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6 results found

Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gun shot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries,...

Increased bone age

A generalised acceleration in bone maturation can result from a number of aetiological factors. They include : endocrine disorders: idiopathic isosexual precocious puberty hypothalamic or parathalamic lesion with sexual precocity: e.g. craniopharyngioma astrocytoma hypothalamic hamartoma ...

Increased heel pad thickness (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that can be used to remember the causes of increased heel pad thickness is: MAD COP Mnemonic M: myxoedema A: acromegaly D: phenytoin therapy C: callus O: obesity P: peripheral oedema

Insall-Salvati ratio

The Insall-Salvati ratio or index is the ratio of the patella tendon length (TL) to the length of the patella (PL).  Insall-Salvati ratio This can be measured on a lateral knee x-ray or sagittal MRI. Ideally, the knee is 30 degrees flexed.  Distance lines used to calculate Insall-Salvati rati...

Intervertebral disc calcification

Intervertebral disc calcification is seen with numerous conditions. degenerative: relatively common and may occur in up to 6% in routine abdominal radiographs in adults postoperative/traumatic ochronosis: very dense central (nucleus pulposus) calcification associated with osteopaenia; begins ...

Intra-articular loose bodies

Intra-articular loose bodies can result from a variety of pathological processes. Use of the term loose is frowned upon by some because the fragments do not necessarily rattle around in the joint - the term intra-articular fragment is a safer alternative. Clinical presentation Patients may be...

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