White coat hypertension (abbreviated alternatively as WCH or WCHT), not to be confused with the white coat effect (WCE), is commonly defined as typical in-clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements of 140/90 mm Hg or more in the presence of multiple daytime out-of-clinic home or ambulatory BP readi...
White matter changes in HIV have overlapping appearances and varied in aetiology. These can be divided into:
primary effects of HIV
metabolic and nutritional disorders
Primary effects of HIV
The interpedicular (IP) distance which is the distance measured between the pedicles on frontal / coronal imaging can be widened in a number of situations.
conditions that can cause dural ectasia (can potentially cause widening)
Widening of the presacral space is one of the diagnostic indicators of the diseases involving pelvic pathology and rectal involvement. It is ideally measured on barium studies at the level of S3/4 disc level on lateral radiographs and the normal value of the presacral space is <15 mm in adults....
The (absent) pedicle sign, also called the winking owl sign, occurs on plain film when a pedicle is absent.
The term, winking owl sign, where the missing pedicle corresponds to the closed eye, the contralateral pedicle to the other open eye, and the spinous process to the beak of the animal on ...
Artifacts can present in a variety of ways including abnormal shadow noted on a radiograph or degraded image quality and have been produced by artificial means from hardware failure, operator error and software (post-processing) artifacts.
There are common and distinct artifacts for film, comp...