Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,113 results found
Article

Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when it is under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-parietal diameter. It can occur in isolated or in associati...
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Shortened fetal humerus

Shortened fetal humerus is a morphological description and is usually defined when the humeral length falls below the 5th percentile or less than 0.9 as predicted by the biparietal diameter (BPD). It can occur in isolation or in association with a number of other anomalies. The humeral length i...
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Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals/metatarsals

Shortening of the fourth/fifth metacarpals and less commonly metatarsals is seen in a variety of apparently disparate conditions.  Pathology Aetiology Common causes 2: idiopathic post-infective (e.g. osteomyelitis, yaws, tuberculosis dactylitis) pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseudohypopar...
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Short limb skeletal dysplasia

Short limb skeletal dysplasias are skeletal dysplasias which are characterised by limb shortening Classification Rhizomelic (proximal limb shortening) hypochondroplasia achondroplasia chondrodysplasia punctata pseudoachondroplasia thanatophoric dysplasia particularly type II kyphomelic...
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Short stem hip arthroplasty

Short stem hip arthroplasties are a special type of hip joint replacement where as the name states the stem is shorter than usual. It is known by various trade names including the NANOS system. In selected patients it is thought to result in fewer complication rates 1.
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Short umbilical cord

Short umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord is 50-70 cm 1-2, a short cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is under 35-40 cm in length at term 1-2.  Pathology Associations Recognised associations include chromosomal anomalie...
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Shoulder instability

Shoulder instability is tendency of the glenohumeral joint to sublax or dislocate due to loss of it's normal functional or anatomical stabilizers: static or anatomical: articular surface  labrum glenohumeral ligaments glenohumeral joint capsule coroacoacromial arch negative adhesive force...
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Silicone injection and insertion (cosmetic)

Silicone injection into various parts of the body has been used in many countries to achieve what are perceived to be cosmetic improvements. Most common sites for such injections are the breasts, face, and buttocks, although anywhere can be targeted.  This article is a general discussion of the...
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Simultanagnosia

Simultanagnosia is the inability of one to perceive more than one object at a time. It is a characteristic symptom of Balint syndrome and can also be seen with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA).
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Sincipital encephalocoele

Sincipital encephalocoeles are congenital herniations of cerebral parenchyma through a cranial defect. There are three main types 1,2: frontonasal encephalocoele (~50%): more common in Asia and Latin America 4 naso-ethmoidal encephalocoele (30%): more common in North America 4 naso-orbital (n...
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Single layer periosteal reaction

Single layer periosteal reaction is a uniformly dense, single thin layer of new bone about 1-2 mm from the cortical surface. Passive hyperaemia causes increased osteoblastic activity and production of new bone. It is seen in: premature infants for up to 6 months early fracture healing osteosa...
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Single pleural based mass (differential)

The differential for a single pleural mass is essentially the same as that for multiple pleural masses with the addition of a few entities.  tumours pleural tumours solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura (pleural fibroma) mesothelioma localised mediastinal malignant mesothelioma metastatic...
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Sinonasal disease

The nasal passage and paranasal sinuses (collectively sinonasal) plays host to a number of diseases and conditions, which can be collectively termed sinonasal disease. One way of classifying separate entities is as follows: inflammatory and infective conditions sinusitis acute sinusitis pott...
Article

Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
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Skeletal "do not touch" lesions

Skeletal “don’t touch” lesions (also called leave me alone lesions) are so radiographically characteristic lesions that an additional diagnostic tests such as a biopsy are unnecessary and can be frankly misleading and lead to additional unnecessary surgery. Thus a radiologic diagnosis should be ...
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Skeletal dysplasia

Skeletal dysplasia (also known as osteochondrodysplasia) refers to any abnormality in bone formation. There is a very wide clinicopathological spectrum and any part of the skeleton can be affected. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is estimated at ~2 per 10,000 live births 3. Pathology Typ...
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Skeletal lesions with giant cells

There are a number of skeletal lesions with giant cells on histology, which may occasionally lead to mischaracterization of the lesion. Below is a list of lesions with giant cells as an important histological feature, to aid in differential diagnosis if the histological diagnosis of a lesion do...
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Skeletal metastasis

Skeletal metastases are common and result in significant morbidity in patients with metastatic disease. Although the diagnosis is often straightforward, especially as in many cases there is a well-documented history of metastatic malignancy, sometimes they may mimic benign disease or other prima...
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Skeletal muscle oedema on MRI (differential)

The presence of intramuscular oedema (increased high T2/STIR signal) on MRI carries an extremely broad differential. They include: trauma effects of direct injury or tear denervation injury: denervation changes in muscles early myositis ossificans inflammatory myopathies dermatomyositis p...
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Skin thickening on mammography (differential)

The presence of skin thickening on mammography is variably defined, usually being more than 2mm in thickness. It can result from a number of both benign and malignant causes. They include: Malignant inflammatory breast cancer: one of the most concerning causes of skin thickening: this usually ...
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Skull base angle

The skull base angle allows the diagnosis of platybasia and basilar kyphosis. There are several different techniques that may be used on sagittal images from MRI or CT. Standard technique Angle formed by: line joining the nasion with the centre of the pituitary fossa line joining the anteri...
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Skull tumours

Skull tumours can be (as with tumours anywhere else) both primary and secondary, and benign or malignant. Primary Benign osteoma ossifying fibroma osteoblastoma haemangioma giant cell tumour (GCT) aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) epidermoid and dermoid cysts chondroma Malignant osteosarcom...
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Small bowel folds (differential)

Regular, smooth generalised thickening oedema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminaemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic oedema infection radiation ischaemia haemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diathesis vasculitides IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura) Buerger d...
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Small bowel imaging

Small bowel imaging aims at assessment of the disorders of small intestine. Imaging techniques barium follow through fluoroscopic enteroclysis conventional CT CT enteroclysis MR enteroclysis CT enterography MR enterography capsule endoscopy
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Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
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Small for date fetus

A small for dates fetus can result from a number of factors Fetal factors aneuploidy trisomy triploidy skeletal dysplasia(s) structural anomalies (syndromes) Maternal factors Common hypertension medication(s): fetal Warfarin syndrome hydantoin embryopathy (Dilantin TM) cytotoxic dru...
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Small lung volume (differential diagnosis)

The following differentials can be considered when small lung volumes are seen: pulmonary fibrosis prior surgery, e.g. lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery pleural disease skeletal deformities, e.g. kyphosis, scoliosis  systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) neuromuscular disorders, e.g. p...
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Small placenta

A small placenta if observed on antenatal ultrasound can arise from a number of situations. They include: variation in placental morphology: where only part of the placenta is seen bilobed placenta: with only one lobe seen succenturiate lobe: with either main lobe or succenturiate lobe not se...
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Smoking related lung disease

Smoking related lung diseases are the respiratory manifestations of disease that is related to smoking. Smoking affects the lungs in numerous ways, and can be classified under the following headings: smoking related interstitial lung diseases (SR-ILD) respiratory bronchiolitis respiratory br...
Article

Snake eyes (facial nerve)

Snake eyes, also known as snail eyes, is a term used to refer to the appearance of the facial nerve on coronal CT within its canal in the petrous temporal bone as the tympanic segment doubles back next to the labyrinthine segment. Anteriorly, these two segments converge at the geniculate ganglio...
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Soft tissue calcification

Soft tissue calcification is commonly seen and caused by a wide range of pathology. Differential diagnosis There is a wide range of causes of soft tissue calcification 1: dystrophic soft tissue calcification (most common), e.g. chronic venous insufficiency 2 vascular, e.g. arterial calcifica...
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Soft tissue lesions with predominately low T1 and T2 signal (differential)

Soft tissue lesions with predominately low T1 and T2 signal have a reasonably long differential, including:  Common air densely calcified/ossified lesions foreign body gout flow voids arteriovenous fistula aneurysm post-operative changes  haematoma, chronic plantar fibromatosis pigme...
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Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
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Soft tissue tumours (WHO 2002 classification)

The WHO 2002 classification of soft tissue tumours is as follows: This, however, has been revised under the 2013 WHO tissue tumour classification system 4. Adipocytic tumours Benign lipoma 8850/0* lipomatosis 8850/0 lipomatosis of nerve 8850/0 lipoblastoma/lipoblastomatosis 8881/0 angiol...
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Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid lesions with enhancement is by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. Differential diagnosis macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the origin is wit...
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Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of new bone adjacent to the cortex. It can be seen in: osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteosarcoma chondrosarcoma fibrous dysplasia non-ossifying fibroma osteoblast...
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Solitary filling defect of the ureter (differential)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has some differentials, including: within the lumen calculus sloughed papilla blood clot benign polyp within the wall transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tuberculosis  metastasis endometriosis When multiple fi...
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Solitary ill-defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Ill-defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be caused by following entities 1: intraosseous haemangioma chondroblastoma osteoblastoma giant cell tumour fibrosarcoma of bone malignant fibrous histiocytoma chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma Ewing's sarcoma angiosarcoma multiple myeloma intrao...
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Solitary lucent skull lesion

Solitary lucent lesion of the skull is a relatively frequent finding. The differential is heavily influenced by the patient's age. Older adult/elderly metastasis/malignancy breast cancer lung cancer melanoma thyroid cancer renal cell cancer multiple myeloma epidermoid and dermoid haem...
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Solitary pulmonary nodules

Solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is defined as a relatively well defined round or oval pulmonary parenchymal lesion equal or smaller than 30 mm in diameter. It is surrounded by pulmonary parenchyma and/or visceral pleura and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia 9. Qu...
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Solitary sclerotic bone lesion

The differential diagnosis of a solitary sclerotic bone lesion is heavily influenced by the age of the patient, and includes: sclerotic metastasis solitary either because no others are present or no others have been imaged enostosis (bone island) osteosarcoma calcifying enchondroma osteobl...
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Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent centre

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent centre have a number of differentials: neoplastic osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma infective Brodie abscess tuberculosis syphilis yaws
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Solitary well defined osteolytic lesion (differential)

Well defined solitary osteolytic lesions can be seen with following conditions 1-2: subchondral geodes or cysts intraosseous ganglion intraosseous tophus(gout)  unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst glomus tumour enchondroma epidermoid inclusion cyst chondroblastoma non-ossifying f...
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Sonographic values in obstetrics and gynaecology

Obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound is rampant with numerous cut off values. Some of these get revised over the years. The following list is a useful aid to refer to and revise. 1 mm rate of increase of a mean sac diameter per day in early pregnancy 2 mm generally accepted value for a th...
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Speckled anterior horn of lateral meniscus

The speckled appearance of the anterior horn of lateral meniscus is a feature that can be seen as a normal variant on MRI scans. It is usually seen near its central attachment site. It is often explained by fibres of the anterior cruciate ligament and the covering synovium inserting into the men...
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Spiculated periosteal reaction

Spiculated periosteal reaction represents spicules of new bone forming along vascular channels and the fibrous bands that anchor tendons to bone (Sharpey fibres). A spiculated periosteal reaction signifies a rapid underlying process that prevents formation of new bone under the raised periosteum...
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Spinal cord compression

Spinal cord compression is a surgical emergency, usually requiring prompt surgical decompression to prevent permanent neurological impairment. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of cord compression. These can be divided according to the location of the compressing mass: interverte...
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Spinal cord transection

Spinal cord transection, as the name implies, refers to a tear within the spinal cord as a result of a significant traumatic injury. It is an important radiological finding that can influence the decision on potential surgery in the setting of spinal trauma. Clinical presentation The presentat...
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Spinal dysraphism

Spinal dysraphism is a broad term given to a group of anomalies where there are malformations in the dorsum of the embryo. Neural tube defects come under this group as well.  Pathology There is often abnormal fusion of the midline embryonic neural tube leading to abnormal development of the ve...
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Spinal epidural mass

The differential diagnosis for a spinal epidural mass includes: epidural metastasis epidural abscess herniated nucleus pulposus epidural haematoma epidural arteriovenous malformation epidural angiolipoma epidural lipomatosis
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Spinal fractures

Spinal fractures are usually the result of significant trauma to a normally formed skeleton, or the result of trauma to a weakened spinal column. Examples include: Jefferson fracture: ring fracture of C1 hangman fracture: bilateral pedicle or pars fracture of C2 dens fracture flexion teardro...
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Spinal haematoma

Spinal haematomas are a rare clinical entity and are often idiopathic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial, lest they cause permanent neurological damage. Identifying the location of the haematoma is important for treatment, as is distinguishing it, to the extent possible, from other ent...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
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Spinal synovial cyst

Synovial cysts of the spine are cystic formations connected to the facet joint and containing synovial fluid lined by a cuboid or pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They may be result in lumbar radiculopathy in a significant number of cases. Clinical presentation They may be asymptomatic an...
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Spinal vascular malformations

Spinal vascular malformations (SVM) are rare but knowledge of them is important as if undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to serious complications.  Pathology There are two main types of SVMs 1,2: spinal arteriovenous fistula (AVF): 70% of SVMs pial: small, large, or giant dural AVF (DA...
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Splenic abscess

Splenic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localised collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic or fungal agents. They uncommonly affect the spleen due to its efficient reticuloendothelial system phagocytic activity and, consequently, are more likely seen in...
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Splenic amyloidosis

Splenic amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity. Most often it is associated with either systemic amyloidosis or hepatic amyloidosis. Epidemiology In general splenic involvement in amyloidosis is rather frequent (5-10% of cases 6). Clinical presentation Symptoms include abdominal mass and ...
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Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur is various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of aetiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where...
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Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~8...
Article

Splenic haemangiomatosis

Splenic haemangiomatosis involves multiple, diffuse splenic haemangiomas replacing its entire parenchyma. It is a very rare entity. Pathology It can occur as a manifestation of systemic angiomatosis or, less commonly, confined to the spleen (diffuse isolated splenic haemangiomatosis). There is...
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Splenic lesions and anomalies

There are a number of splenic lesions and anomalies: Congenital anomalies accessory spleen wandering spleen asplenia polysplenia splenogonadal fusion retrorenal spleen Mass lesions Benign mass lesions splenic cyst (mnemonic) splenic pseudocyst splenic haemangioma: commonest benign sp...
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Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. It can also be helpful to know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen we...
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Spontaneous nipple discharge

Spontaneous nipple discharge in a non lactating breast can result from many causes which include: papillary lesions of breast: present in ~35-50% of cases with spontaneous nipple discharge intraductal papilloma fibrocystic change ductal carcinoma in situ: 5-21%
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Spontaneous splenic rupture

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) (or atraumatic splenic rupture) is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal ...
Article

Sprue

Sprue is the collective term for the malabsorptive gastrointestinal enteropathies although it may be used to refer directly to tropical sprue. It is composed of two entities: tropical sprue non-tropical sprue / coeliac disease In each, the radiologic features are not sensitive enough to confi...
Article

Stapes prosthesis

Stapes prosthesis are used in the stapedectomy surgery procedure which aims to improve conductive hearing loss due to oval window closure secondary to otosclerosis or post inflammatory conditions. The procedure is also performed to correct congenital abnormalities or discontinuity or fracture re...
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Storage disorders

Storage disorders comprise a bewildering collection of inherited metabolic conditions which share the accumulation of a metabolite within various cells in the body due to dysfunction of specific enzymes or transport proteins. Accumulation of metabolites eventually results in cellular and/or orga...
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Stroke in children and young adults

Brain ischaemia/infarction in children and young adults can result from several causes. embolic phenomena cyanotic heart disease cardiomyopathies mitral valve prolapse Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome arterial dissection trauma spontaneous fibromuscular dysplasia Marfan syndrome Ehlers Danl...
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Subacromial impingement

Subacromial impingement is by far the most common form of shoulder impingement and occurs secondary to attrition between the coracoacromial arch and the supraspinatus tendon or subacromial bursa. Pathology Aetiology os acromiale type III acromion acromioclavicular degenerative disease thic...
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Subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity

There are a wide range of causes for subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity, both pathological and artifactual.  Differential diagnosis Pathological causes subarachnoid haemorrhage meningitis leptomeningeal carcinomatosis FLAIR vascular hyperintensities in acute stroke 1,4,8 moyamoya disease ...
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Subcutaneous abscess

A subcutaneous abscess is a manifestation of a spectrum of soft tissue skin infection which includes cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis. It is a form of abscess which lies within the dermis and subdermal cutaneous layers. Along with dental abscesses, subcutaneous abscesses are the most common ...
Article

Subcutaneous calcification (differential)

Subcutaneous calcification can be associated with a number of disorders. The list includes: dermatomyositis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome pseudoxanthoma elasticum basal cell nevus syndrome subcutaneous lipodystrophy venous thrombosis as a manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus varicose v...
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Subdiaphragmatic free gas

Subdiaphragmatic free gas is one of the ways of detecting presence of free intraperitoneal gas (i.e. pneumoperitoneum). It is the presence of free, extraluminal gas in the anterior subhepatic space.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph Subdiaphragmatic free gas is well appreciated as the g...
Article

Subluxed facet joint

Subluxed facet joint is the mildest form of facet dislocation in which the ligamentous injury leads to partial uncovering of facet joint (c.f. complete uncovering in perched facet). This results in mild anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another (anterolisthesis).
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Subperiosteal bone resorption

Subperiosteal bone resorption is the most consistent and specific finding of hyperparathyroidism and is virtually pathognomonic of the condition. Radiographic features While the terminal tufts of the phalanges are the most commonly involved bones, many others are involved: tufts of the distal...
Article

Subpulmonic effusion

Subpulmonic effusions are a pleural effusion that can be seen only on an erect projection. Rather than layering laterally and blunting the costophrenic angle, the pleural fluid lies almost exclusively between the lung base and the diaphragm. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The fluid ca...
Article

Substernal goitre

Substernal goitre is a goitre (enlarged thyroid gland) with intrathoracic extension. It remains unclear which goitres are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goitre that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete removal or an intrathoracic compone...
Article

Sunburst appearance (bone)

Sunburst appearance is a type of periosteal reaction giving the appearance of a sunburst secondary to an aggressive periostitis. It should not be confused with the sunburst sign of meningioma vascularity.  The sunburst appearance occurs when the lesion grows too fast and the periosteum does not...
Article

Superficial siderosis

Superficial siderosis is a rare condition which results from the deposition of haemosiderin along the leptomeninges, with eventual neurological dysfunction. On imaging, it is classically characterised on MRI as a rim of low signal coating the surface of the brain or spinal cord, particularly no...
Article

Superficial thrombophlebitis

Superficial thrombophlebitis, also called superficial venous thrombosis (SVT), is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of a thrombus in the lumen of a superficial vein, accompanied by inflammatory reaction of adjacent tissues. Terminology Some authors however reserve the term...
Article

Supernumerary ribs

Supernumerary ribs occur most commonly as a cervical rib or arising from the lumbar vertebra. In extremely rare situations, there can be sacral, coccygeal, intrathoracic, or aberrant lumbar ribs 3. Associations Turner syndrome cleidocranial dysplasia Aarskog syndrome trisomy 8 syndrome inc...
Article

Superscan

Superscan is intense symmetric activity in the bones with diminished renal and soft tissue activity on a Tc99m diphosphonate bone scan. This appearance can result from a range of aetiological factors: diffuse metastatic disease prostatic carcinoma breast cancer transitional cell carcinoma (...
Article

Suprasellar cystic lesions

The differential for suprasellar cystic lesions is large and predominantly includes developmental and neoplastic conditions. Differential diagnosis Developmental arachnoid cyst craniopharyngioma Rathke's cleft cyst dermoid cyst epidermoid cyst ependymal cyst enlarged perivascular spaces...
Article

Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that helps, especially when under the pressure of the exam situation. Differentials from the sections of the sieve can be considered in turn, helping to extend the list in a structured way. They include: 5I 3-Scotland VITAMIN VITAMIN C...
Article

Suspicious breast calcifications

Suspicious breast calcifications are calcifications within the breast that are not benign. These calcification need further work up and biopsy. These can be divided as suspicious calcification of intermediate concern  suspicious calcification raising high probability of malignancy
Article

Swan neck deformity (fingers)

Swan neck deformity is a deformity of the digits that consists of: hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints compensatory flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP)  joints Pathology Swan neck deformity is seen in 3,4: rheumatoid arthritis (classical association) post-tr...
Article

Symmetrical periosteal reaction

There are a large number of causes for a symmetrical periosteal reaction 1,2: chronic venous insufficiency hypertrophic osteoarthropathy physiologic periosteal reaction of the newborn (Caffey disease), most common cause before 6 months old juvenile idiopathic arthritis​ pachydermoperiostosi...
Article

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma (SPLC) is a term given to the occurrence of two or more primary lung carcinomas within different portions of the lung in the same time period. They are thought to the carry the same pathophysiological mechanism as metachronous lung carcinoma (i.e. two or more ...
Article

Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2,500 to 5,000 live births 6,8. T...
Article

Syndesmophyte

Syndesmophytes are calcifications or heterotopic ossifications inside a spinal ligament or of the annulus fibrosus.​ They are seen in only a limited number of conditions including:  ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis fluorosis Radiographic features Appearance on plain radiographs comprises v...
Article

Syringobulbia

Syringobulbia is a rare entity and refers to a syrinx that extends into the medulla oblongata 1. Terminology Some authors use syringobulbia to refer to a syrinx present in any portion of the brainstem rather than specifically involving the medulla oblongata, and therefore encompassing syringop...
Article

Syrinx

Syrinx is the collective name given to hydromyelia, syringomyelia, syringobulbia, syringopontia, syringomesencephaly, and syringocephalus. Terminology The use of the general term 'syrinx' has grown out of the difficulty in distinguishing between hydromyelia and syringomyelia using current imag...

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