Endoleaks are characterised by persistent blood flow within the aneurysm sac following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Normally the aortic stent-graft used for EVAR excludes the aneurysm from the circulation by providing a conduit for blood to bypass the sac.
An endoleak is a...
Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally, it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology.
Massive haemoptysis is referred to as expectoration of >...
Iliac vein occlusion can be due to the variety of causes including:
catheter dissection injuries
IVC filter insertion
direct tumour invasion
enlarged lymph nodes
Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications.
Transrectal ultrasound–guided biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient with a positive screening for prostate cancer.
Nowadays, with the MRI capacity for depicting abnormal areas of the prostate, is possible to obtain target...