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13 results found

AIDS defining illness

AIDS defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...

CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognised.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...

Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal.  ...

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a relative common procedure used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions 1,2: lymphoproliferative disorders, e.g. lymphoma, multiple myeloma (most common indication) leukaemia solid tumours, e.g. neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, extragonadal germ...

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (abdominal complications)

Abdominal complications of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the oesophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabscesse...

Haemolytic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anaemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: reticulocytosis increased unconjugated bi...


Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfused: t...

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (thoracic complications)

There are many thoracic complications that can occur following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious. Complications Early pulmonary oedema engraftment syndrome diffuse alv...


Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...

Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Splenic cyst

Splenic cysts, although not particularly common, are the most common focal lesion of the spleen. They may be congenital or secondary. Epidemiology The incidence is ~0.75 per 100,000. Clinical features Usually asymptomatic and incidentally discovered at imaging. Left upper quadrant pain and t...


Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. Also one should know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen weighs >1000...

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