Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,135 results found
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Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
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Failed early pregnancy

Failed early pregnancy refers to the death of the embryo and therefore, miscarriage. The most common cause of embryonic death is a chromosomal abnormality. Radiographic features Ultrasound Findings diagnostic of pregnancy failure crown-rump length (CRL) of ≥7 mm and no heartbeat on a transva...
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Fall onto an outstretched hand

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a common mechanism for wrist-forearm fractures, in certain cases with involvement of elbow structures, particularly in children. Some injuries that result from such a fall include: Colles fracture Scaphoid fracture Monteggia fracture-dislocation Gal...
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Fat containing breast lesions

Fat containing breast lesions generally have some radiolucent component on mammography. Pathology They are generally classified at BIRADS II lesions. Common breast lipoma breast hamartoma fat necrosis within the breast/oil cyst intramammary lymph node: classically has a central fatty hilu...
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Fat containing liver lesions

A variety of benign and malignant liver lesions may contain macroscopic and/or intracytoplasmic fat in sufficient quantities enabling characterization on imaging studies. Most fat containing liver lesions (80%) in patients with cirrhosis are malignant, most of which are hepatocellular carcinoma ...
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Fat containing renal lesions

There are numerous fat containing renal lesions, including: renal angiomyolipoma renal cell carcinoma Wilms tumour renal oncocytoma renal or perirenal lipoma Non-mass lesions may also occasionally contain fat: renal junction line fat in a renal scar renal sinus lipomatosis xanthogranul...
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Fat containing solitary pulmonary nodule

The differential of a fat containing solitary pulmonary nodule is very narrow. In a well circumscribed smooth or lobulated mass (especially if it has been largely stable in size over time) presence of fat is essentially pathognomonic of a pulmonary hamartoma, and usually not further assessment ...
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Fat containing thoracic lesions

There is a long list of fat containing thoracic lesions. They may involve the mediastinum, lung, pleura or chest wall. Differential diagnosis includes:  intrapulmonary: fat containing pulmonary lesions pulmonary hamartoma endobronchial lipoma intrapulmonary lipoma lipoid pneumonia myeloli...
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Fatty mediastinal masses (differential)

Fatty mediastinal masses are relatively uncommon, and the differential diagnosis is brief, including 1-4: lipoma liposarcoma thymolipoma benign mature teratoma lipoblastoma extravasation of lipid-rich hyperalimentation fluid 3 fibrofatty replacement of the central portion of mediastinal l...
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Female infertility

Female infertility is common, and can be due to a number of factors. Radiology often plays a key part of the work-up.  Pathology Aetiology Often more than one factor (including male infertility) is the cause of infertility, some of the common causes are listed below 1-3: age > 35 years immu...
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Femoral anteversion

Femoral anteversion refers to the orientation of the femoral neck in relation to the femoral condyles at the level of the knee. In most cases, the femoral neck is oriented anteriorly as compared to the femoral condyles. In the case of posterior orientation, the term femoral retroversion is also ...
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Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects

Fetal anterior abdominal wall defects can occur with a number of pathologies. Individual entities omphalocoele gastroschisis cloacal exstrophy bladder exstrophy Syndromes/complexes limb body wall complex OEIS complex omphalocoele-radial ray (ORR) complex Pentalogy of Cantrell amnioti...
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Fetal ascites

Fetal ascites refers to the accumulation of free fluid in the fetal abdomen. It is often considered under the same spectrum of hydrops fetalis. Pathology Aetiology any condition that results in hydrops fetalis additional causes include idiopathic bowel perforation (e.g. meconium peritoniti...
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Fetal biophysical profile

Fetal biophysical profile score (BPS or BPP) refers to assessment of four discrete biophysical variables by ultrasound. It is a standard tool in antepartum fetal assessment. It is usually assessed after 28 weeks of gestation. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound The ultrasound variables...
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Fetal bowel dilatation

Fetal bowel dilatation can occur from many causes, which include: intestinal atresias: mainly distal anal atresia apple-peel intestinal atresia ileal atresia jejunal atresia jejuno-ileal atresia Hirschsprung disease megacystis microcolon hyperperistalsis syndrome 4 congenital chloride d...
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Fetal brain tumours

Fetal brain tumours are uncommon and tends to have very different pathological spectrum than that observed in adults; in order of decreasing frequency: fetal intracranial teratoma: most common tumour by far astrocytoma/glioblastoma: next most common craniopharyngioma: papillary type primitiv...
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Fetal cardiac tumours

Fetal cardiac tumours refer to primary cardiac tumours that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumours are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumour types that pres...
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Fetal chylothorax

Fetal chylothorax is defined as the presence of lymphatic fluid within the pleural cavity. Pathology Associations pulmonary hypoplasia hydrops fetalis premature delivery Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound may show echogenic fluid in the pleural cavities Treatment Some of the de...
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Fetal clenched hands

Fetal clenched hands are an antenatal ultrasound observation where the fetal hands are in a constant (permanently) clenched position as if being unable to extend. Pathology Some authors 3 suggest  that the abnormal posture results in part from: muscle variations along the radial margin of the...
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Fetal death in utero

Fetal death in utero (FDIU) is the term used when the death of a fetus occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. Prior to this, it is considered a miscarriage. Epidemiology 1% of normal, uncomplicated pregnancies end in fetal death. In ~15% of FDIU, no cause is identified. Pathology Aetiology...
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Fetal intracranial cystic lesions

Fetal intracranial cystic lesions can arise number of pathologies, including: Non-tumourous fetal arachnoid cyst  fetal choroid plexus cyst fetal connatal cyst fetal porencephalic cyst fetal interhemispheric cyst fetal sub ependymal cyst dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly Blake pouch cyst...
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Fetal intracranial haemorrhage

Fetal intracranial haemorrhage may occur either within the cerebral ventricles, subdural space or infratentorial fossa. Pathology Haemorrhages can occur in a number of situations: mechanical trauma, e.g. maternal abdominal blunt or birth trauma severe fetal hypoxia background fetal thromboc...
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Fetal intrahepatic calcification

Fetal intrahepatic calcification can be a relatively common finding. Calcifications in the liver can be single or multiple and in most cases in which isolated hepatic calcific deposits are detected, there is usually no underlying abnormality. The presence of isolated intrahepatic calcification ...
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Fetal limb bowing

Fetal limb bowing may be a feature of skeletal dysplasia, particularly if it is severe. A mild degree of lateral bowing to femur can occur as part of normal variation. Conditions associated with fetal limb bowing include: camptomelic dysplasia 1 thanatophoric dysplasia 2: particularly type I ...
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Fetal pleural effusion

Fetal pleural effusions (FPE) refer to an accumulation of pleural fluid in utero. It can refer to either a fetal chylothorax or a fetal hydrothorax. Pathology A fetal pleural effusion can occur as part of hydrops fetalis, in association with other anomalies without hydrops or in isolation - pr...
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Fetal pyelectasis

Fetal pyelectasis refers to a prominence of the renal pelvis in utero that is a relatively common finding, which in the majority of cases resolves spontaneously.  Please refer to the article on fetal hydronephrosis for a continued discussion on this matter.  Terminology  Although there is an ...
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Fetal rib fractures

Fetal rib fractures can be caused by certain skeletal dysplasias. These include: osteogenesis imperfecta: type II - one of the classical causes of fetal rib fractures achondrogenesis: type Ia - Houston-Harris sub type
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Fetal tumours

Although rare, a number to tumours may be diagnosed antenatally. These fetal tumours are a diverse and a unique group of conditions, and include: neuroblastoma: most common tumour overall teratomas sacrococcygeal teratoma head and neck teratoma/epignathus mediastinal teratoma intrapericard...
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Fetal ventriculomegaly (differential)

Fetal ventriculomegaly (ventricle width >10 mm) is an important finding in itself and it is also associated with other central nervous system abnormalities. For more information, see the main article fetal ventriculomegaly. Differential diagnosis Fetal ventriculomegaly can be thought of in ter...
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Fibromatosis

Fibromatosis refers to a wide range of soft tissue lesions that share an underlying histopathologic pattern of fibrous tissue proliferation. They can occur in a variety of anatomic sites (e.g. musculoskeletal, abdominopelvic, breast, etc.) and also vary in their behaviour, ranging from indolent/...
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Fibrous lesions

The differential for fibrous lesions is wide and includes: non-ossifying fibroma fibrous dysplasia osteofibrous dysplasia / adamantinoma desmoplastic fibroma fibromatoses, e.g.  plantar fibromatosis palmar fibromatosis malignant fibrous histiocytoma / fibrosarcoma dermatofibrosarcoma p...
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Flexion tear drop fracture

Flexion tear drop fractures are the most severe fracture of the cervical spine, often causing anterior cervical cord syndrome and quadriplegia. Pathology Mechanism It typically occurs from severe flexion and compression forces, most commonly at C5-6 (e.g. diving head first, motor vehicle coll...
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Floating meniscus

Floating meniscus (also known as meniscal avulsion) occurs in acute traumatic settings when the meniscotibial coronary ligaments get disrupted leading to avulsion of the meniscus from the tibial plateau. Radiographic features MRI Displacement of the meniscus for 5 mm or more from the tibial p...
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Flowing ossifications

Flowing ossifications are seen in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).They are defined as heterotopic ossifications involving the anterior longitudinal ligament, paraspinal connective tissues and annulus fibrosus of at least four contiguous vertebral bodies and are originally describ...
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Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions

Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions are best seen on MRI, although with narrow window width they can also be appreciated on CT. Epidemiology Their prevalence is estimated at ~3% of bone and soft tissue tumours 1. Differential diagnosis Their presence is non-specific, as they are seen i...
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Focal calvarial thinning

Focal calvarial thinning can result from a number of causes. They include: bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (normal variant) most common arachnoid cyst mega cisterna magna peripherally located tumors (e.g. oligodendroglioma) See also calvarial thinning calvarial thickening
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Focal gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Focal gallbladder wall thickening is an imaging finding that includes both benign and malignant etiologies. cholecystoses cholesterolosis adenomyomatosis masses gallbladder polyps gallbladder carcinoma: look for infiltration into adjacent organs, metastases, lymphadenopathy, bile duct dil...
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Focal hypodense hepatic lesions on non-enhanced CT (differential)

Focal hypodense hepatic lesions on a non-contrast CT scan can result from a number of pathological entities, including: neoplasms benign hepatic haemangioma adenoma biliary hamartoma: von Meyenberg complexes 2 malignant hepatoma/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) hepatic lymphoma hepatic h...
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Foregut duplication cyst

Foregut duplication cysts are type congenital duplication cyst. They are sometimes classified under broncho-pulmonary  foregut malformations. Entities that fall under forgut duplication cysts include: bronchogenic cysts neurenteric cysts other enteric cysts oesophageal duplication cysts li...
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Fracture-a-la-signature (skull fracture)

Fracture-a-la-signature (or signature fracture) is another term used to described a depressed skull fracture.  Fracture-a-la-signature derives its name from forensic medicine because the size and shape of a depressed skull fracture may give information on the type of weapon used. It can be a si...
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Fracture-dislocations of the radius and ulna

Fracture-dislocations of the radius and ulna illustrate the importance of including the joint above and below the site of injury on radiographic assessment. Most forearm fractures (60%) include fracture of the distal radius as well as an ulnar fracture. In some cases, there is associated disloc...
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Fractures of the thumb

Fractures of the thumb are important due to huge impact the thumb has on the overall function of the hand, an understanding of the types of fractures that occur is important, as treatment varies with fracture type. Pathology Types Metacarpal fractures include: intra-articular fractures Benn...
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Fragility fracture

Fragility fractures are those that are the result of forces that would not fracture a normal bone. They can occur in the context of very low energy (i.e. minimal) trauma, or they may be no identifiable preceding trauma. There is overlap between fragility fractures and insufficiency fractures. P...
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Free silicone breast injections

Free silicone breast injections (silicone mastopathy) are an alternative form of breast augmentation to breast implants, although they have serious adverse effects and are banned in many countries.  Radiographic features There are similar features to that of free silicone from breast implant r...
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Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
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Gallbladder ghost triad

Gallbladder ghost triad is a term used on ultrasound studies when there is a combination of three gallbladder features on biliary atresia: atretic gallbladder, length less than 19 mm irregular or lobular contour  lack of smooth/complete echogenic mucosal lining with an indistinct wall
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Gallbladder sludge

Gallbladder sludge (also known as biliary sand, biliary sediment, or thick bile) is a mixture of particulate matter and bile, normally seen as a liquid-liquid level in the  gallbladder on ultrasound, corresponding to the precipitate of bile solutes 1.  These precipitates consist of cholesterol ...
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Gallbladder volvulus

Gallbladder volvulus is a relatively rare condition in which there is a rotation of the gallbladder around the axis of the cystic duct and artery. Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific, however right upper quadrant pain and vomiting are similar to biliary colic. Laboratory evaluation...
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Gas in the urinary bladder

There numerous causes of gas in the bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include: iatrogenic IDC by far the most common cause cystoscopy, etc emphysematous cystitis intraluminal and intramural gas mo...
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Gasless abdomen

A specific cause of the gasless abdomen can usually be made when the patient's history is known. Common causes include: small bowel obstruction bowel ischaemia congenital atresia ascites pancreatitis large abdominal mass - due to displacement
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Gastric band

A gastric band is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss. It is now the most popular form of bariatric surgery, largely replacing gastric bypass procedures 1. Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adj...
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Gastric band malposition

Gastric band malposition is an early complication from laparoscopic gastric band procedures which are performed for obesity. It can occur as in isolation or with other gastric band complications. As surgical experience of lap gastric banding has accumulated, it has become a relatively rare comp...
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Gastric band erosion

Gastric band erosion or penetration is a potentially serious complication following laparoscopic gastric band surgery for obesity.  Epidemiology Gastric band erosion is a delayed complication observed in between 0.3-14% of patients 1-2. Clinical presentation Patients often present non-specif...
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Gastric diverticulum

Gastric diverticula are sac-like projections that usually originate from the gastric fundus, most commonly on the posterior surface. They are the least common gastrointestinal diverticulum.  Epidemiology Gastric diverticula are rare and commonly detected incidentally. The incidence varies from...
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Gastric emphysema

Gastric emphysema, referring to the presence of gas in the wall of the stomach is a relatively rare imaging finding 1. The stomach is the least common location for intramural gas in the gastrointestinal tract.  Differential diagnosis There is a wide range of causes, ranging from life-threateni...
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Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Aetiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less commonly than other malignancies...
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Gastrinoma triangle

The gastrinoma triangle is an anatomical area in the abdomen, from where the majority (90%) of gastrinomas are thought to arise.  Gross anatomy Boundaries The triangle is formed by joining the following three points: superiorly: confluence of the cystic and common bile ducts   inferiorly: j...
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Generalised increased bone density in adults

The causes of generalised increase in bone density in adult patients can be divided according to broad categories:  myeloproliferative disorders: myelosclerosis marrow cavity is narrowed by endosteal new bone patchy lucencies due to persistence of fibrous tissue (generalised osteopenia in the...
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Generalised increased bone density in children

The causes of generalised increased bone density in paediatric patients can be divided accodring to broad categories of cause : skeletal dysplasias osteopetrosis pyknodysostosis metabolic renal osteodystrophy poisoning lead dense metaphyseal bands cortex and flat bones may also be sligh...
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Generalised increase in hepatic echogenicity

Causes of generalised increased liver echogenicity include: diffuse fatty infiltration cirrhosis: can be coarsened as well chronic hepatitis 3: can be coarsened as well diffuse infiltration or deposition malignant process granulomata  tuberculosis brucellosis sarcoidosis glycogen stora...
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Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffu...
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Generalised periosteal reaction

The list of causes of a generalised periosteal reaction overlaps that of symmetrical periosteal reaction, and includes 1,2: vascular stasis (common) congenital syphilis fluorosis Gaucher disease hypertrophic osteoarthropathy pachydermoperiostosis hypervitaminosis A infantile cortical hyp...
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Generalised reduced hepatic echogenicity

Causes of generalised reduction of liver echogenicity on ultrasound include: acute hepatitis diffuse malignant infiltration See also generalised increase in liver echogenicity hepatic attenuation on CT
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Giant colonic diverticulum

A giant colonic diverticulum is a rare form of presentation of colonic diverticulosis and is characterised by a large diverticular mass, usually filled with stool and gas, that communicates with the colonic lumen.   Clinical presentation The most common presentation is abdominal pain. Other pr...
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Gibbus deformity

Gibbus deformity is a short-segment structural thoracolumbar kyphosis resulting in sharp angulation. Pathology There are a number of causes which can be divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital achondroplasia cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism) Apert syndrome Coffin-Lowry syndro...
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Glass foreign bodies

Glass foreign bodies may be present if they are ingested, inserted or as a result of an injury.  Epidemiology The prevalence of glass foreign bodies in wounds from injury has been recorded at a rate of 1.5% in superficial (subcutaneous) wounds and 7.5% of deeper wounds 1.  Radiographic appear...
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Glycogen storage disease

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) refers to a number of syndromes which are characterised by a defect in synthesis, metabolism or storage of glycogen. Pathology There are many types of GSD: type I: von Gierke disease type II: Pompe disease type III: Cori or Forbes disease type IV: Andersen di...
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Gonadal dysgenesis

Gonadal dysgenesis refers to a spectrum of anomalies with abnormal development of the gonads. It falls under the even broader group of disorders of gender development. Pathology In many cases the gonads are replaced by fibrous tissue. Subtypes complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) / Swyer syndro...
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Gracile bones

Gracile bones refer to changes in the skeleton in which the bones are more slender than usual (over-tubulated) and occasionally deformed in other ways such as being abnormally curved. This may occur in a number of disorders and can occur with or without fractures. Pathology Aetiology neurofib...
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Granular mucosal pattern of the oesophagus (differential)

Granular mucosal pattern of the oesophagus represents very fine nodularity of the oesophageal mucosal surface. This finding is nonspecific and may represent: reflux oesophagitis (most common) Candida oesophagitis glycogenic acanthosis Barrett oesophagus superficial spreading oesophageal car...
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Granulomatous lung disease

Granulomatous lung disease refers a broad group of infectious and well as non infections conditions characterised by formation of granulomas. The spectrum includes infectious mycobacterial pulmonary tuberculosis pulmonary non tuberculous mycobacterial infection fungal pulmonary coccidioid...
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Greenstick fracture

Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures of long bones and are usually seen in young children, more commonly less than 10 years of age. They are commonly mid-diaphyseal, affecting the forearm and lower leg. They are distinct from torus fractures. Pathology Mechanism Greenstick fractures ...
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Ground glass opacification

Ground glass opacification/opacity (GGO) is a descriptive term referring to an area of increased attenuation in the lung on computed tomography (CT) with preserved bronchial and vascular markings. It is a non-specific sign with a wide aetiology including infection, chronic interstitial disease a...
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Gynaecological ultrasound set-pieces

The clinical history will nearly always lead to a short differential or the answer. Show off to the examiner that you have a structured approach to reporting and managing the patient. Structured approach uterus: size, version and shape (normal or variant which you should elaborate on and say w...
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Gynaecomastia

Gynaecomastia refers to a benign excess of the male breast tissue, that is usually reversible. It is not a risk factor per se for developing male breast cancer. Epidemiology While it can occur at any age, it tends to have greater prevalence in two groups: adolescent boys and older men (some pu...
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Haematomyelia

Haematomyelia refers to the presence of intramedullary haemorrhage or haematoma within the spinal cord. This is distinct from extramedullary haemorrhage, such as that seen in epidural haematomas. Although this can occur in the setting of trauma, the term is generally used to signify non-traumat...
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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a relative common procedure used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions 1,2: lymphoproliferative disorders, e.g. lymphoma, multiple myeloma (most common indication) leukaemia solid tumours, e.g. neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, extragonadal germ...
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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (abdominal complications)

Abdominal complications of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the oesophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabscesse...
Article

Haematospermia

Haematospermia refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety to patients despite commonly being of benign aetiology. Pathology Aetiology urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease commonest cause in <40 years of ...
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Haemobilia

Haemobilia refers to the presence of blood in the biliary tree. Clinical presentation The classical clinical triad, only seen in ~50% of cases, consists of: melaena (i.e. upper gastrointestinal bleeding) jaundice abdominal pain Pathology Aetiology iatrogenic: surgical or percutaneous pro...
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Haemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in haemochromatosis typically occurs with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. Epidemiology Cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 15-20% of the patients with haemochromatosis.  Clinical presentation Manifesta...
Article

Haemolytic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anaemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: reticulocytosis increased unconjugated bi...
Article

Haemopericardium

Haemopericardium refers to the presence of blood within the pericardial cavity, i.e. a sanguineous pericardial effusion. If enough blood enters the pericardial cavity, then a potentially fatal cardiac tamponade can occur.  Pathology Aetiology There is a very long list of causes 1,4 but some o...
Article

Haemoperitoneum

Haemoperitoneum is the presence of blood within the peritoneal cavity. Pathology Aetiology penetrating or non-penetrating abdominal trauma (often with associated organ injury) 1 ruptured ectopic pregnancy ovarian cyst rupture aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm rupture neoplasm rupture acute haem...
Article

Haemopneumothorax

Haemopneumothorax is a term given when there is concurrent presence of a haemothorax and well as a pneumothorax. It is a variant of a hydropneumothorax.  Epidemiology Approximately 5% of patients with pneumothorax will have concomitant haemothorax 6 Pathology It is typically seen in the sett...
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Haemoptysis

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology. Terminology Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration of >...
Article

Haemosiderosis

Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfused: t...
Article

Haemothorax

Haemothorax literally means blood within the chest, is a term usually used to describe a pleural effusion due to accumulation of blood. If a haemothorax occurs concurrently with a pneumothorax it is then termed a haemopneumothorax.  A tension haemothorax refers to haemothorax that results from ...
Article

Haglund deformity

Haglund deformity, also known as a pump bump or Bauer bump or Mulholland deformity, is defined as bony enlargement formed at posterosuperior aspect of calcaneum. This deformity leads to retrocalcaneal bursitis. Pathology It may result secondary to chronic pressure of rigid shoes. Radiographic...
Article

Hallux valgus

A hallux valgus is fixed abduction of the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe. It is usually due to metatarsus primus varus which is medial deviation or adduction of the first metatarsal with an increased first - second metatarsal angle. Radiographic appearance Plain radiograph A...
Article

Hangman fracture

Hangman fracture, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a fracture which involves the pars interarticularis of C2 on both sides, and is a result of hyperextension and distraction. Clinical presentation Post-traumatic neck pain after a high-velocity hyperextension injury is ...
Article

Haustral markings

Haustral markings are the radiological appearance of the haustral folds within the colon. Disappearance of the haustral folds results in the lead pipe appearance of ulcerative colitis.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (thoracic complications)

There are many thoracic complications that can occur following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious. Complications Early pulmonary oedema engraftment syndrome diffuse alv...

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