Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,134 results found
Article

Large unilateral pleural effusion

When a pleural effusion is large and unilateral, concern for an underlying abnormality should be raised. Causes include: tumour bronchogenic carcinoma mesothelioma pleural metastases lymphoma infection parapneumonic effusion empyema extension from sub-diaphragmatic primary infection ch...
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Laryngeal cyst

Laryngeal cysts can occur in any part of larynx, but are more frequent on supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula. The prevalence of each location varies on different studies.  Epidemiology The laryngeal cysts represent a rare group, about 5%, of benign laryngeal lesions 1. Th...
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Lateral epicondyle fracture

Lateral epicondyle fractures are rare epicondylar fractures. They are much rarer than medial epicondyle fractures and represent avulsion of the lateral epicondyle. They are usually seen in the setting of other injuries 1-3.  Epidemiology Incidence typically peaks in the paediatric age group (6...
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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning or plumbism can present with characteristic skeletal features. Epidemiology This condition usually occurs as a consequence of a toxic environment: prolonged ingestion or inhalation of lead-containing material (e.g. contaminated water, paints, batteries). Pathology Lead accumul...
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Left atrial line

The left atrial (LA) line monitors LA pressure and is indicative of left ventricular function, preload and afterload. The LA line enters from the left superior vein and exits the far side of the chest. The LA line is a single lumen catheter unlike the right atrial line, which is double lumen. N...
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Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to project over the superior vena cava is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: located within the vein left sided superior vena cava left inter...
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Left upper lobe collapse

Left upper lobe collapse has distinctive features but can be challenging to identify on chest radiographs by the uninitiated. For a general discussion refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The left upper lobe collapses anteriorly becoming a thin sheet...
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Leg bowing in children

Leg bowing in children is common and often developmental. Differential diagnosis The differential includes: developmental bowing congenital bowing rickets scurvy Blount disease: tibia vara neurofibromatosis type 1 usually lateral bowing skeletal dysplasias  osteogenesis imperfecta ca...
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Leiomyoma

Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle (myometrial) tumour, most commonly found in the uterus.  Classification Leiomyoma is classified by location: uterine leiomyoma cervical leiomyoma leiomyoma of the urinary bladder solitary cutaneous leiomyoma vascular leiomyoma (angioleiomyoma) dartoic ...
Article

Leptomeningeal enhancement

Leptomeningeal enhancement refers to a diffuse or focal gyriform or serpentine enhancement that can be seen in the following conditions: Diffuse meningitis pyogenic meningitis viral meningitis tuberculous meningitis (can also be focal) CNS cryptococcal infection coccidioidal meningitis (c...
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Lesions of Meckel's cave (differential)

Lesions of the Meckel's cave are numerous. The aim of this article is to list them in an easy way for revision and assessment of differential diagnosis.  Neoplastic Meckel's cave tumours account for only 0.5% of all intracranial tumours. The most common histologies include: trigeminal schwann...
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Lesions of the corpus callosum (differential)

Lesions of the corpus callosum are uncommon and arise from multiple different aetiologies. The lesions can be classified according to underlying pathophysiology 4-6. Congenital agenesis of the corpus callosum enlarged perivascular spaces tubonodular pericallosal lipoma: associated with dysge...
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Leukocoria

Leukocoria (also spelled as leucocoria or leukokoria) refers to an abnormal white reflection from the retina of the eye. Despite its colour, the reflection is related to the familiar red-eye effect. Usually, when a light is shone through the iris, the retina appears red to the observer. In leuko...
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Leukodystrophies

The leukodystrophies are dysmyelinating disorders which typically, although not invariably, affect children. They include: lysosomal storage diseases metachromatic leukodystrophy globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease) Fabry disease Niemann-Pick disease mucopolysaccharidoses peroxis...
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Linitis plastica

Linitis plastica is a descriptive term usually referring to the appearance of the stomach, although the rectum can also be described this way (see: linitis plastica of the rectum). The appearance is said to be reminiscent of an old leather water-bottle. Pathology The underlying cause is usuall...
Article

Lipomyelomeningocele

Lipomyelomeningoceles are one of the forms of closed spinal dysraphism. They usually present as a subcutaneous fatty mass just above the intergluteal cleft. However, some lipomyelomeningoceles may occur at other locations along the spinal canal. Clinical presentation Lipomyelomeningoceles may ...
Article

Littre hernia

Littre hernia is a hernia containing a Meckel's diverticulum. Also known as a persistent omphalomesenteric duct hernia. It is most frequently encountered in the inguinal region. Radiographic features CT blind ending tubular structure arising from antimesentric border of small bowel and extend...
Article

Liver lesions

Liver lesions represent a heterogeneous group of pathology ranging from solitary benign lesions to multiple metastases from a variety of primary tumours. Liver lesions may be infiltrative or have mass effect, be solitary or multiple, benign or malignant. Assessment of liver lesions takes into ...
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Liver lesions (paediatric)

Paediatric liver lesions are a heterogeneous group that include infiltrative lesions and those that demonstrate mass effect. Moreover, they may be solitary or multiple, benign or malignant: benign liver tumours malignant liver tumours Epidemiology There are differing frequencies of both beni...
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Liver trauma

The liver is one of the most frequently damaged organs in blunt trauma, and liver trauma is associated with a significant mortality rate. Epidemiology In blunt abdominal trauma, the liver is injured ~5% (range 1-10%) of the time 1,3. Clinical presentation Patients can present with right uppe...
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Liver tumours

Liver tumours, like tumours of any organ can be classified as primary or secondary. Metastases Liver metastases are by far the most common hepatic malignancy, with many of the most common primaries readily seeding to the liver. This is especially the case with gastrointestinal tract tumours, d...
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Localised gigantism

Localised gigantism refers to focal enlargement of part of the body, and is always pathological. In contrast, generalized gigantism refers to increase in stature and is either physiological (i.e. merely very tall) or due to growth hormone excess (e.g pituitary microadenoma).  Broadly localised...
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Localised pulmonary haemorrhage

Localised pulmonary haemorrhage is a descriptive term for a pulmonary haemorrhage restricted to a particular focal region of the lung. It can range from involving a small focus of haemorrhage to a whole lobe. Pathology Causes A focal pulmonary haemorrhage can occur from a number of causes pu...
Article

Locked facet joint

Locked facet joint is a type of facet joint dislocation that results from jumping of the inferior articular process over the superior articular process of the vertebra below and becomes locked in the position. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The tip ...
Article

Long bone metaphyseal cupping (differential)

Long bone metaphyseal cupping is most likely due to the local oligaemia from thrombosis in the terminal epiphyseal arteries to the epiphyseal plate, induced by prolonged regional immobilisation 7.  The differential diagnosis of long bone metaphyseal cupping includes:  Common normal variant r...
Article

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures normally occur parallel to the long axis of the petrous bone. A more current classification of the extent of temporal bone fractures describes the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientation (see temporal bone fractures.) Epidemiology ...
Article

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion

Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL), also known as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), represent extensive involvement of the spinal cord, with abnormal T2 signal traversing at least three vertebral body segments in length. Differential diagnosis They are typi...
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Loss of intervertebral disc space (differential)

Loss of intervertebral disc space can be due to a variety of causes: degenerative disc disease of the spine: most common cause trauma discitis neuropathic spondyloarthropathy dialysis related spondyloarthropathy ankylosing spondylitis ochronosis crystal deposition diseases sarcoidosis ...
Article

Low signal intensity renal parenchyma

There are relatively few of causes of low signal intensity renal parenchyma. Causes include  haemolysis paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea. mechanical: malfunctioning prosthetic cardiac valve sickle cell disease infection hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) vascular disease ac...
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Lower abdominal / pelvic calcification

Causes of calcifications in the lower abdomen and pelvis include: vascular calcifications artherosclerosis aneurysms phleboliths urogenital uterine fibroid prostatic calcification seminal vesicle and ductus deferens calcification bladder stones gallstones dropped stones following chol...
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Lower extremity fractures

There are a vast range of lower extremity fractures. Below are listed several of such fractures of the lower limb. Many have eponymous names.  Pelvis and femur pelvic fractures anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion injury Duverney fracture Malgaigne fracture proximal femoral fractures bi...
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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz. Clinical presentation Presents with melaena, haematochezia or, if subclinical slow bleeding, chronic anaemia. Causes diverticular disease enterocolitis infective Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis ischaemic...
Article

Lumbar hernia

Lumbar hernias are a rare form of posterior abdominal hernia.  Epidemiology Most common in patients aged between 50 and 70 years with a male predominance 1.  Clinical presentation Patients with lumbar hernias can present with a variety of symptoms, including a posterolateral mass, back pain,...
Article

Lunate dislocation

Lunate dislocations are an uncommon traumatic wrist injury that require prompt management and surgical repair. The lunate is displaced and rotated volarly. The rest of the carpal bones are in a normal anatomic position in relation to the radius. These should not be confused with perilunate disl...
Article

Lung atelectasis

Lung atelectasis refers to collapse or incomplete expansion of pulmonary parenchyma. Note that the term "atelectasis" is typically used when there is partial collapse, whereas the term "collapsed lung" is typically reserved for when the entire lung is totally collapsed. Classification Atelecta...
Article

Lying down adrenal sign

The lying down adrenal sign is a feature seen usually associated with renal agenesis or renal ectopia. It is an important antenatal sonographic sign.  On an antenatal ultrasound scan, the adrenal of the affected side appears flattened ,elongated, and lying along the spine due to absence of the ...
Article

Lymph node imaging

Lymph node imaging has become an important task for the radiologist in present days, aiding the clinician in determining whether they are benign or malignant. Multiple modalities are being used for the assessment and characterization of lymph nodes, each with its advantages and drawbacks. Modal...
Article

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
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Lytic bone metastases

Lytic bone metastases are due to a variety of primary tumours, and are more common than sclerotic metastases (although many may occasionally have mixed lytic and sclerotic components). They include 1: thyroid cancer renal cell cancer adrenal gland carcinoma and pheochromocytoma uterine carci...
Article

Lytic skull lesion

Lytic skull lesions have a relatively wide differential that can be narrowed, by considering if there are more than one lesion and whether the mandible is involved. Pathology Causes lytic skeletal metastases multiple myeloma epidermoid - scalloped border with a sclerotic rim eosinophilic g...
Article

Macrophthalmia

The increased globe size or macrophthalmia may have many differentials: buphthalmos (congenital glaucoma) axial myopia macrophthalmus in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Focal enlargement: staphyloma coloboma See also mi...
Article

Male breast disease

Male breast disease includes a wide spectrum of conditions. Many conditions and entities that affect the female breast may also affect the male breast.  Pathology Malignant male breast cancer lymphoma dermatofibrosarcoma Benign gynaecomastia pseudogynaecomastia - fat deposition within th...
Article

Malignant liver tumours (paediatric)

Paediatric malignant liver tumours are rare, some of which occur only in children but that are similar to those that occur in adults. Epidemiology Malignant liver tumours account for ~1% of paediatric malignancies 2. Pathology Broadly, any malignant liver mass can be defined as a metastasis ...
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Malignant melanoma

Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes (or cells that derive from melanocytes).  Melanocytes predominantly occur in the basal layer of the epidermis and most melanomas, therefore, arise in the skin.  However, melanocytes do occur in other locations and can give r...
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Malignant neoplasms involving the uterus

Malignant neoplasms involving the uterus account for a significant proportion of all female cancers. They can be classified as: endometrial carcinoma : commonest: >90% of all uterine malignancies endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus: commonest histological type, ~80% papillary serous carcino...
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Malignant oesophageal neoplasms

Malignant oesophageal neoplasms are much more common than benign oesophageal neoplasms, especially if the patient is symptomatic.  Pathology oesophageal carcinoma (90%) oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oesophageal spindle cell carcinoma oesophageal adenocarcinoma oesophageal neuro...
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Malignant vs benign gastric ulcer (barium)

Barium meal has been frequently used to differentiate malignant and benign gastric ulcers: Features suggesting benign gastric ulcer outpouching of ulcer crater beyond the gastric contour (exoluminal) smooth rounded and deep ulcer crater smooth ulcer mound smooth gastric folds that reach the...
Article

Mammary duct ectasia

Mammary duct ectasia is characterised by chronic inflammatory and fibrotic changes leading to clogging of debris within the duct. It is of primary importance because of its features mimicking to that of malignancy. Terminology Some publications use this term synonymously with periductal mastit...
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Mandibular lesions

Mandibular lesions are myriad and common. The presence of teeth results in lesions that are specific to the mandible (and maxilla) and a useful classification that defines them as odontogenic or non-odontogenic. While it may often not be possible to make a diagnosis on imaging alone, this classi...
Article

Mandibular periostitis

There are many causes for mandibular periostitis: Langerhans cell histiocytosis malignancy (both primary and metastatic) necrosis, e.g. radiation osteonecrosis osteomyelitis pyogenic Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis actinomycosis (uncommon) syphilis (uncommon) tuberculosis (uncommon) r...
Article

March fracture

March fractures are a name subtype of fatigue/stress fracture. They occur due to repeated concentrated trauma to a normal bone, classically the 2nd metatarsal of the foot but can occur in other weight-bearing bones of the lower limb and pelvis. Radiographic features Please see the article on s...
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Masses arising from the foramen of Monro (differential)

The differential diagnosis of masses arising from the foramen of Monro can be approached depending on the age of the patient. Paediatric choroid plexus papilloma craniopharyngioma germinoma glioma Langerhans cell histiocytosis neurofibromatosis pilocytic astrocytoma subependymal giant c...
Article

Mastitis

Mastitis refers to inflammation of the breast parenchyma, of which there are a number of subtypes: acute mastitis puerperal mastitis: occurs usually from infection with Staphylococcus during lactation non-puerperal mastitis: not related to lactation, and occurs usually in older women plasma ...
Article

Maydl hernia

Maydl hernias are defined as the presence of two small bowel loops within a single hernial sac, that is, there are two efferent and two afferent loops of bowel, forming a "W" shape. This type of hernia is more prone to strangulation and necrosis. The intervening intra-abdominal loop is also at ...
Article

McBurney's point

McBurney's point is defined as a point that lies one-third of distance laterally on a line drawn from the umbilicus to the right anterior superior iliac spine. Classically, it corresponds to the location of the base of the appendix 1. Clinically, McBurney's point is relevant for the elicitation...
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McRae line

McRae line is a radiographic line drawn on a lateral skull radiograph or midsagittal section of CT or MRI, joining the basion and opisthion. Normal position of the tip of dens is 5mm below this line. If the tip of the dens migrates above this line it indicates the presence of basilar invaginati...
Article

Meary's angle

Meary's angle or lateral talo-first metatarsal angle has been used to identify the apex of deformity in patients with pes cavus and pes planus on lateral weight bearing foot radiographs. It is the angle between a line drawn from the centres of longitudinal axes of the talus and the first metatar...
Article

Medial epicondyle fracture

Medial epicondyle fractures represent almost all epicondyle fractures and occur when there is avulsion of the medial epicondyle. They are typically seen in children, and can be challenging to identify. Failure to diagnose these injuries can lead to significant long term disability.  Epidemiolog...
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Medial epicondylitis

Medial epicondylitis (also known as the golfer elbow) is an inflammatory condition around the common flexor tendon of the elbow. Epidemiology It is less common than lateral epicondylitis. As with lateral epicondylitis, it typically occurs in the 4th to 5th decades of life. There is no recognis...
Article

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own in association with other lung pathology. Pathology The spectrum of conditions than can result in mediastinal lymphadenopathy is exhaustive and includes: sarcoidosis (see: pulmonary manifest...
Article

Mediastinal mass

Mediastinal mass may be caused by a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. It is helpful to clarify the location of the mass since this significantly reduces the breadth of the differential diagnosis.  Broadly speaking, there are four parts to the mediastinum which are largely...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
Article

Medical devices in the neck

Medical devices in the neck are regularly observed by radiologists on plain film and CT reporting. They include devices which pass through the neck onto the chest and stomach. Vascular access devices dialysis catheters peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) central venous catheters ...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc may also be visible These devices ...
Article

Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
Article

Mega oesophagus

Mega oesophagus or diffuse oesophageal dilatation can be caused by a variety of conditions.  Pathology Aetiology Some of the more common causes are given below 1-3: oesophageal dysmotility achalasia Chagas disease scleroderma distal obstruction malignant stricture, e.g. oesophageal canc...
Article

Meningeal enhancement

Meningeal enhancement is a generic term related to the enhancement of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord. Due the anatomical features, this enhancement can be divided in two subtypes: leptomeningeal enhancement (pial or pial-arachnoid enhancement) pachymeningeal enhancement (...
Article

Meningocele

Meningoceles are protrusions of the meninges through a defect or weak point in the skull or spine, usually involving the soft tissues beneath the surface of the skin. They are typically categorized into congenital, iatrogenic (e.g. following a craniotomy, sinus surgery, or as a laminectomy compl...
Article

Metachronous breast cancer

Metachronous breast cancers are two breast cancers that occur in either breast in two different time periods. Treatment and prognosis The survival rate of women with metachronous breast cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the original primary is worse than those with unilateral disease 4.
Article

Metal-on-metal pseudotumour

A metal-on-metal pseudotumour, also known as aseptic lymphocyte-dominant vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL), is a mass-forming tissue reaction around a metal-on-metal hip or knee replacement. Clinical presentation Metal-on-metal pseudotumours are large focal solid or semiliquid masses around...
Article

Metallic ureteral stents

Patients with malignant ureteric obstruction and poor life expectancy usually require placement of ureteral stents to relieve the urinary obstruction and as a palliative measure to reduce pain and avoid major operation. Metallic ureteric stents have recently been developed to try and offer bett...
Article

Metaphyseal blanch sign

The metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel is one of the signs seen on AP views of the adolescent hip indicating posterior displacement of the capital epiphysis. It is a crescent-shaped area of increased density, that overlies the metaphysis adjacent to the physis on the AP radiograph. It is caused b...
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Metaphyseal fracture

Metaphyseal fractures are fractures that involve the metaphysis of tubular bones. They may occur in paediatric or adult patients. Examples of metaphyseal fractures: adults surgical neck of humerus fracture distal radial fracture transtrochanteric fracture children distal radial buckle fra...
Article

Metaphyseal lesions

The differential diagnosis for metaphyseal lesions includes: osteomyelitis metastases non-ossifying fibroma enchondroma aneurysmal bone cyst simple bone cyst chondromyxoid fibroma chondrosarcoma cortical desmoid giant cell tumor desmoplastic fibroma intraosseous lipoma osteosarcoma ...
Article

Metastases to testis

Metastases to testis are a rare cause of a testicular mass and may be bilateral in up to 15% of patients.  Epidemiology Metastases to the testes are apparent in ~0.04% of autopsy studies in patients with known malignancy. The average age is 57 years, much older than the primary age for primary...
Article

Metastases to the breast

Metastases to the breast from non-mammary primary tumours are uncommon and account for 0.5-2.0% of all breast malignancies.  Clinical presentation Metastases do not tend to cause retraction of the skin or nipple. Metastatic lesions are much more likely to be multiple or bilateral than primary ...
Article

Metastases to the ovary

Metastases to the ovary are relatively common with a documented incidence of 5-30% of all malignant ovarian masses. These may be incorrectly grouped under Krukenberg tumors, which are signet cell containing tumours that form only 30-40% of all ovarian metastases.   Clinical presentation There...
Article

Metastatic intramammary lymph node

A metastatic intramammary lymph node refers to an intramammary lymph node involved with metastatic or malignant disease. Radiographic features Breast ultrasound Sonographic features that suggest metastatic involvement include 4: disappearance or loss or central echogenic hilar region marked...
Article

Metatarsalgia

The term metatarsalgia refers to pain in the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. It is a frequent presenting complaint in the foot.  Pathology Aetiology Common causes include 1: interdigital (Morton) neuroma Freiberg infraction stress fractures involving the foot intermetatarsal bursitis / a...
Article

Metatarsus adductus

Metatarsus adductus is a type of foot deformity where there is medial deviation of the first metatarsal +/- medial displacement of the metatarsals on the cuneiform. It can be congenital or acquired. It is considered the most common congenital foot abnormality. Pathology Associations hallux va...
Article

Midcarpal dislocation

Midcarpal (central carpal) dislocation describes an injury where there is dislocation of the capitate from the lunate, and subluxation of the lunate from the radius. This term is somewhat confusing because some authors use "midcarpal dislocation" to refer generally to perilunate and lunate dislo...
Article

Middle ear tumours

There are a range of middle ear tumours, which are more likely to be benign than malignant.  Pathology The three most common middle ear tumours are (not in any particular order as there are differences in the literature) 1-3:  glomus tympanicum paraganglioma congenital cholesteatoma middle ...
Article

Middle mediastinal mass

The differential diagnosis for a middle mediastinal mass includes 1-3: lymphadenopathy aneurysm, e.g. aortic, pulmonary artery, bronchial artery congenital cyst pericardial cyst foregut duplications cyst (e.g. oesophageal, bronchial) pericardial tumour primary/secondary cardiac tumour ne...
Article

Midline neck mass

Midline neck masses have a relatively narrow differential, as few structures are present in the midline. Dividing the causes according to structure of origin is a useful schema. lymph node(s): Delphian node(s) inflammatory adenopathy malignancy thyroid gland thyroglossal duct cyst thyroid ...
Article

Midline shift

One of the most important indicators of increased intracranial pressure due to mass effect is midline shift. Pathology Any intra-axial or extra-axial lesion (tumour, haemorrhage, abscess, etc) has the potential to exert mass effect on the brain parenchyma and cause lateral shift of the midline...
Article

Miliary opacities

The term miliary opacities refers to innumerable, small 1-4 mm pulmonary nodules scattered throughout the lungs. It is useful to divide these patients into those who are febrile and those who are not. Additionally, some miliary opacities are very dense, narrowing the differential - see multiple...
Article

Milk of calcium

Milk of calcium (MOC) is a term given to dependent, sedimented calcification within a cystic structure or hollow organ. This sort of colloidal calcium suspension layering can occur in various regions: renal cysts: milk of calcium in renal cyst (most common) breast cysts: milk of calcium in bre...
Article

Milk of calcium within a breast cyst

Milk of calcium within a breast cyst is a mammographic feature observed when there is dependent calcium layering within breast cysts. It is typically observed as "tea cup" or "crescent shaped" calcifications on a true lateral (LM or ML) view on occasionally on a MLO view. On a CC view, these cal...
Article

Milking effect

Milking effect phenomenon is a pathognomonic angiographic finding in myocardial bridging of coronary arteries. Systolic compression of coronary vessels with partial or complete decompression during diastole is described as milking effect. Its significance lies in:  increased risk of thrombus fo...
Article

Misplaced endotracheal tube

A misplaced or malpositioned endotracheal tube a relatively common complication that is detected on post intubation radiographs. Complications if the ETT is too high it can rub against the vocal cords and cause cord trauma if the ETT is too low it can selectively intubate the right or left ma...
Article

Mitochondrial disorders

There are numerous mitochondrial disorders that affect the neurological and muscular systems with in a variety of ways:  Kearns-Sayre syndrome Leigh syndrome mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibres (MERRF) ...
Article

Mitral valve disease

Mitral valve disease (MVD) principally comprise of a two main functional abnormalities, which can occur in isolation or in combination: mitral regurgitation mitral stenosis In addition other pathologies that affect the mitral valve include mitral valve prolapse mitral annular calcification ...

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