Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,135 results found
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Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis refers to inflammation involving the pancreas.  It has various forms which can be classified in many many ways according to time of onset, aetiological agent or associated pathology. acute pancreatitis interstitial oedematous pancreatitis necrotising pancreatitis haemorrhagic p...
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Pantaloon hernia

A pantaloon hernia (dual hernia or Romberg's hernia or saddle bag hernia) is defined as ipsilateral, concurrent direct and indirect inguinal hernias. Hernial sacs are present on both sides of the inferior epigastric vessels, and separated by the posterior wall of the inguinal canal brought down ...
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Papillary lesions of the breast

Papillary lesions of the breast comprise of a wide group and can range from being benign to malignant. Pathology They develop as tufts of epithelium with a fibrovascular core that arborize into branching papillae and protrude into the duct lumen. Benign papilloma of breast / intraductal papil...
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Paralabral cyst

Paralabral cysts are type of cyst located adjacent to a cartilage labrum of large joints. They are typically described in the shoulder and hip. Please refer to the sub-articles of discussion of these. paralabral cyst of the shoulder paralabral cyst of the hip
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Parasyndesmophytes

Parasyndesmophytes or floating syndesmophytes are, as the name suggests, paravertebral dystrophic soft tissue calcifications or heterotopic ossifications. Pathology They are known to be seen in psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis 4. Radiographic features Initially they begin at a dist...
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Paratesticular lesions

Paratesticular lesions have a large list of differential diagnosis: epididymal cyst (most common epididymal mass) adenomatoid tumour (most common epididymal tumour) scrotal tunica cysts tunica vaginalis cyst tunica albuginea cyst hydrocoele scrotal haematocoele varicocoele scrotolith (s...
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Paratesticular tumours

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testicle within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorised as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Aetiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common pa...
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Parkinson-plus syndrome

Parkinson-plus syndrome refers to a loose group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterised by features of Parkinson disease but with other neurological symptoms/signs. They have a poor response to levodopa, and mostly have fairly characteristic neuroimaging features.  Conditions incl...
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Parotid enlargement

Parotid enlargement has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative and congenital causes. Differential diagnosis ...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Clinical p...
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Patella alta

Patella alta, or a high riding patella, describes a situation where the position of the patella is considered high. It may be idiopathic or may result secondary to a patellar tendon rupture.  Associations Several conditions are known to be associated with patella alta, including: idiopathic r...
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Patella baja

Patella baja (or patella infera) is an abnormally low lying patella, which is associated with restricted range of motion, crepitations and retropatellar pain. If long standing extensor dysfunction may ensue with significant morbidity.  It is seen in a variety of clinical scenarios including 1: ...
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Patellar tendon rupture

Patellar tendon rupture is one of the extensor mechanism of the knee injuries and occurs almost invariably at either the patellar or tibial insertion of the patellar tendon, when in the setting of trauma, and is often associated with a small avulsion fracture. Most commonly, it is at the superi...
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Patellar tumours

Patellar tumours are extremely rare. They can be either benign or malignant primary bone tumours, or metastases.  Epidemiology Patellar tumours represent just 0.1% of all primary bone tumours 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with anterior knee pain and/or a palpable mass 1,3. ...
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Pathological fracture

Pathological fractures are fractures that occur in abnormal bone. Although the term can be used in the setting of a generalized metabolic bone disease, it is usually reserved for fractures through a focal abnormality. The abnormality may be malignant or non-malignant in nature. Pathological fra...
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Patterns of bone contusion in knee injury

Pattern of bone contusion in knee injuries can give clues for the mechanism and associated injuries.  Radiographic features Five classic bone contusion patterns have been described 1-4: pivot-shift injury valgus stress to flexed and externally rotated knee contusion pattern: posterolateral ...
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Patterns of neonatal hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury

Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic brain injuries can manifest in different patterns of involvement depending on the severity and timing of the insult. When considering the perinatal maturation process of the brain and the severity of an insult, it is possible to understand the various manifestations. ...
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Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or tear-drop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder i...
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Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A pedunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation tr...
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Pelvic digit

Pelvic digit, also known as a pelvic rib, pelvic finger or 11th finger, is a rare congenital abnormality where there is development of bony tissue in the soft tissue pelvis and less commonly in the abdomen. They can be associated with one or more pseudo-articulation. They are usually unilateral....
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
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Pelvic pain in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with pelvic pain in the exam.  Most examinations are performed using ultrasound. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram. Only...
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Pencil-in-cup deformity

Pencil-in-cup deformity is the description given to one of the appearances on plain radiograph in psoriatic arthritis. The appearance results from periarticular erosions and bone resorption giving the appearance of a pencil in a cup. Although classically described with psoriatic arthritis, thi...
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Penetrating traumatic neck injury

Penetrating traumatic neck injury can be a potentially devastating injury due to the high density of crucial anatomical structures within the neck.  Epidemiology Young males are highly represented in patients with a traumatic neck injury. In one study, 11:1 ratio of males to females were ident...
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Periampullary tumours

Periampullary tumours are those that arise within 2 cm of the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. Tumours that fall under this group include four main types of tumours 1,4: pancreatic head / uncinate process tumours: includes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma involving head and uncinate process o...
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Periarticular soft tissue calcification

Common causes of periarticular soft tissue calcification include: myositis ossificans post surgical dystrophic calcification or heterotopic bone formation calcific tendinitis or bursitis gout CPPD HADD calcific periarthritis (fingers and toes) tuberculous arthritis scleroderma hyperpar...
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Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
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Pericarditis

Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Pathology In general, infection is the most common cause of pericarditis. Infection accounts for two-thir...
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Perifissural lung nodules

Perifissural lung nodules (PFNs) are a type of intrapulmonary nodules. They commonly represent intrapulmonary lymph nodes 1. There is some overlap with the term perilymphatic pulmonary nodules since the latter can be perifissural. Radiographic features HRCT chest PFNs are typically seen as we...
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Perigestational haemorrhage

Perigestational haemorrhage refers to haemorrhage that occurs around the fetus during the gestational period. The spectrum of haemorrhage includes: chorionic haemorrhage: caused by the separation of the chorion from the endometrium  subchorionic haemorrhage: most common type, occurs between th...
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Perilymphatic lung nodules

Perilymphatic lung nodules follow perilymphatic channels and on imaging are typically subpleural, occur along fissures, interlobular septae and adjacent to the bronchovascular bundles. Differential diagnosis Lung nodules in a perilymphatic distribution can be seen in association with a number ...
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Perinephric fluid collection post renal transplant

Perinephric fluid collections are commonly seen after renal transplantation. The appearance of a perinephric fluid collection is often nonspecific, and generating a differential often relies on when the transplant occurred. Radiographic features Early post-transplant period haematoma ultraso...
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Periosteal new bone formation in children

Periosteal reaction in the paediatric population, also known as periostitis in children, is relatively common occurrence and can result from many causes. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for multiple bone periostitis include but not limited to the following: physiological per...
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Periportal hyperechogenicity

Periportal hyperechogenicity can result from many causes including: pneumobilia cholecystitis schistosomiasis of the portal region recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (oriental) inflammatory bowel disease: has been described to give "echo-rich" periportal cuffing 2​
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Periportal hypoechogenicity

Periportal hypoechogenicity can result from many causes: orthotopic liver transplant rejection congestive hepatomegaly malignant lymphatic obstruction cholangitis viral hepatitis See also periportal hyperechogenicity periportal halo
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Peritoneal calcification

Peritoneal calcification is seen in a limited number of conditions that result in calcification of peritoneal structures. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is small: psammoma bodies in malignancy (most frequently cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary): fine sand like calcification pseudomyxoma p...
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Peroneal tubercle hypertrophy

Peroneal tubercle hypertrophy refers to the presence of an unusually large peroneal tubercle. Radiographic features Two bony projections or protuberances may be seen from the lateral wall of the calcaneus – the peroneal tubercle and the retrotrochlear eminence. The peroneal tubercle is presen...
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Per vaginal bleeding in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with per vaginal bleeding in the exam.  Premenopausal embedded IUD lost IUD submucosal fibroid Pregnancy related perigestational haemorrhage intrauterine fetal demise ectopic pregnancy ruptured ectopic cervical ectopic  in...
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Pes planus

Pes planus (also called flatfoot) is a deformity of the foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is abnormally flattened. Pathology It results from loss of the medial longitudinal arch and can be either rigid or flexible. These deformities are usually flexible, which means that on non-weig...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). F-18 is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-life of approx...
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Petrous apex lesions (differential)

There is a wide differential diagnosis of petrous apex lesions: asymmetrical marrow petrous apex cephalocoele 4 petrous apicitis congenital cholesteatoma  cholesterol granuloma: most common cystic appearing lesion 3 mucocoele of petrous apex 2 benign tumours meningioma schwannoma malig...
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Phleboliths

Phleboliths are literally "vein stones", and represent calcification within venous structures. They are particularly common in the pelvis where they may mimic ureteric calculi, and are also encountered frequently in venous malformations. There is an association with Maffucci syndrome.  Radiogra...
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Phocomelia

Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital skeletal disorder that characteristically affects the limbs. It can affect either the upper limbs or lower limbs or both. Phocomelia is also a descriptive term to describe the characteristic limb anomalies occurring with its associated conditions. Path...
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Photopsia

Photopsias are a visual phenomenon experienced by individuals with a variety of ocular or optic pathway pathology. In lay terms they represent flashing lights, and can be divided into unstructured or structured photopsias, the latter referring to geometric shapes 2.  Pathology Aetiology Cause...
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Phrenic nerve palsy

Phrenic nerve palsy has many causes, and can be caused by lesions anywhere along the course of the phrenic nerve, as it travels from the neck, to pierce the diaphragm adjacent to the pericardium. Epidemiology No single demographic is affected, as there are numerous causes of a phrenic nerve pa...
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Picture archiving and communication system

Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a modality of imaging technology which helps in image transmission from the site of image acquisition to multiple physically-disparate locations. This technology not only is economical (film-less department), but also convenient to access mult...
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Pineal parenchymal tumours

Pineal parenchymal tumours comprise a group of related tumours ranging from the relatively benign to the highly malignant. This group comprises of: pineocytoma 14-30% of pineal parenchymal tumours 2 mature well-differentiated tumour WHO grade I pineal parenchymal tumour with intermediate di...
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Pituitary region mass with intrinsic high T1 signal

Pituitary region mass with an intrinsic high T1 signal, also referred as suprasellar hotspots, are relatively frequently encountered, and the presence of high T1 signal narrows the differential somewhat.  Differential diagnosis pituitary macroadenoma with haemorrhage/necrosis craniopharyngiom...
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Pituitary tumours

Pituitary tumours, in other words, tumours which arise from the pituitary gland itself, include: pituitary adenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary macroadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituicytoma pituitary metastases spindle cell oncocytoma (rare) Often the term is used more broadly to refe...
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Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anaemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilical ...
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Pleural adhesions

Pleural adhesions usually refers to the formation of fibrotic bands that span the pleural space, between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura.  Pathology They may be local or diffuse. The presence of a pleural adhesion is one of the causes for a pneumothorax not to resolve. Aetiolog...
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Pleural calcification

Pleural calcification can be the result of a wide range of pathology and can be mimicked by a number of conditions/artifacts. True calcification calcified pleural plaques from asbestos exposure: typically has sparing of costophrenic angles haemothorax infection involving the pleura: e.g pyot...
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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion tends to be used as a catch-all term denoting a collection of fluid within the pleural space. This can be further divided into exudates and transudates depending on the biochemical analysis of aspirated pleural fluid (see below). Essentially it represents any pathological proces...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Pleural thickening

Pleural thickening is a descriptive term given to describe any form of thickening involving either the parietal or visceral pleura.  It can occur with both benign and malignant pleural disease. According to aetiology it may be classified as: benign pleural thickening following recurrent infla...
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Pleural tumours

There are several tumours that can involve the pleura which can range from being benign to malignant. The list includes: primary pleural tumours malignant pleural mesothelioma pleural fibroma: solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura pleural fibrosarcoma pleural liposarcoma primary pleural ly...
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Pneumatocele

Pneumatoceles are intrapulmonary air-filled cystic spaces that can have a variety of sizes and appearances. They may contain air-fluid levels and are usually the result of ventilator-induced lung injury in neonates or post-infectious. They should not be mistaken for a cavitating lung mass.  Epi...
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Pneumatosis coli

Pneumatosis coli is a descriptive sign presenting radiographically as intramural gas limited to the colonic wall.  Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Pneumatosis in...
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Pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconioses are a broad group of lung diseases that result from inhalation of dust particles. It is therefore considered part of the spectrum of inhalational lung disease.  Pathology Aetiology The offending agents are mainly mineral dust. They can be broadly classified as 2-3: fibrotic a...
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Pneumonectomy

Pneumonectomy is the complete surgical removal of the lung. It is most commonly performed for a primary lung malignancy. The lung is removed in its entirety providing the patient has adequate pulmonary reserve from the contralateral lung. Recognised post-pneumonectomy complications include: po...
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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a general term in widespread use, defined as infection within the lung. It is due to material, usually purulent, filling the alveoli. Terminology Pneumonia is in contrast to pneumonitis, which is inflammation of the pulmonary interstitium. Of note, some of the interstitial lung di...
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Pneumoparotid

Pneumoparotid refers to air in the parotid gland and can cause unilateral/bilateral parotid swelling. In severe cases it can be associated with subcutaneous emphysema.  Pathology Any profession or recreation that increases oral positive pressure can cause air to reflux up the parotid ducts int...
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Pneumoretroperitoneum

Pneumoretroperitoneum is by definition presence of gas within the retroperitoneal space. It is always abnormal and has a relatively small differential: perforated retroperitoneal hollow viscus duodenum peptic ulcer disease blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma endoscopy +/- biopsy (rare) 3...
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Pneumothorax in supine projection

A pneumothorax does not display classical signs when a patient is positioned supine for a chest radiograph. Instead, the pneumothorax may be demonstrated by looking for the following signs: relative lucency of the involved hemithorax deep, sometimes tongue-like, costophrenic sulcus: deep sulcu...
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POLPSA lesion

POLPSA lesion is defined as posterior labrocapsular periosteal sleeve avulsion. It occurs when an Intact posterior scapular periosteum and posterior labrum becomes stripped off leading to redundant recess . Pathology Mechanism Impingement of  humeral head on to posterior labrum and capsule du...
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Polyarticular arthropathy

Polyarticular arthropathy can arise from a number of causes. The list includes osteoarthritis erosive osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis psoriatic arthritis Reiter's syndrome ankylosing spondylitis gout CPPD haemochromatosis ochronosis haemophilia acromegaly Jaccoud's arthritis mu...
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Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) > 25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centres particularly in ...
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Polymyalgia rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory condition typically affecting elderly people. It is a multisystem disorder but usually affects the musculoskeletal system. It can manifest in various ways, which are best discussed in the separate articles below: polymyalgia rheumatica: mus...
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Polyostotic bone lesions in adults

Common causes of polyostotic bone lesions in adults include: inflammatory arthritic or synovial-based lesions neoplastic benign nonossifying fibromas (fibroxanthomas) polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (McCune-Albright syndrome) malignant multiple myeloma metastases metabolic primary hyper...
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Porcelain left atrium

Porcelain left atrium, also known as coconut left atrium, is a term used when a large part of or the entire left atrial wall becomes calcified. It can occur as a rare consequence of endocarditis (with underlying rheumatic heart disease). It has also been described in the setting of end stage ren...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
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Posterior fossa astrocytoma

Posterior fossa astrocytomas, those arising either from the cerebellum or from the brainstem are most frequently seen in children. Approximately 60% of all paediatric astrocytomas are found in the posterior fossa (20% brainstem, 40% cerebellum). Many types of astrocytoma are found in the poster...
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) infarct

Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) occlusion may cause infarction of any of the vascular territory of the PICA, namely the posterior inferior cerebellum, inferior cerebellar vermis and lateral medulla. Epidemiology Typically considered the most common territory involved in cerebellar ...
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Posterior mediastinal mass (differential diagnosis)

The differential diagnosis for a posterior mediastinal mass includes: neoplasm neurogenic tumours - most common  nerve sheath tumours schwannoma neurofibroma malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour parasymphathetic ganglion tumours paraganglioma  chemodectoma phaeochromocytoma 3 symp...
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Posterior shoulder dislocation

Posterior shoulder dislocations are far less common than anterior shoulder dislocations and can be difficult to identify if only AP projections are obtained. I high index of suspicion is helpful. Epidemiology Posterior shoulder dislocations account for only 2-4% of all shoulder dislocations (t...
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Post obstructive pulmonary oedema

Post-obstructive pulmonary oedema is a type of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, and is an uncommon, but well-described, complication of upper airway obstruction.  Clinical presentation It essentially occurs in three clinical settings 6: acute airway obstruction chronic upper airway obstruct...
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Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
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Pott shunt

A Pott shunt is a form of palliative surgery performed in patients with tetralogy of Fallot prior to the ability to repair the defect. It consists of a shunt formed between the descending thoracic aorta and the left pulmonary artery. This does not relieve the right ventricular outflow obstructi...
Article

Powers ratio

Powers ratio is a measurement of the relationship of the foramen magnum to the atlas, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries. The ratio, AB/CD, is measured as the ratio of the distance in the median (midsagittal) plane between the: basion (A) and the posterior spinola...
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Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
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Pregnancy associated breast cancer

Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is usually defined as a breast breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or one year following delivery. PABC occurs in one out of every 1500-10,000 pregnancies 5-6 and represents up to 3% of all breast malignancies. The incidence may be increasing due to...
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Pregnancy of uncertain viability

Pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV) is a term given to an intrauterine pregnancy in a situation where there are not enough criteria (usually on ultrasound grounds) to confidently categorise an intrauterine pregnancy as either viable or a failed pregnancy.  Radiographic features Ultrasound ...
Article

Pre-invasive lesions of the lung

Pre-invasive lesions of the lung are a category of lesions which have not yet progressed to malignancy but have the potential to do so. This category includes: squamous dysplasia (SD) of lungs: squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of lung atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) diffuse idiop...
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Premature closure of a growth plate (differential)

Premature closure of a growth plate subsequently results in a shortened bone, which can occur in a number of situations.  Pathology Common aetiologies local hyperaemia infection: osteomyelitis juvenile chronic arthritis juvenile rheumatoid arthritis haemophilia arteriovenous malformation...
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Primary benign cardiac tumours

Primary benign cardiac tumours are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumours include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary be...
Article

Primary bone tumours of the spine

The most common tumour of the spine is metastatic deposits. A number of both benign and malignant tumours may arise primarily from the spine. Benign osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma osteochondroma giant cell tumour (GCT) aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) eosinophilic granuloma (EG) haemangioma Ma...
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Primary malignancy of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma carcinosarcoma extramedullary plasmacytoma fibrosarcoma melanoma rhabdomyosarcoma sin...
Article

Primary malignant cardiac tumours

Primary malignant cardiac tumours are rare, and account for only ~25% of primary cardiac tumours, and only a small proportion of all malignant tumours which involve the heart: direct extension of adjacent tumours or metastatic deposits are far more common. Histologcal types include 1:  cardiac ...
Article

Primary neoplasms of the thymus

Although primary tumours of the thymus are rare, they are the most common causes of a neoplasm of the anterosuperior mediastinum 1. thymoma (staging) one-third are benign two-thirds are malignant invasive thymoma (most) thymic carcinoma (rare) thymolipoma/thymoliposarcoma thymic cyst con...
Article

Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise of an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes: mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary perioneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary perit...
Article

Primary pneumatosis intestinalis

Primary pneumatosis intestinalis (PPI) is a benign idiopathic condition in which multiple gas-filled cystic lesions are seen in the gastrointestinal tract wall. The changes are usually seen initially on radiography or CT with CT being the more sensitive test. Epidemiology Primary pneumatosis i...
Article

Primary pulmonary tuberculosis

Primary pulmonary tuberculosis is seen in patients not previously exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology It is most common in infants and children and has the highest prevalence in children under 5 years of age 1. Radiographic features Primary pulmonary tuberculosis manifests as...

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