Cardiac calcification is a broad term for any calcification affecting the valves, coronary arteries, aortic root, endocardium, myocardium, and/or pericardium.
Causes of cardiac calcification are:
coronary artery disease (most common)
coronary artery aneurysms, e.g. in Kawasaki dise...
Cardiomegaly is a catch-all term to refer to enlargement of the heart, and should not be confused with causes of enlargement of the cardiomediastinal outline, or enlargement of the cardiac silhouette.
There are many etiologies for cardiomegaly:
congestive heart failure
Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease.
Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (i.e. 'left-to-right shunt') or ...
Carotid pacemakers, also known as implantable carotid sinus stimulators, are devices that deliver activation energy, via carotid leads, to the carotid baroreceptors. This is sometimes offered for drug-resistant hypertension. The baroreceptors send signals to the brain and the signals are interpr...
A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased (pulmonary plethora) or decreased pulmonary vascularity :
increased pulmonary vascularity
total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II)
transposition of the...
Delayed myocardial enhancement can occur in cardiac MR assessment due to a number of causes.
myocardial ischemia: typically subendocardial and follows a vascular territory 1
non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy
A small cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is defined as <42%/0.42 when assessed on a PA chest radiograph, and is often called small heart syndrome. A pathologically-small heart is also known as microcardia.It can be due to/associated with a number of entities:
adrenal insufficiency, e.g. Addison disea...
An enlarged/dilated azygos vein may result from a number of physiological as well as pathological causes. The enlarged azygos vein may be seen as a widened right paratracheal/paraspinal stripe on a frontal chest radiograph.
Spelling it "azygous" when referring to the vein is incorr...
The differential of an enlarged pulmonary trunk/main pulmonary artery on chest radiography includes:
may appear prominent in young patients especially women
rotation of the heart
left lower lobe collapse
pulmonary arterial hyp...
Fat containing cardiac lesions have a limited differential diagnosis. These include 1-4:
normal aging/physiologic: mostly subepicardial, more in the right ventricle (especially right ventricular outflow tract) than left ventricle
lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum
Fetal cardiac tumors refer to primary cardiac tumors that can present in the in utero population.
Fetal cardiac tumors are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2.
Known cardiac tumor types that present ...
Hemopericardium refers to the presence of blood within the pericardial cavity, i.e. a sanguineous pericardial effusion. If enough blood enters the pericardial cavity, then a potentially fatal cardiac tamponade can occur.
There is a very long list of causes 1,4 but some of ...
Cardiovascular manifestations are seen with increased frequency in the HIV/AIDS adult population, and include:
dilated cardiomyopathy (prevalence 8-30%)
endocarditis: either infective or non-bacterial thrombotic (marantic) which is associated with malignancy or HIV wasti...
Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs.
tubing, clamps, syringes, scissors, lying on or under the patient
rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings, etc. may also be visible
Myocardial edema refers to an increased water content of the myocardium particularly within the extracellular interstitium 1.
Myocardial edema often reflects an acute or subacute cardiac event, most often either ischemic or inflammatory and thus can be associated with che...
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is a classification of pulmonary edema where the underlying etiology is not due to left ventricular dysfunction. Causes include:
pulmonary edema with acute asthma
post-obstructive pulmonary edema/postintubation pulmonary edema/negative pressure ...
Pericardial fat pads are normal structures that lie in the cardiophrenic angle. They are adipose tissues surrounding the heart composed of the epicardial fat, which lies between the myocardium and visceral pericardium, and paracardial fat, which is adherent and external to the parietal pericardi...
Pulmonary hypertension has many causes, and these can be divided in many ways. A simple and systematic approach is to proceed along the cardiopulmonary pulmonary circulation, as causes are found at each site (for a more official classification system see 2003 third world symposium on pulmonary a...
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.
Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.
It is p...
Right atrial (RA) enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial (LA) enlargement.
Enlargement of the right atrium (RA) can result from a number of conditions, including:
raised right ventricular pressures
pulmonary arterial hype...
Troponin is a protein of key importance in the functioning of skeletal and cardiac muscles. It forms part of the contractile mechanism and comprises three main subunits: troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T.
Elevation of serum troponin can occur from a number of causes an...
The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling.
It is commonly u...
Valvular heart diseases, or cardiac valvulopathies, describe any acquired or congenital disease affecting one or more of the four cardiac valves.
This is a general index article that classifies cardiac valvulopathies depending on which valve(s) is affected 1. See individual articles for in-dept...