Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,134 results found
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis Wegener's granulomatosis eo...
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Chronic encephalitides

There are several viral and prion infections which can result in a chronic encephalitis with slow progression into brain atrophy. These have very poor prognosis with no effective treatment. Some of these include: progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Ras...
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Chronic interstitial pneumonitis

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term where an interstitial pneumonia has a prolonged course. It can arise of a range of aetiologies. The term does not usually imply a specific radiographic pattern and includes UIP, NSIP or other pattern. A a general rule there is little o...
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Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency

Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency has a number of causes. Primary adrenal insufficiency is termed Addison disease. Pathology Causes idiopathic atrophy: autoimmune adrenalitis 1 tuberculosis 1: 25% calcify fungal disease 1 histioplasmosis blastomycosis coccidioidomycosis AIDS 1 sarc...
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Chronic unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnoses for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic unilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: neoplastic post obstructive lymphoma lymphocytic ...
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Clavicle tumours

Clavicle tumours may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramed...
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Cleft palate

Cleft palate is a type of facial cleft. It can occur in two main aetiologically different forms: in association with a cleft lip: cleft lip +/- palate (much commoner) on its own: isolated cleft palate (rarer)
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Clival masses

The differential of a mass involving or arising from the clivus is a relatively narrow one and can be divided into whether the lesion arises from the skull base itself, from the intracranial compartment or from below the base of skull.   When evaluating the clivus it is important to compare the...
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Closed reduction

Closed reduction or manipulation is a common non-invasive method of treating mildly displaced fractures. Usually performed in an emergency department or orthopaedic clinic with light sedation and analgesia, the fracture is manipulated back into anatomic alignment and immobilised with a cast, bra...
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CNS infectious diseases

This article aims to be a collection of articles that represent the central nervous system infectious diseases. There will be some overlap between articles as they are listed and discussed in a mixture of anatomical and aetiological classification.   Terminology It is important to remember tha...
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CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognised.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...
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Coarse macrocalcifications within the breast

Coarse macrocalcifications within the breast are a morphological descriptive term for a type of breast calcification.  Associations   involuting fibroadenomas ( classical popcorn calcification ) chronic renal disease with hypercalcaemia 1  rarely seen in malignancy  2 invasive breast carci...
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Coccydynia

Coccydynia refers to pain in and among the area of the coccyx. It is characterised by coccygeal pain which is typically provocated by pressure. It may remain unclear in origin owing to the unpredictability of the source of pain 1. Epidemiology No accurate data about the frequency of coccydynia...
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Cochlear implant

Cochlear implants (CI) are a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning audi...
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Codman triangle periosteal reaction

Codman triangle is a type of periosteal reaction seen with aggressive bone lesions. With aggressive lesions, the periosteum does not have time to ossify with shells of new bone (e.g. as seen in single layer and mulitlayered periosteal reaction), so only the edge of the raised periosteum will oss...
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Coin lesion (lung)

Coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically but not always the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions is ...
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COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
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Colonic stricture

Colonic strictures can be long (>10 cm) or short. Short scirrhous colorectal carcinoma (apple core sign) post surgical (anastamotic stricture) Long malignancy scirrhous colorectal carcinoma gastrointestinal lymphoma inflammatory bowel disease (IDB) ulcerative colitis Crohn disease pos...
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Colpocephaly

Colpocephaly is a descriptive term to a disproportionate prominence of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles. It can result from a wide range of congenital insults. Clinical presentation Patient may present with motor abnormalities, cognitive deficit, visual abnormalities, and seizures...
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Communicating hydrocephalus

Communicating hydrocephalus is a type of hydrocephalus where CSF is able to leave the ventricular system.  Terminology Communicating hydrocephalus is commonly used as the opposite of obstructive hydrocephalus which leads to much unnecessary confusion, as most causes of communicating hydrocepha...
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Companion shadows

Companion shadows are smooth, homogeneous, radiopaque shadows running parallel along the bones. They appear secondary to soft tissues and intercostal muscles running along: inferior border of lower ribs upper borders of clavicles scapula Clinical importance Companion shadows need to be diff...
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Complications following gastric banding

There are many complications that can occur following gastric banding. It is helpful to divide these into early and late post-surgical complications. Clinical presentation Although the exact mode of presentation can vary depending on the underlying complication common modes of presentation tha...
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Complications of cranial radiotherapy

Complications of cranial radiation therapy are fairly common, particularly in long term survivors, and especially in paediatric patients. Cranial radiotherapy is used for a variety for a brain tumours, either in isolation or in combination with concurrent chemotherapy. Complications from irradi...
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Complications of hip joint replacements

Complications of hip joint replacements are common and are essential for the radiologist to be aware in the assessment of the radiographs with hip prostheses. They are many and can occur at various time intervals following the initial surgery: aseptic loosening: considered to be the most common...
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Complications post optical colonoscopy

Complications post optical colonoscopy are most commonly assessed by CT if patients present with abdominal symptoms post colonoscopy. Complications include: bowel perforation (most common) pneumoperitoneum pneumoretroperitoneum pneumomediastinum pneumothorax lower gastrointestinal haemorrh...
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Conditions involving skin and bone

There are many conditions that can involve both skin and bone. osteolytic bone lesions congenital neurofibromatosis basal cell naevus syndrome angiodysplasias acquired scleroderma rheumatoid arthritis gout leprosy syphilis actinomycosis langerhans cell histiocytosis sarcoidosis ma...
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Conductive hearing loss

Conductive hearing loss is caused by a range of developmental, congenital or acquired pathology to the external, middle or inner ear. Pathology Essentially any process that obstructs or disrupts the passage of sound waves through the outer or middle ear can cause conductive hearing loss and th...
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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a form of adrenal hyperplasia related to a variety of autosomal recessive disorders in adrenal steroidogenesis; characterized by low cortisol, low aldosterone and androgen excess.  Clinical presentation virilization/genital ambiguity of female fetuses (d...
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Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

Congenital anomalies of the male urethra include various anomalies due to complex development of urethra. These anomalies can be isolated or in association with other coexisting anomalies.They can be categorised as following: congenital valves  posterior urethral valve anterior urethral valve...
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Congenital calvarial defects

Congenital calvarial defects are a group of disorders characterised by congenital calvarial bone defects that vary in severity. Radiographic features CT with 3D shaded surface reformats is the best imaging tool as it demonstrates calvarial defects and bone margins: parietal foramina parietal...
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Congenital limb amputation

Congenital limb amputations are a limb anomaly that usually occur due to disruption of vascular supply. Epidemiology Congenital amputations occur in 0.5 (range 0.03-1) per 1000 live births 2.  Pathology Slightly more common in the upper limb (60%) than in the lower limb (40%) 2.  Aetiology ...
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Congenital muscular dystrophies (central nervous system manifestations)

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive myopathies presenting at birth with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and early onset of progressive muscle weakness, confirmed with a dystrophic pattern on muscle biopsy.  Clinical presentation There is...
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Congenital renal anomalies

Congenital renal anomalies comprise of vast spectrum of pathologies and include: renal agenesis renal dysgenesis congenital renal hypoplasia congenital megacalyectasis congenital cystic renal disease infantile polycystic renal disease: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD):...
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Congenital syndromes associated with enlarged ventricles

Congenital ventriculomegaly can have large number of syndromic associations  Common acrocephalosyndactylies Apert syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome acrocephalopolysyndactylies Crouzon syndrome  achondroplasia fetal alcohol syndrome lissencephaly osteopetrosis Sotos syndrome  X-linked hydro...
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Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that can occur in the setting of right-sided heart failure (and its underlying causes). If there subsequent hepatic fibrosis the term cardiac cirrhosis may be used. The condition can rarely occur as a result of non cardiac causes...
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Contrecoup injury (knee)

A contrecoup injury of the knee is a bone contusion of the posterior lip of the medial tibial plateau. It occurs during knee reduction after a pivot shift injury and is highly associated with ACL tears 1, and peripheral tear or meniscocapsular separation of the medial meniscus posterior horn 2. ...
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Convexal subarachnoid haemorrhage

Convexal subarachnoid haemorrhages (cSAH) are nontraumatic intracranial haemorrhages that occur within the surface sulci of the brain (c.f. basal cisternal distribution of aneurysmal SAH). There are various causes of convexal SAH, some of which include: dural venous sinus thromboses cortical ...
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Cookie bite skeletal metastases

Cookie bite metastases are characterised by a small focal eccentric lytic external cortex destruction in long tubular bones. This type destruction is typically described for metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma, however they can also occur with other tumours.
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Coronal vertebral cleft

Coronal vertebral cleft refers to the presence of a radiolucent vertical defect on a lateral radiograph.   Epidemiology It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) ...
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Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
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Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion, or shearing off by th...
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Cortical nephrocalcinosis

Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis is ~20 times less common than medullary nephrocalcinosis. Pathology Aetiology renal cortical necrosis: common 2 renal infarction/ischaemia sepsis toxaemia of pregnancy drugs snake bites arsenic poisoning extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) haem...
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Coup-contrecoup injury (brain)

A coup-contrecoup injury is a term applied to head injuries and most often cerebral contusions and traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. It refers to the common pattern of injury whereby damage is located both at the site of impact (often less marked) and on the opposite side of the head to the po...
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Cranioplasty

Cranioplasty is the surgical intervention to repair cranial defects, and is mostly performed after traumatic injuries. The procedure is performed using different materials and techniques, with no consensus about the best option. Methyl-methacrylate is the prosthetic material most extensively use...
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Craniotomy

Craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a piece of calvarial bone is removed to allow intracranial exposure. The bone flap is replaced at the end of the procedure, usually secured with microplates and screws. If the bone flap is not replaced it is either a craniectomy or cranioplasty.  Classif...
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Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus. Pathology  The cranio-vertebral junctio...
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Crazy paving

Crazy paving refers to the appearance of ground-glass opacity with superimposed interlobular septal thickening and intralobular reticular thickening, seen on chest HRCT. It is a nonspecific finding that can be seen in a number of conditions.  Pathology Aetiology Common causes: acute respirat...
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Cricopharyngeal bar

Cricopharyngeal bar refers to the radiographic appearance of a prominent cricopharyngeus muscle contour on barium swallow. Terminology The terms cricopharnygeal bar and cricopharyngeal muscle spasm/achalasia are often used synonymously but this is incorrect because studies have demonstrated th...
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Crystal arthropathy

Crystal arthropathies are a group of joint disorders due to deposition of crystals in and around joints which lead to joint destruction and soft tissue masses. Pathology The most common arthropathies are: gouty arthropathy due to monosodium urate (MSU) deposition pseudogout due to calcium py...
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CSF otorrhoea

CSF otorrhoea is defined as leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space into the middle ear cavity or mastoid air cells. Epidemiology There are a number of underlying causes, and thus no specific demographic is affected.  Clinical presentation Patients typically present ...
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CT peritoneography

CT peritoneography is an examination used to assess difficulties with peritoneal dialysis.  Indications Recurrent peritonitis with difficulty with fluid exchange abdominal wall or genital soft-tissue oedema, localized bulging of the abdomen, and poor ultrafiltration. Technique Before perform...
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Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases

Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases are uncommon, occurring in ~5% (range 0.7-10%) of internal malignancies. Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a well known cutaneous metastases. Pathology These metastases can come from haematogenous or lymphatic spread, or may result from seeding from a surgical ...
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Cutaneous calcifications in breast imaging

Cutaneous calcifications in breast imaging can form in dermal sweat glands after low grade folliculitis and inspissation of sebaceous material. Calcifications may also form in moles and other skin lesions. The vast majority of calcifications are coincidental findings on mammography. Radiographi...
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Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased or decreased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora): increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
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Cyst like lesions around the knee

There is broad differential for cyst like lesions around the knee.  The list includes Cysts synovial cyst popliteal synovial cyst - Baker's cyst ganglion cyst intra-articular ganglion cyst ACL ganglion cyst PCL ganglion cyst Hoffa fat pad ganglion cyst extra-articular ganglion cyst pe...
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukemia acute myeloid leukemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphadenit...
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Cystic breast mass

A cystic breast mass is a mass that contains both solid and fluid components. This can occur from both benign and malignant causes. Benign complex breast haematoma complex breast abscess breast cyst with associated inflammation and haemorrhage galactocoele fibrocystic changes and oil cysts...
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Cystic hepatic metastases

Cystic hepatic metastases are included in the differential for new cystic liver lesions. The internal cystic component may represent necrosis as the tumor outgrows its hepatic blood supply, or it may represent a mucinous component, similar to the primary tumor. The liver and lungs are the most ...
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Cystic lesions around vagina and female urethra

There several cystic lesions around the vagina and female urethra; some of the imaging differential considerations would include: urethral diverticulum Gartner duct cyst: at or above the level of the pubic symphysis anterior to the vaginal wall Bartholin gland cyst: posterolateral to distal v...
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Cystic lesions of the liver (differential)

Cystic lesions of liver carry a broad differential diagnosis. These include: simple cysts simple hepatic cyst biliary hamartoma Caroli disease adult polycystic liver disease infectious: inflammatory conditions hepatic abscess pyogenic hepatic abscess amoebic hepatic abscess hepatic hyd...
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Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autosomal dominant polycysti...
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Cystic lesions of the testes

Testicular cystic lesions are a relatively common occurrence on testicular ultrasound. They result from widely variable pathological entities ranging from benign to malignant. These entities include: simple testicular cyst tunica albuginea cyst (mesothelial cyst) cystic transformation of rete...
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Cystic lung disease

Cystic lung disease can occur in a number pathological conditions.   Pathology A lung cyst is an air filled structure with perceptible wall typically 1 mm in thickness but can be up to 4 mm. The diameter of a lung cyst is usually < 1 cm. By definition lung cyst can be distinguished from cavity...
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Cystic lung disease (gamut)

The gamut for cystic lung disease is long, but includes: emphysema cystic bronchiectasis honeycombing pneumatocoele lymphangiomyomatosis pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis Sjogren disease lymphoid interstitial pneumonia See also cystic lung disease
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Cystic mass adjacent to the angle of mandible (differential)

The differential diagnosis of a cystic mass adjacent to the angle of mandible includes: 2nd branchial cleft cyst lymphatic malformation (lymphangioma) cystic lymphadenopathy from tuberculosis from metastatic squamous cell carcinoma  from metastatic papillary thyroid cancer See also cys...
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Cystic mediastinal masses

The differential diagnosis for cystic masses of the mediastinum include : bronchogenic cyst oesophageal duplication cyst neuroenteric cyst pericardial cyst meningocele lymphangioma thymic cyst cystic teratoma cystic degeneration of an intrathoracic tumour mediastinal thoracic duct cyst...
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Cystic parotid lesions

The differential for cystic parotid lesions includes: bilateral cystic parotid lesions Warthin tumour benign lymphoepithelial lesions of HIV Sjögren syndrome sialocoeles unilateral cystic parotid lesion(s) Warthin tumour sialocoele first branchial cleft cyst: parotid lymphoepithelial cy...
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Cystic pulmonary metastases

Cystic pulmonary metastases are atypical morphological form on pulmonary metastases where lesions manifest as distinct cystic lesions. It is slightly different form the term cavitating pulmonary metastases in that the lesions are extremely thin walled. Pathology It has been reported with many ...
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Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

A cystic retroperitoneal lesion can carry a relatively broad differenital which includes: retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal muc...
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Cystic spinal lesions

A cystic spinal lesion can result from a number of disease entities. They include Primary Chiari malformations Dandy walker malformation diastematomyelia spinal dysraphism certain skeletal dysplasias 2 achondroplasia tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I Acquired due to a tumour ast...
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Deductive echocardiography

Deductive echocardiography is a step-by-step approach in diagnosing and differentiating congenital heart disease. Parameters assessed position of heart  levocardia dextrocardia viscero-atrial situs solitus inversus ambiguus ventricular loop D-loop L-loop conotruncus normal transpos...
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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation is used in a variety of clinical settings, predominantly in patients with poorly controlled movement disorders. Although effective, its exact mode of function continues to be poorly understood 2.   Careful patient selection and target selection are essential if the proced...
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Delayed bone age

A generalised retardation in skeletal maturation has different causative or aetiological factors, these can be classified as follows: chronic ill health congenital heart disease (especially cyanotic) chronic renal disease inflammatory bowel disease malnutrition: failure to thrive (FTT) ric...
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Delayed myocardial enhancement on MRI (differential)

Delayed myocardial enhancement can occur in cardiac MR assessment due to a number of causes. They include: myocardial ischaemia: typically subendocardial and follows a vascular territory 1 nonischaemic cardiomyopathies hypertrophic cardiomyopathy nonischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy arrhyth...
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Demyelinating disorders

Demyelinating disorders are a subgroup of white matter disorders characterized by the destruction or damage of normally myelinated structures. These disorders may be inflammatory, infective, ischaemic or toxic in origin and include 1-7: autoimmune demyelination multiple sclerosis (MS) Marburg...
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Dense metaphyseal bands (differential)

The differential diagnosis of dense metaphyseal bands is wide. Differential diagnosis Common chronic anaemia, e.g. sickle cell disease, thalassemia chemotherapy, e.g. methotrexate growth acceleration lines following growth arrest due to systemic illness or stress in infancy or childhood, e....
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Dental abscess

Dental (periapical) abscess is an acute infection of the periapical tissue around the root of the tooth. Clinical presentation Patients may present with pain, oedema, and purulent discharge localised to the site of pathology with or without fever and tender cervical lymphadenopathy 1. Patholo...
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Dextrocardia

Dextrocardia is a congenital cardiac malrotation in which the heart is situated on the right side of the body (dextroversion) with the apex pointing to the right. Epidemiology Dextrocardia is believed to occur in approximately 1 in 12,000 people 2. Pathology There are two main types of dextr...
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Diaphragmatic eventration

Diaphragmatic eventration refers to an abnormal contour of the diaphragmatic dome. It typically affects only a segment of the hemidiaphragm, compared to paralysis/weakness where the entire hemidiaphragm is typically affected.  Pathology Diaphragmatic eventration is congenital in nature and due...
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Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying aetiological factor unilateral paralysis: asymptomatic in most of the patients as the other lung compensates. may have dyspnea, headaches, fatigue, inso...
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Diaphragmatic rupture

Diaphragmatic rupture often results from blunt abdominal trauma. The mechanism of injury is typically a motor-vehicle accident. Epidemiology Given that the most common mechanism is motor vehicle collisions, it's perhaps unsurprising that young men are most frequently affected. Estimated incide...
Article

Diaphyseal lesions

Diaphyseal lesions are unsurprisingly predominantly found centred in the diaphysis.  Differential diagnosis simple bone cyst fibrous dysplasia enchondroma metastases myeloma / plasmacytoma lymphoma osteomyelitis osteoid osteoma round cell tumour, e.g. Ewing sarcoma (children) bone inf...
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Differential diagnoses for temporal lobe tumours

Most tumours of the CNS can potentially occur in the temporal lobe, but entities with a predilection for being diagnosed in this location include: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) ganglioneuroma ganglioglioma pilocytic astrocytoma dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) multinodu...
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Differential diagnosis for a small cardiothoracic ratio

A small cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) as defined as <42%/0.42 when assessed on a PA chest radiograph, and can be due to number of entities: adrenal insufficiency, e.g. Addison disease heart transplant cachexic state  senility malnutrition bulimia nervosa anorexia nervosa asthmatic paroxysm ...
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Differential diagnosis for bleeding in pregnancy

Uterine bleeding during pregnancy is a common clinical presentation that often necessitates obstetric ultrasound for the assessment of the haemorrhage, and of fetal well being. The potential causes vary with the stage of gestation. Bleeding in the first trimester miscarriage threatened misca...
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Differential diagnosis for calcified masses in the mandible

Differential diagnosis for calcified masses in the mandible includes: calcifying odontogenic cyst (Gorlin cyst) calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (Pindborg tumour) fibrous dysplasia foreign body odontoma cemento-ossifying fibroma osteoma synovial osteochondromatosis focal sclero...
Article

Differential diagnosis for metatarsal region pain

Forefoot pain in the metatarsal region is a common complaint and may be caused by a number of conditions. It is worthwhile for a radiologist to have some knowledge of the potential causes and their imaging features.1 Trauma turf toe plantar plate disruption sesamoiditis stress fracture str...
Article

Differential diagnosis of free fluid in cul de sac (pouch of Douglas)

The cul-de-sac, also known as the pouch of Douglas or rectouterine pouch, is an extension of the postero-inferior reflection of the peritoneal fold between the uterus (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly). It is the most inferior aspect of the peritoneal cavity and therefore the first location w...
Article

Differential diagnosis of vascular calcification

The differential diagnosis of vascular calcification is very wide with many common and uncommon conditions. Differential diagnosis Common aneurysm atherosclerosis end-stage renal failure 3 hemangioma; arteriovenous malformation hyperparathyroidism, primary or secondary (renal osteodystrop...
Article

Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...
Article

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a subset of diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage when bleeding is diffuse and directly into the alveolar spaces. It can occur in a vast number of clinical situations and can be life threatening. Pathology Blood tends to fill alveolar spaces as multiple sites. Ae...
Article

Diffuse bone sclerosis (differential)

Diffuse bone sclerosis can result from a number of causes. They include: haematological causes myelofibrosis sickle cell disease diffuse osteosclerosing myeloma: rare mastocytosis  metabolic bone disorders hyperthyroidism hypoparathyroidism renal osteodystrophy congenital sclerosing b...

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