiated from coxa profunda. Pathology Protrusio acetabuli is divided into two types, ...
Article

Sclerotic clavicle

Sclerotic clavicles have many causes: trauma: fractured clavicle arthritis: osteoarthritis, seronegative arthritides osteitis condensans of the clavicle 1 SAPHO syndrome clavicular tumours metastases osteosarcoma lymphoma osteoblastoma bone island tumour-like lesions eosinophilic gra...
Article

Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion tends to be used as a catch-all term denoting a collection of fluid within the pleural space. This can be further divided into exudates and transudates depending on the biochemical analysis of aspirated pleural fluid (see below). Essentially it represents any pathological proces...
Article

Perifissural lung nodules

Perifissural lung nodules (PFNs) are a type of intrapulmonary nodules. They commonly represent intrapulmonary lymph nodes 1. There is some overlap with the term perilymphatic pulmonary nodules since the latter can be perifissural. Radiographic features CT chest PFNs are typically seen as well...
Article

Pulmonary nodule

Pulmonary nodules are small, rounded opacities within the pulmonary interstitium. Pulmonary nodules are common and, as the spatial resolution of CT scanners has increased, detection of smaller and smaller nodules has occurred, which are more often an incidental finding. Classification Pulmonar...
Article

Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or teardrop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder in...
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/haemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necros...
Article

Bone age assessment

Bone age assessment is used to radiologically assess the biological and structural maturity of immature patients from the hand and wrist x-ray appearances. It forms an important part of the diagnostic and management pathway in children with growth and endocrine disorders. It is helpful in the di...
Article

Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential, including: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically includes the DIPs, PIPs 1st CMC joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints classic c...
Article

Basal ganglia calcification

Basal ganglia calcification is common and is seen in approximately 1% of all CT scans of the brain, depending on the demographics of the scanned population. It is seen more frequently in older patients and is considered a normal incidental and idiopathic finding in an elderly patient but should ...
Article

Multiple intracranial calcifications

Intracranial calcifications are common in certain locations and often are of no clinical concern. The two most commonly encountered types of calcification include:  normal age-related intracranial calcifications intracranial arterial atherosclerosis Concerning calcifications are much less co...
Article

Neoplasms of the cauda equina (differential)

The differential diagnosis for masses of the cauda equina region is often considered separately to the remainder of the spinal cord. It is often difficult to determine whether masses in this region are intramedullary or intradural-extramedullary. Most common tumours myxopapillary ependymoma b...
Article

Seronegative spondyloarthritides

Seronegative spondyloarthritides, also known as spondyloarthropathies or spondyloarthritis, are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes linked by common clinical features and common immunopathologic mechanisms. The subtypes of spondyloarthritis are usually distinguished on the basis of the patient’...
Article

Abdominal hernia

Abdominal hernias (herniae also used) may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
Article

Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
Article

Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
Article

Elevated hemidiaphragm

Elevated hemidiaphragms can result from many causes: above the diaphragm 1 decreased lung volume atelectasis/collapse lobectomy/pneumonectomy pulmonary hypoplasia diaphragm 3-7 phrenic nerve palsy diaphragmatic eventration contralateral stroke: usually middle cerebral artery distribut...
Article

Periportal hyperechogenicity

Periportal hyperechogenicity can result from many causes including: pneumobilia cholecystitis schistosomiasis of the portal region recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (oriental) inflammatory bowel disease: has been described to give "echo-rich" periportal cuffing 2​  It may also be observed in ...
Article

Spontaneous splenic rupture

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) (or atraumatic splenic rupture) is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal ...
Article

Bartholin gland tumours

Bartholin gland tumours represent neoplasms of the Bartholin glands. They include: squamous cell carcinoma of the Bartholin gland: tends to be the most common histological subtype adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin gland adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin gland
Article

Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. In a study of 700 chest radiographs, Ben Felson found that 75% had companion shadows on the lower ribs 3. Radiographic features They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running ...
Article

Visceral artery aneurysm

Visceral artery aneurysms are abnormal focal dilatations of arteries supplying abdominal organs. Visceral artery aneurysms include both true aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Owing to different clinical manifestations and a unique, specific, pathology, renal artery aneurysms are discussed separate...
Article

Bilateral renal enlargement

Bilateral renal enlargement can arise from a number of causes which include 1: diabetic nephropathy (common) renal involvement with lymphoma acute interstitial nephritis vasculitis / autoimmune HIV nephropathy leukemia autosomal recessive polycystic kidneys (ARPKD) adult dominant polycys...
Article

Internal hernias due to gastric bypass surgery

Internal hernias due to gastric bypass surgery are more common after laparoscopic gastric bypass than after an open procedure.  Clinical presentation It is a particularly sinister complication with variable, nonspecific clinical presentations. Most patients report a combination of postprandial...
Article

Bird fancier lung

Bird fancier lung refers to a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis occurring as a response to avian antigens (usually inhaled proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings). It can have acute, subacute and chronic clinical presentations. For a broad discussion on this entity, please refer...
Article

Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
Article

Oesophageal dysmotility

Oesophageal dysmotility refers to the pathological disruption of the normal sequential and coordinated muscle motion of the oesophagus to transport food from the oropharynx to the stomach. It is an umbrella term used to refer to the common pathophysiological endpoint of dysmotility that can be c...
Article

Dynamic tracheal collapse

Dynamic tracheal collapse refers to collapse of the trachea during expiration. It is perhaps best assessed on CT in the end expiratory phase. An inspiratory series is also useful for comparative purposes. The term excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to abnormal and exaggerated bulgin...
Article

Reeder and Felson's Gamuts in Radiology

Reeder and Felson's Gamuts in Radiology is a general radiology textbook which was first published in 1975. The current publisher is Springer. The first edition was edited and, primarily, written by Ben Felson and Maurice M Reeder. Additional contributors were Elias "Lee" G Theros, Herbert E Par...
Article

Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma at moderate or high levels of force. Such injuries may be sustained during a fall, physical assault, motor vehicle collision, or gunshot wound. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. ...
Article

Bile duct dilatation (differential)

Bile duct dilatation can be due to several aetiologies. Clinical presentation Variable, depending on underlying cause, but usually: right upper quadrant pain jaundice Radiographic features Ultrasound Harmonic imaging is useful when assessing the biliary system, as it improves the clarity ...
Article

Abnormally thickened endometrium (differential)

Abnormally thickened endometrium on imaging may occur for a number of reasons which may be categorised based on whether or not they are related to pregnancy. Aetiologies may also be classified based on whether the patient is premenopausal or postmenopausal. Differential diagnosis Pregnancy-rel...
Article

Cystic lung disease (gamut)

The gamut for cystic lung disease is long, but includes: emphysema cystic bronchiectasis honeycombing pneumatocele lymphangiomyomatosis pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis Sjogren disease lymphoid interstitial pneumonia See also cystic lung disease
Article

Endobronchial metastases

Endobronchial metastases (EBMs) are an uncommon form of intrathoracic metastases. They are much less common than intrapulmonary metastases. Clinical presenation The clinical presentation varies and includes: haemoptysis cough post-obstructive pneumonitis from distal obstruction Pathology ...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
Article

Clavicle tumours

Clavicle tumours may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramed...
Article

Tracheal and endobronchial lesions

Primary tracheal and endobronchial lesions are generally rare and can be either malignant or benign. The majority of these lesions are malignant. Pathology Malignant primary malignant endobronchial lesions bronchogenic adenocarcinoma squamous cell carcinoma: commonest malignant lesion in tr...
Article

Hiccups

Hiccups (or hiccoughs), medical term singultus, are an unpleasant phenomenon, experienced by everyone on occasion, and usually self-limiting. However the much rarer intractable chronic form can be extremely debilitating. Epidemiology Hiccups are a symptom that has probably been experienced by ...
Article

Liver trauma

The liver is one of the most frequently damaged organs in blunt trauma, and liver trauma is associated with a significant mortality rate. Epidemiology In blunt abdominal trauma, the liver is injured ~5% (range 1-10%) of the time 1,3. Clinical presentation Patients can present with right uppe...
Article

X-ray artifacts

Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.  There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...
Article

Endometrial ablation

Endometrial ablation is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves the destruction of the uterine endometrium commonly performed for menorrhagia in premenopausal or perimenopausal women. It has evolved has an alternative to hysterectomy and is associated with good outcomes and patien...
Article

Lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum

The lissencephaly-pachygyria spectrum is useful in describing the spectrum of diseases that cause relative smoothness of the brain surface and includes: agyria: no gyri pachygyria: broad gyri lissencephaly: smooth brain surface It is a basket term for a number of congenital cortical malforma...
Article

Acute basilar artery occlusion

Acute occlusion of the basilar artery may cause brainstem or thalamic ischaemia or infarction. It is a true neuro-interventional emergency and, if not treated early, brainstem infarction results in rapid deterioration in the level of consciousness and ultimately death. Epidemiology Occlusions ...
Article

Cyst like lesions around the knee

There is broad differential for cyst like lesions around the knee.  The list includes: Cysts synovial cyst popliteal synovial cyst - Baker's cyst ganglion cyst intra-articular ganglion cyst ACL ganglion cyst PCL ganglion cyst Hoffa fat pad ganglion cyst extra-articular ganglion cyst p...
Article

Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a descriptive term given when there is excess of fibrotic tissue in lung. It can occur in a wide range of clinical settings and can be precipitated by a multitude of causes. The term should not be confused with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which is a progressive fibrotic l...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
Article

Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffuse ...
Article

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HO) is a syndrome characterised by periosteal reaction of the long bones without underlying bone lesion. There is a broad range of manifestations, although it tends to be symmetric and involving the appendicular skeleton.  Accompanying abnormal soft tissue prolifer...
Article

Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases

Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases are seen in a number of malignancies: breast carcinoma: typically sclerotic but 25% are mixed lung carcinoma: typically lytic but 15% are mixed carcinoma of the cervix testicular tumours prostate carcinoma: typically sclerotic but 15% are mixed  ga...
Article

Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging or bronchocele, airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive. It is a common pathological finding in chest imaging. Pathology Aetiology Mucoid impaction may result from either obstructive or non-obstructive ...
Article

Sclerotic bone metastases

Sclerotic or blastic bone metastases can arise from a number of different primary malignancies including 1-5: prostate carcinoma (most common) breast carcinoma (may be mixed) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) carcinoid medulloblastoma neuroblastoma mucinous adenocarcinoma of the gastroint...
Article

Male breast disease

Male breast disease includes a wide spectrum of conditions. Many conditions and entities that affect the female breast may also affect the male breast.  Pathology Malignant male breast cancer lymphoma dermatofibrosarcoma Benign gynaecomastia pseudogynaecomastia: fat deposition within the...
Article

Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
Article

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a subset of diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage when bleeding is diffuse and directly into the alveolar spaces. It can occur in a vast number of clinical situations and can be life threatening. Pathology Blood tends to fill alveolar spaces at multiple sites. Ae...
Article

J-shaped sella

A J-shaped sella is a variant morphology of the sella turcica, whereby the tuberculum sellae is flattened, thus forming the straight edge of the "J". The dorsum sellae remains rounded and forms the loop of the "J". Differential diagnosis Differential diagnosis for a J-shaped sella includes 1,2...
Article

Toxoplasmosis vs lymphoma

It is common for radiologists to be asked to distinguish between cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) in patients with HIV/AIDS. Treatment is clearly different and thus accurate interpretation of CT and MRI is essential. In many instances, the imaging appearance is classic an...
Article

Coin lesion (lung)

Coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically but not always the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions is ...
Article

Atlantodental interval

The atlantodental interval (ADI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the anterior arch of the atlas and the dens of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries and injuries of the atlas and axis. It is the distance (in mm) between the posteri...
Article

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease

Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (HADD) is a disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by periarticular and intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals. The shoulder is the most frequently involved site with classic calcific tendinitis presentation.   Epidemiology H...
Article

Splenic lesions and anomalies

There are a number of splenic lesions and anomalies: Congenital anomalies accessory spleen wandering spleen asplenia polysplenia splenogonadal fusion retrorenal spleen Mass lesions Benign mass lesions splenic cyst (mnemonic) splenic pseudocyst splenic haemangioma: commonest benign sp...
Article

Cavitating pneumonia

Cavitating pneumonia is a complication that can occur with a severe necrotising pneumonia and in some publications it is used synonymously with the latter term 2.  It is a rare complication in both children and adults. Cavitation associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is separately discusse...
Article

Viral encephalitides

Viral encephalitides are the result of brain parenchymal infection by a number of different viruses, many of which have similar presentations and imaging features. Specific diagnosis often requires PCR.  For viral infection of the meninges, please refer to the general article on viral meningiti...
Article

Tracheomalacia

Tracheomalacia, or sometimes described as tracheobronchomalacia, is a common incidental finding on imaging of the chest of older patients and manifests as an increase in tracheal diameter as well as a tendency to collapse on expiration. Generally, more than 70% collapse of the trachea during exp...
Article

Pulmonary aspergillosis

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a collective term used to refer to a number of conditions caused by infection with a fungus of the Aspergillus species (usually Aspergillus fumigatus). There are a number of recognised pulmonary forms, the number depending on the author 1,3-4 . Each form has specific ...
Article

Right heart strain

Right heart strain (or more precisely right ventricular strain) is a term given to denote the presence of right ventricular dysfunction usually in the absence of an underlying cardiomyopathy. It can manifest as an acute right heart syndrome. Pathology Right heart strain can often occur as a re...
Article

Orbital mass

An orbital mass carries a relatively wide differential: tumours lymphoma metastasis lacrimal gland or duct tumours rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit retinoblastoma optic nerve meningioma optic nerve glioma optic nerve schwannoma  neurofibroma developmental orbital cysts 3: choristoma ep...
Article

Malignant vs benign gastric ulcer (barium)

Barium meal has been frequently used to differentiate malignant and benign gastric ulcers: Features suggesting benign gastric ulcer outpouching of ulcer crater beyond the gastric contour (exoluminal) smooth rounded and deep ulcer crater smooth ulcer mound smooth gastric folds that reach the...
Article

Tension pneumothorax

Tension pneumothoraces occur when intrapleural air accumulates progressively in such a way as to exert positive pressure on mediastinal and intrathoracic structures. It is a life-threatening occurrence requiring both rapid recognition and prompt treatment to avoid a cardiorespiratory arrest. Fo...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Pathological fracture

Pathological fractures are fractures that occur in abnormal bone. Although the term can be used in the setting of a generalised metabolic bone disease, it is usually reserved for fractures through a focal abnormality. The abnormality may be malignant or non-malignant in nature. Pathological fra...
Article

Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
Article

Breast cancer metastases

Metastases from breast cancer can be a frequent finding in routine onco-radiological practice. Clinical presentation With the universal use and acceptance of screening mammography, the isolated clinical presentation from metastases from breast carcinoma has become rare in clinical practice. Hi...
Article

Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries, ...
Article

Paediatric curriculum

The paediatric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core paediatric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to paediatric radiology, including paediatric neuroradiology and fetal radiology, although there will be some cross cov...
Article

Greenstick fracture

Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures of long bones and are usually seen in young children, more commonly less than 10 years of age. They are commonly mid-diaphyseal, affecting the forearm and lower leg. They are distinct from torus fractures. Pathology Mechanism Greenstick fractures ...
Article

Trauma in pregnancy

Trauma is a leading cause of mortality in pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the incidence and severity of abdominal trauma in females.  Epidemiology Trauma affects up to 7% of pregnancies, and the incidence of pregnancy in level 1 trauma patients is estimated to be ~2% 1.  Pathology Aetiology ...
Article

Ampullary tumour

The term ampullary tumour generally refers to either benign or malignant neoplasms that arise from the glandular epithelium of the ampulla of Vater, including 1: ampullary adenoma (adenoma of ampulla of Vater) ampullary carcinoma (carcinoma of ampulla of Vater) According to some authors, ampu...
Article

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities.  By definition, a scoliosis is any lateral spina...
Article

Pseudocyst of the humerus

Pseudocyst of the humerus, also referred as a humeral head pseudolesion, is a normal anatomical variant due to increased cancellous bone in the region of the greater tuberosity of the humerus which is seen as a lucent lesion on radiography. Hyperaemia and disuse caused by shoulder problems (suc...
Article

Pneumoretroperitoneum

Pneumoretroperitoneum is by definition presence of gas within the retroperitoneal space. Pathology Pneumoretroperitoneum is always abnormal and has a relatively small differential: perforated retroperitoneal hollow viscus duodenum peptic ulcer disease blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma ...
Article

Testicular microlithiasis

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes.  The most common criterion for diagnosis is that of five microcalcifications in one testicle, although definitions have varied in the past. In t...
Article

Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular simple pancreatic cyst pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autos...
Article

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

In many centers, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has become the most common bariatric procedure for morbid obesity.  In this operation, the stomach is stapled or divided to form a small pouch (typically <30 mL in volume), which empties into a Roux limb of the jejunum of varying length (ty...
Article

Fragility fracture

Fragility fractures are the result of forces that would not fracture a normal bone. They can occur in the context of very low energy (i.e. minimal) trauma such as falling from standing height, or they may be no identifiable preceding trauma. There is overlap between fragility fractures and insuf...
Article

Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that can occur in the setting of right-sided heart failure (and its underlying causes). If there is subsequent hepatic fibrosis the term cardiac cirrhosis may be used. The condition can rarely occur as a result of non-cardiac cau...
Article

Joint ankylosis (differential)

Joint ankylosis has a relatively broad differential including 1-5:   psoriatic arthritis ankylosing spondylitis chronic reactive arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis surgical ankylosis septic arthritis rheumatoid arthritis fluorosis ochronosis tarsal coalition carpal coalition
Article

Intra-uterine contraceptive device

Intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metallic ...
Article

Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
Article

Ruptured berry aneurysm

Rupture of a berry aneurysm, also known as a saccular aneurysm, can cause either a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), cerebral haematoma and/or intraventricular haemorrhage. Epidemiology Berry aneurysms form 97% of aneurysms of the central nervous system. Up to 80% of patients with a spontaneous ...
Article

Non small-cell lung cancer

Non small-cell lung cancer represents a heterogeneous group of lung cancers that do not have small-cells on histology. They are thus separated, as small cell carcinoma of the lung has distinctive management implications. The major histological types include: adenocarcinoma of lung squamous cel...
Article

Elevated prolactin (differential)

Elevated prolactin can be due to a number of causes, including elevated production/secretion as well as reduced inhibition.  Prolactin is controlled by numerous homeostatic mechanisms, with tonic secretion of prolactin inhibitory hormone (dopamine) by the hypothalamus having a dominant effect 1...
Article

Non-neoplastic solid lesions of the pancreas

Non-neoplastic solid lesions of the pancreas (NNSLP) are conditions which may mimic pancreatic neoplasms on imaging. They include: focal pancreatitis fatty infiltration-replacement intrapancreatic accessory spleen peripancreatic lymph node congenital anomalies, such as prominent pancreatic ...
Article

Dural enhancement

Pachymeningeal enhancement, also known as dura-arachnoid enhancement 4, refers to a dural and outer layer of arachnoid pattern of enhancement seen following contrast administration and may occur in the conditions listed below: infection intracranial tumour metastases intracranial hypotension...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.