Gun shot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications.
Mechanism of injury
Some understanding of the factors that influence woundin...
A generalised acceleration in bone maturation can result from a number of aetiological factors. They include :
idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty
hypothalamic or parathalamic lesion with sexual precocity: e.g.
A mnemonic that can be used to remember the causes of increased heel pad thickness is:
D: phenytoin therapy
P: peripheral oedema
The Insall-Salvati ratio or index is the ratio of the patella tendon length (TL) to the length of the patella (PL).
This can be measured on a lateral knee x-ray or sagittal MRI. Ideally the knee is 30 degrees flexed.
Distance lines used to calculate Insall-Salvati ratio...
Intervertebral disc calcification is seen with numerous conditions.
degenerative: relatively common and may occur in up to 6% in routine abdominal radiographs in adults
ochronosis: very dense central (nucleus pulposus) calcification associated with osteopaenia; begins ...
Intra-articular loose bodies can result from a variety of pathological processes.
Use of the term loose is frowned upon by some because the fragments do not necessarily rattle around in the joint - the term intra-articular fragment is a safer alternative.
Patients may be...