Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,134 results found
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Diffuse cerebellar atrophy

Diffuse atrophy of the cerebellum refers to degeneration/reduction from a previously normal cerebellar volume. Terminology Cerebellar atrophy slightly differs from cerebellar hypoplasia meaning the cerebellum was not well formed to start with. Pathology Aetiology Diffuse atrophy can result ...
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Diffuse colonic nodularity (differential)

Diffuse colonic nodularity on barium enema or CT colonography has a range of possible etiologies: lymphoid hyperplasia (tend to be small and discrete) lymphoma (tend to be larger nodules and confluent) urticaria (closely spaced polygonal lesions, history is often helpful) pseudomembranous co...
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Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall can occur in a number of situations. They include: cholecystitis acute cholecystitis chronic cholecystitis gallbladder empyema 7 xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis acalculous cholecystitis postprandial physiological state (pseudothickening) sec...
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Diffuse pleural thickening

Diffuse pleural thickening refers to a morphological type of pleural thickening. It can occur from malignant as well as nonmalignant causes, which include: diffuse pleural fibrosis / fibrothorax 6 asbestos related pleural disease: typically seen a continuous sheet of pleural thickening often i...
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Diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage

Diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage (DPH) is a subtype of pulmonary haemorrhage where bleeding into the lung is diffuse. If the bleeding is into the alveolar spaces this can be further subclassified as diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH). Clinical presentation While the exact presentation can vary is...
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Diffuse pulmonary nodules

Diffuse pulmonary nodules are usually seen as multiple pulmonary nodular opacifications on a HRCT chest scan. They can signify disease processes affecting either the interstitium or the airspace. They can range from a few millimetres to up to 1 cm and when very small and numerous there can be so...
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Diffuse small bowel disease

Diffuse small bowel disease may be caused by a number of conditions may be generalised multisystem disorders or conditions that effect the bowel in a global fashion: sprue scleroderma Whipple's disease amyloidosis hypoproteinaemia giardiasis intramural haemorrhage radiation enteritis sm...
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Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal. ​...
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Diffuse tracheal narrowing

Conditions associated with diffuse tracheal narrowing or collapse include (in alphabetical order): amyloidosis chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): saber sheath trachea granulomatosis with polyangiitis tracheobronchial tuberculosis 3 tracheomalacia/tracheobronchomalacia (due to col...
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Diffuse tracheal wall thickening

There are a number of causes of diffuse tracheal wall thickening: Wegener's granulomatosis sarcoidosis amyloidosis post-intubation stenosis infection (i.e. rhinoscleroma, tuberculosis). inflammatory bowel disease relapsing polychondritis: characteristic sparing of the posterior tracheal m...
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Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta thalasse...
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Dilated ducts on breast imaging (differential)

Dilated ducts on breast imaging may be seen on many breast imaging modalities and can arise from a number of causes which can be both benign or malignant. physiological lactational changes mammary duct ectasia breast neoplasm 2-3
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Disarticulation

The term disarticulation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body, specifically through a joint. This is in contrast to amputation, which is the disconnection or removal of the structure through a bone.
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Discrete colonic ulceration

Discrete colonic ulcerations are nonspecific findings, and can be due to: Crohn disease infective colitis Yersinia entercolitis shigellosis tuberculosis cytomegalovirus (CMV) amoebic colitis vasculitic colitis Behcet disease
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Disorganised periosteal reaction

Disorganised or complex periosteal reaction has spicules with random orientation and appearance. It can be seen in highly aggressive processes: osteosarcoma metastasis osteomyelitis chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma stress fracture malignant fibrous histiocytoma spindle cell sarcoma See also...
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Distal clavicular erosion (differential)

Erosion or absence of the distal ends of the clavicles may be seen in a wide range of conditions. Differential diagnosis Bilateral erosions weightlifter's shoulder: due to repetitive microtrauma; classically described in weightlifters, but can affect anyone performing repetitive overhead lift...
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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways include: mesolimbic  mesocortical  striatonigral  tuberoinfundibular 
Article

Double bubble sign (duodenum)

The double bubble sign is seen in infants and represents dilatation of the proximal duodenum and stomach. It is seen in both radiographs and ultrasound, and can be identified antenatally 2. Pathology Causes include 1,2: congenital obstruction duodenal web duodenal atresia duodenal stenosis...
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Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension

Drug and toxin induced pulmonary hypertension is one of the causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It falls under group 1.3 under the Dana point classification system of pulmonary hypertension.  Pathology A wide range of difference drugs have been associated with developing pulmonary hyper...
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Drug induced lung disease

Drug induced lung disease can result from a number of agents and can have a myriad of presentations, ranging from adult respiratory distress syndrome type picture to established pulmonary fibrosis. Due to this it can be extremely difficult to pinpoint the offending agent on imaging appearances ...
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Dural arteriovenous shunts

Dural arteriovenous shunts (DAVS) are rare congenital arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs). On the basis of clinical and anatomical features DAVS have three different types: dural sinus malformations (DSMs) infantile or juvenile DAVS (IDAVS) adult DAVS (ADAVS)
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Dural ectasia

Dural ectasia refers to ballooning or widening of the dural sac which can result in posterior vertebral scalloping and is associated with herniation of nerve root sleeves. Clinical presentation Patients with dural ectasia may present with low back pain or radicular pain in the buttocks or legs...
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Dural enhancement

Pachymeningeal enhancement, also known as dura-arachnoid enhancement 4, refers to a dural and outer layer of arachnoid pattern of enhancement seen following contrast administration and may occur in the conditions listed below: infection intracranial tumour metastases intracranial hypotension...
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Dural masses

Dural masses can be the result of a number of different tumours and conditions, although meningiomas are by far the most common. The differential of a dural mass includes: meningioma haemangiopericytoma primary dural lymphoma Rosai-Dorfman disease solitary fibrous tumour of the dura EBV-as...
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Dynamic hip screw

Dynamic hip screws (DHS) are a femoral head-sparing orthopaedic device used to treat femoral neck fractures. It is sometimes referred to as a pin and plate. Neck fractures that are undisplaced and hence have a low risk of avascular necrosis (Garden I and II fractures) can be treated with head-p...
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Dynamic tracheal collapse

Dynamic tracheal collapse refers to collapse of the trachea during expiration. It is perhaps best assessed on CT in the end expiratory phase. An inspiratory series is also useful for comparative purposes. The term excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to abnormal and exaggerated bulgin...
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Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem.  Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluate the esophageal motor pattern and lower esophageal sp...
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Dystocia of shoulder

Shoulder dystocia (SD) refers to the failure of the shoulder to be delivered during childbirth and the need for extra-obstetric maneuvers to facilitate their passage after normal smooth gentle downward traction has failed. Dystocia literally means difficult labour. Epidemiology The incidence o...
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Dystrophic soft tissue calcification

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of pathologies that cause soft-tissue calcification and is caused by calcification of damaged tissues.  The amorphous calcification that results may be small or large.  In some cases, ossification may occur - this...
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Echogenic fetal lung lesions

Echogenic fetal lung lesions on antenatal ultrasound can be detected in a number of situations. They include: Airway obstructions: lung are often enlarged and echogenic bilaterally congenital high airways obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) tracheal atresia congenital tracheal stenosis laryngeal a...
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Echogenic renal pyramids (differential)

Echogenic renal pyramids in children can be due to many different causes.  Differential diagnosis Nephrocalcinosis Iatrogenic (most common cause) furosemide (frusemide) vitamin D steroids Non-iatrogenic idiopathic hypercalcemia Williams syndrome hyperparathyroidism milk-alkali syndrom...
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Ectopia lentis

Ectopia lentis refers to subluxation or dislocation of the lens of the eye secondary to dysfunction or disruption of zonular fibres.  Pathology Aetiology trauma systemic and syndromic disorders Marfan syndrome typically upwards and out most common spontaneous cause 2 homocystinuria -  ty...
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Elbow arthroplasty

Elbow arthroplasties are an increasingly common joint replacement, most often used for treatment of late stage rheumatoid arthritis, but which may also be used as a treatment for late stage osteoarthritis or complex fractures of the proximal radius, proximal ulna, or distal humerus. total elbow...
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Elbow dislocation

Elbow dislocation is the second most common large joint dislocation in the adult population.  A dislocation with no fracture is simple whereas an accompanying fracture makes the dislocation complex. The most common fracture is a radial head fracture, although coronoid process fracture is also c...
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Elevated diaphragm

Elevated diaphragm refers to the symmetrical elevation of both domes of the diaphragm. Pathology Causes There is some overlap with causes of an elevated hemidiaphragm.  Technical  supine position poor inspiratory effort Patient factors obesity pregnancy Diaphragmatic pathology paralys...
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Elevated hemidiaphragm

Elevated hemidiaphragms can result from many causes: above the diaphragm 1 decreased lung volume atelectasis/collapse lobectomy/pneumonectomy pulmonary hypoplasia diaphragm 3-7 phrenic nerve palsy diaphragmatic eventration contralateral stroke: usually middle cerebral artery distribut...
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Elevated prolactin (differential)

Elevated prolactin can be due to a number of causes, including elevated production/secretion as well as reduced inhibition.  Prolactin is controlled by numerous homeostatic mechanisms, with tonic secretion of prolactin inhibitory hormone (dopamine) by the hypothalamus having a dominant effect 1...
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Eloesser flap

Eloesser flap is a single stage procedure for the treatment of severe pleural empyema, and involves a U-shaped incision and the resection of a number of subjacent posterolateral ribs. The U-shaped flap is then folded into the pleural space creating a permanent communication.  Unlike the Clagett...
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Empty gestational sac

Empty gestational sacs can be due to a number of causes: anembryonic pregnancy (also known as "blighted ovum") early pregnancy (intrauterine): by 5.5 weeks gestational age, a yolk sac should be identifiable by transvaginal ultrasound pseudogestational sac with an ectopic pregnancy gestationa...
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Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. They are similar to abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there are variou...
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Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family

Although sporadic viral encephalitis is most commonly due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) the extended herpesvirus family consists of many other viruses many of which can also infect the central nervous system. Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family include 1:   herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
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Enchondroma vs low grade chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between enchondromas and low-grade conventional chondrosarcomas is a frequent difficulty as the lesions are both histologically and radiographically very similar. It is important to remember, though, that differentiating between them may be a moot point since both can either be c...
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Endobronchial intubation

Endobronchial intubation is not infrequent and is a trivial diagnosis to make in most instances provided an adequately penetrated chest radiograph is obtained. The incidence of endobronchial intubation is greatest following emergency intubation.  Clinical presentation The main issue with intub...
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Endobronchial metastases

Endobronchial metastases (EBMs) are an uncommon form of intrathoracic metastases. They are much less common than intrapulmonary metastases. Clinical presenation The clinical presentation can vary and include haemoptysis cough post-obstructive pneumonitis from distal obstruction Pathology ...
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Endoleak

Endoleaks are characterised by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac. Epidemiology An endoleak is a...
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Endometrial fluid

Fluid in the endometrial cavity can result from a number of causes if excessive and associated with distension.  Pathology There are essentially three types of fluid:  hydrometra: simple fluid haematometra: haemorrhagic content / clot pyometra: pus Premenopausal normal (i.e. physiological...
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Endometrial microcalcifications

Endometrial microcalcifications can arise from a vast range pathologies but are usually of benign in aetiology. Epidemiology They have an increased incidence with older age, postmenopausal state, atrophic endometrium, and endometrial polyps.  Radiographic features Ultrasound They are typica...
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Endophthalmitis

Endophthalmitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition that involves intraocular inflammation of any cause. It is either infectious or noninfectious in aetiology, but in clinical practice, intraocular infections are the commonest.  Clinical presentation Eye pain and discomfort are common...
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Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner margin of cortical bones, typically seen in long bones, due to slow growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to benign aetiology. In fact...
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Enlarged azygos vein

An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph. Causes for dilatation There are a number of physiological causes for e...
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Enlarged echogenic fetal kidneys

Enlarged echogenic fetal kidneys can be associated with a number of pathologies that include: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) 1 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) 3: the large cysts may not form in utero and the kidneys may initially appear as enlarged a...
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Enlarged extraocular muscles (differential)

There is a short list of causes for enlarged extraocular muscles: thyroid associated orbitopathy lymphoma orbital pseudotumour sarcoidosis metastases amyloidosis (very rare) 2
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Enlarged posterior fossa 'CSF' space

An enlarged posterior fossa 'CSF' space posterior to the cerebellum has a number of differentials that include: mega cisterna magna epidermoid cyst arachnoid cyst Careful attention to the cerebellum needs to paid as also to be considered are: cerebellar atrophy Dandy-Walker malformations ...
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Enlarged pulmonary trunk on chest radiography (differential)

The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:  normal may appear prominent in young patients especially women projectional rotation lordotic view rotation of the heart pectus excavatum left lower lobe collapse pulmonary arterial hyp...
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Enlarged sella turcica (differential)

Enlargement of sella turcica can be seen in situations including the following: empty sella syndrome slight globular enlargement of the sella with no erosion, destruction or posterior displacement of dorsum sellae intracranial hypertension enlargement with erosion of anterior cortex of dorsu...
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Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette

Enlargement of the cardiac silhouette on a frontal (or PA) chest x-ray can be due to a number of causes 1: cardiomegaly (most common cause by far) pericardial effusion anterior mediastinal mass prominent epicardial fat pad expiratory radiograph AP projection (from supine radiographs taken ...
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Enteritis

Enteritis refers to inflammation of the small bowel. When associated with inflammation of the stomach, the term gastroenteritis is used which is usually caused by infection. Pathology Aetiology infection infective enteritis eosinophilic enteritis ischaemia inflammatory bowel disease radi...
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Epicardial fat pads

Epicardial (pericardial) fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic, more so on the right. Unsurprisingly, they are more prominent in obese patients. Pathology They can be affected by fat necrosis (see: epipericardial fat necrosis).  Radiographic features Plain radiograph ...
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Epicondylar fracture

Epicondylar fractures are common injuries in children. They represent 10% of all elbow fractures in children and usually occur in boys after a fall on an outstretched arm. Medial epicondyle fractures comprise most of these injuries. They can usually be treated with splinting and early physiothe...
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Epidermoid cyst

The term epidermoid cyst can refer to a: epidermal inclusion cyst intracranial epidermoid cyst splenic epidermoid cyst spinal epidermoid cyst testicular epidermoid cyst
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Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci with shadows within the epididymal head and usually implies chronic epididymitis. Other conditions to be considered in the differential are: chronic epididymitis: e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  tr...
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Epididymal cyst

Epididymal cysts are the most common of epididymal masses. Epidemiology Epididymal cysts have been reported in ~30% (range 20-40%) of asymptomatic individuals 5. Pathology They are usually of lymphatic origin 2. Cysts contain clear serous fluid, lymphocytes, spermatozoa and debris. Clinical...
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Epididymal masses

Epididymal masses are most commonly seen in routine ultrasonography. Most of the masses are benign, with malignant lesions are rare. Pathology Aetiology Benign adenomatoid tumour of the scrotum (most common epididymal mass 4) epididymal cyst spermatocele inflammatory changes sperm granul...
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Epigastric hernia

An epigastric hernia occurs ventrally through a defect in linea alba superior the umbilicus. It is also known as a fatty hernia of linea alba. Risk factors obesity  pregnancy Radiographic features Ultrasound Shows a midline defect which is usually small with or without herniation of omenta...
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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that has a varied presentation and requires two or more unprovoked seizures at least 24 hours apart for diagnosis. MRI is the modality of choice for epilepsy, most often investigating for an underlying cause, especially in adults.  Epidemiology Epilep...
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Epiphyseal lesions

Epiphyseal lesions comprise of tumours and other pathologies that occur around the epiphysis and any epiphyseal equivalent bone. Differential diagnosis Common differential diagnoses include 2-4: chondroblastoma: rare epiphyseal tumour found in young adults; it does not usually extend into the...
Article

Epithelial ovarian tumours

Ovarian epithelial tumours account for the majority of all ovarian tumours (60-70%) and their malignant forms represent >90% of ovarian cancers 1. They can range from being benign to highly malignant. Epidemiology There is a difference in frequency of ovarian tumour subtypes depending on menop...
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Eponymous fractures

There are numerous eponymous fractures which are named after the people who first described their existence 1: Bankart fracture: glenoid Barton fracture: wrist Bennett fracture: thumb Bosworth fracture: ankle Chance fracture: vertebral Charcot joint: foot Chopart fracture: foot Colles fr...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity

An Erlenmeyer flask deformity refers to a radiographic appearance typically on a femoral radiograph demonstrating relative constriction of the diaphysis and flaring of the metaphysis. Causes include marrow infiltration/expansion lysosomal storage disease Gaucher disease - osteopenia with Leg...
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Erosion of superior aspects of ribs (differential)

Differential diagnosis of erosion of the superior aspects of the ribs include:  hyperparathyroidism rheumatoid arthritis scleroderma neurofibromatosis poliomyelitis progeria
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Erosion of the odontoid process (differential)

Erosion of the odontoid peg can result from a number of pathological entities: inflammatory arthropathy rheumatoid arthritis: classic 1-2 systemic lupus erythematosus crystal arthropathy calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy (CPPD): relatively common gout non-inflammatory arthropathy: osteoar...
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Erosive arthritis (differential)

Erosive arthritis has a broad differential, including: erosive osteoarthritis clinically an acute inflammatory attacks (swelling, erythema, pain) in postmenopausal woman typically includes the DIPs, PIPs 1st CMC joint 6, but not the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and large joints classic c...
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Evaluation of endotracheal tube position

Endotracheal tubes (ETT) are wide-bore plastic tubes that are inserted into the trachea to allow artificial ventilation. Tubes come in a variety of sizes and have a balloon at the tip to ensure that gastric contents are not aspirated into the lungs. Adult tubes are usually approximately 1 cm in ...
Article

Evans' index

The Evans' index is the ratio of maximum width of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles and maximal internal diameter of skull at the same level employed in axial CT and MRI images. This ratio varies with the age and sex. It is useful as a marker of ventricular volume and thus has been pr...
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Ewing sarcoma family of tumours

Ewing sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT) are a group of small round blue cell tumours that are closely histogenetically related, all demonstrating non-random t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosome rearrangement resulting in the formation of the EWS-ETS fusion gene 1-3. They include: Ewing sarcoma of bone ...
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Exophytic hepatic mass

Exophytic hepatic mass or tumour is a lesion predominantly lies outside the margins of liver but originates from within the liver. Pathology Causes include 1 benign  hepatic haemangioma hepatic adenoma hepatic cyst hepatic angiomyolipoma focal nodular hyperplasia malignant ...
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Exostosis

Exostoses are defined as benign growths of bone extending outwards from the surface of a bone. It can occur in any bone and be triggered by a number of factors. There are a number of examples of exostoses that occur due to local irritant stimuli: ivory exostosis exostosis of the external audit...
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Expansile lytic lesions without cortical destruction of bone (differential)

Expansile lytic bone lesions without cortical destruction can result from various benign and malignant neoplastic pathologies, causes include 1: unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst (eccentric) enchondroma chondromyxoid fibroma (eccentric) non-ossifying fibroma (eccentric) desmoplasti...
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Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries include: quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patella tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patella sleeve fractures Chronic injuries: Osgood-Schlatter disease Sinding-Larsen-Johanss...
Article

External ventricular drain

External ventricular drains (EVDs) are a common neurosurgical procedure used to monitor and treat raised intracranial pressure in the acute setting.  Treatment and prognosis Complications infection EVD malfunction EVD malposition intracranial haemorrhage (e.g. subdural, intraventricular) ...
Article

Extra-axial

Extra-axial is a descriptive term to denote lesions that are external to the brain parenchyma, in contrast to intra-axial which describes lesions within the brain substance.  Radiographic features Often it is trivially easy to distinguish an intra-axial from an extra-axial mass. In many cases,...
Article

Extra-axial masses (differential)

Extra-axial masses of the intracranial compartment have a wide range of differentials, ranging from benign developmental cysts to malignant tumours.  Differential diagnosis neoplasms chordoma choroid plexus papilloma/carcinoma cranial nerve schwannoma meninges meningioma solitary fibrous...
Article

Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3: an irregular bulge in capsule obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour focal capsular retraction and or thicken...
Article

Extraconal orbital lesions

Extraconal orbital lesions include lesions which arise from structures within the extraconal orbital space and those extending from adjacent structures into the orbits. Differential diagnosis Intraorbital lesions dermoid cyst: most common lesion in paediatrics  lacrimial gland lesions dacry...
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Extraneural spread of intracranial neoplasms

Extraneural spread of primary intracranial neoplasms is distinctly uncommon, occurring far less frequently than CSF spread.  The most frequent neoplsams to do so, in decreasing order of frequency are: glioblastoma (GBM) meningioma medulloblastoma
Article

Extraskeletal musculoskeletal lesions by compartment

Intermuscular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma fibromatosis ganglion leiomyosarcoma nodular fasciitis neurogenic tumours synovial cyst Intra-articular lipoma arborescens nodular synovitis pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) synovial chondromatosis synovial haemangioma Intram...
Article

Extratesticular scrotal mass (differential)

Extratesticular scrotal masses (non-testicle and non-epididymis) are mostly mesenchymal in origin and benign 1.  Benign lesions lipoma (most common) leiomyoma of the scrotum neurofibroma granular cell tumor angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor fibrous pseudotumor fibrous hamartoma of infancy...
Article

Facet dislocation

Facet dislocation refers to anterior displacement of one vertebral body on another. Without a fracture, the only way anterior displacement can occur is by dislocation of the facets.  Facet dislocation can occur to varying degrees: subluxed facets perched facets locked facets The injury usua...
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Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and light making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures are most com...
Article

Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
Article

Failed early pregnancy

Failed early pregnancy refers to the death of the embryo and therefore, miscarriage. The most common cause of embryonic death is a chromosomal abnormality. Radiographic assessment Ultrasound Findings diagnostic of pregnancy failure crown-rump length (CRL) of ≥7 mm and no heartbeat on a trans...
Article

Fall onto an outstretched hand

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a common mechanism for wrist-forearm fractures, in certain cases with involvement of elbow structures, particularly in children. Some injuries that result from such a fall include: Colles fracture Scaphoid fracture Monteggia fracture-dislocation Gal...

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