Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

86 results found
Article

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy (differential)

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy is a subset of the differential diagnosis for generalised airspace opacification and includes: post-obstructive causes (usually chronic, but 'new' changes can occur) primary lung cancer pulmonary metastases lymphoma/leukaemia infection pri...
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Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison disease patients only occasionally develop calcification.  Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abd...
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Adult cervical lymphadenopathy (differential)

Cervical lymphadenopathy in an adult can result from a vast number of conditions. They include: malignancy metastases  from head and neck tumours lymphoma other neoplastic lesions Castleman disease Kaposi sarcoma infection bacterial infection viral infection Epstein-Barr virus herpes...
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Apple core sign (colon)

The apple core sign, also known as the napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. Differential diagnosis The appearance of the apple-core lesion of the colon also can be caused by other diseas...
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Asymmetry (mammography)

Asymmetries in mammography represents a spectrum of morphological descriptors for a unilateral fibroglandular-density finding seen on one or more mammographic projections that does not meet criteria for a mass. The term refers to a density finding and should not be confused with asymmetry in bre...
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Bat wing opacities (lungs)

Bat wing or butterfly pulmonary opacities refer to a pattern of bilateral perihilar shadowing. It is classically described on a frontal chest radiograph but can also refer to appearances on chest CT 3,4. Differential diagnosis Bat wing pulmonary opacities can be caused by: pulmonary oedema (e...
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Bilateral testicular lesions

Bilateral testicular lesions have a relatively limited differential diagnosis.  Differential diagnosis Neoplastic  lymphoblastic leukaemia (acute or chronic) lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's) primary testicular lymphoma is rare but the testes are often the site of lymphoma/leukaemia recurrence due t...
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Bone lesions with sequestrum

There are several bony lesions that can involve or produce a sequestrum. They include: Common Brodie abscess: osteomyelitis Less common eosinophilic granuloma certain soft tissue tumours (with bony extension)  malignant fibrous histiocytoma lymphoma metastasis (especially from breast c...
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Bulging duodenal papilla

Bulging duodenal papilla​ is a conical or cylindrical protuberance at the medial aspect of the descending or horizontal duodenum at the site of the sphincter of Oddi. It is a finding on small bowel follow-though (and endoscopy) and has a relatively long differential. On cross-sectional imaging, ...
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Calcified mediastinal lymph nodes (differential)

There are numerous causes of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Common causes include: infectious granulomatous diseases tuberculosis histoplasmosis sarcoidosis silicosis treated lymphoma Uncommon causes include: Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) pneumonia metastases thyroid carcinoma: papi...
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Cardiophrenic angle lesions

The cardiophrenic space is usually filled with fat. However, lesions originating above or lower to the diaphragm can present as cardiophrenic angle lesions. The more common lesions encountered include: pericardial fat pad pericardial cyst pericardial fat necrosis Morgagni's hernia lymphade...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/haemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necros...
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Childhood malignancies

Unfortunately the paediatric population is susceptible to malignancies. The most common entities, in overall order of frequency, are 1-4: leukaemia/lymphoma: ~35% * acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: 23% Hodgkin disease: 5% acute myelogenous leukaemia: 4% central nervous system malignancies: ~2...
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Clavicle tumours

Clavicle tumours may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramed...
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Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular simple pancreatic cyst pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autos...
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukaemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukaemia acute myeloid leukaemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphade...
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Cystic pulmonary metastases

Cystic pulmonary metastases are atypical morphological form on pulmonary metastases where lesions manifest as distinct cystic lesions. It is slightly different from the term cavitating pulmonary metastases in that the lesions are extremely thin walled. Pathology It has been reported with many ...
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Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...
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Diffusely increased bone marrow FDG uptake

A diffuse homogeneous bone marrow FDG uptake usually reflects hyperplastic bone marrow which can be seen in the following conditions: therapy-related granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) post-chemotherapy erythropoietin pathological process myelodysplastic syndromes beta-thalassa...
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Endosteal scalloping

Endosteal scalloping refers to the focal resorption of the inner layer of the cortex (i.e. the endosteum) of bones, most typically long bones, due to slow-growing medullary lesions. It is important to note that although it is evidence of a slow non-infiltrative lesion, it does not equate to ben...
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Fetal cardiac tumours

Fetal cardiac tumours refer to primary cardiac tumours that can present in the in utero population.  Epidemiology Fetal cardiac tumours are rare; the prevalence, reported from autopsy studies of patients of all ages, varies from 0.0017-0.28 % 2. Pathology Known cardiac tumour types that pres...
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Focal gas collection in right upper quadrant (differential)

Focal gas collection in right upper quadrant on plain radiographs can occur from a number of pathologies. Things to consider are: enterobiliary fistula: common types include cholecystoduodenal fistula and cholecystocolic fistula. It may occur with: gallstone ileus (being most common) 3 perfor...
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Generalised osteopenia

Generalised osteopenia refers to osteopenia diffusely affecting the bones. Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis is wide and includes: osteoporosis: decreased osteoid production osteomalacia: undermineralisation of osteoid hyperparathyroidism multiple myeloma diffuse metastase...
Article

Hepatosplenomegaly

Hepatosplenomegaly is simply the simultaneous presence of a pathologically-enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and spleen (splenomegaly). Pathology Aetiology Infection Many, many infections can produce a mild concurrent enlargement of the liver and spleen. This list is by no means exhaustive! vir...
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HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
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Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HPOA) is a syndrome characterised by periosteal reaction of the long bones without underlying bone lesion. There are a broad range of manifestations, although typically there is symmetrical involvement of the appendicular skeleton. Accompanying abnormal soft tissue...
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Hypervascular metastases

There are several tumours which are noted to cause hypervascular metastases. The list of differential diagnoses includes: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) breast cancer: homogeneously hypervascular liver metastases from breast are considered rare 3 lung cancer neuroendocrine tumours carcinoid tum...
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Hypothalamic lesions

Hypothalamic lesions are numerous representing some entities that are unique to the hypothalamus, as well as many lesions that can be seen elsewhere within the brain. Additionally, due to its proximity to the optic chiasm, third ventricle and pituitary region, many lesions of these locations can...
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Intracranial tumours with calcification

A variety of intracranial tumours exhibit different forms of calcification. Some lesions commonly show calcification while in some tumours, calcification is seen only in few number of cases. In this article these tumours are classified on the basis of frequency of calcification. Commonly calcif...
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Intraventricular neoplasms and lesions

Intraventricular neoplasms are rare and arise from periventricular structures such as the walls of the ventricular system, the septum pellucidum and the choroid plexus. Many tumour types arise from or can bulge into the ventricular system, although there are certain lesions that are relatively r...
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Leptomeningeal enhancement

Leptomeningeal enhancement refers to a diffuse or focal gyriform or serpentine enhancement that can be seen in the following conditions: Diffuse meningitis pyogenic meningitis viral meningitis tuberculous meningitis (can also be focal) CNS cryptococcal infection coccidioidal meningitis (c...
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Mandibular lesions

Mandibular lesions are myriad and common. The presence of teeth results in lesions that are specific to the mandible (and maxilla) and a useful classification that defines them as odontogenic or non-odontogenic. While it may often not be possible to make a diagnosis on imaging alone, this classi...
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Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own or in association with other lung pathology. Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some - with "mediastinal lymph node enlargement", they are not synon...
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Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases

Mixed lytic and sclerotic bone metastases are seen in a number of malignancies: breast carcinoma: typically sclerotic but 25% are mixed lung carcinoma: typically lytic but 15% are mixed carcinoma of the cervix testicular tumours prostate carcinoma: typically sclerotic but 15% are mixed  ga...
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Multiple cystic neck lesions (differential)

The differential diagnosis for multiple cystic neck lesions is different to that for a solitary cystic neck mass. Differential diagnosis Cystic neck lesions are seen in: metastatic squamous cell carcinoma: older patient, M>F metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma: usually a younger patient, ...
Article

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are one of the main groups of germ cell tumours (the other being seminoma). Although they are made up of distinct histological entities, in general, they have similar radiographic appearances. They can, however, be found widely in the body, with variabl...
Article

Non-small-cell lung cancer

Non-small-cell lung cancer represents a heterogeneous group of lung cancers that do not have "small cells" on histology. They are thus separated, as small cell carcinoma of the lung has distinctive management implications. The major histological types include: adenocarcinoma of lung squamous c...
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Ocular pathology

Ocular pathology covers a wide range of conditions and therefore represents the cause of a wide range of symptoms, signs and radiographic features. Ocular metastases account for over 80% of all ocular pathology. With regard to the remainder of ocular lesions, the primary differentiating factor ...
Article

Oligometastases

Oligometastases refers to distant disease that is limited in number and distribution, Niibe et al. defined this as ≤5 metastatic/recurrent lesions with control of the primary lesion 1,2. These metastases can be treated with local measures (surgery, radiation therapy, etc.) with the aim of increa...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
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Optic nerve enlargement

Enlargement of the optic nerves is uncommon and has a surprisingly broad differential: optic nerve glioma optic nerve meningioma orbital pseudotumour optic neuritis sarcoidosis leukaemia orbital lymphoma metastases perioptic haemorrhage Erdheim-Chester disease juvenile xanthogranuloma...
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Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old nephroblastomatosi...
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Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise from many aetiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications chronic pancreatitis alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%) 2  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification gallstone pancreatitis (2%) 2 ​...
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Pancreatic neoplasms

There are numerous primary pancreatic neoplasms, in part due to the mixed endocrine and exocrine components. Classification Classification based on function exocrine: ~99% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ~90-95% cystic neoplasm intraductal papillary muc...
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Parotid enlargement

Parotid enlargement (also known as parotidomegaly) has a wide differential given the significant breadth of pathology that can affect the parotid gland. These can be separated by the standard surgical sieve approach into infective, inflammatory, immune, neoplastic, infiltrative, and congenital c...
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Patellar tumours

Patellar tumours are extremely rare. They can be either benign or malignant primary bone tumours, or metastases.  Epidemiology Patellar tumours represent just 0.1% of all primary bone tumours 1.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with anterior knee pain and/or a palpable mass 1,3. ...
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Pedunculated intratracheal mass

A pedunculated intratracheal mass has a variety of differential diagnoses: benign tumour, e.g. hamartoma, chrondroma, lipoma haemangioma inspissated mucus metastasis to tracheal mucosa, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, melanoma polyp, e.g. inflammatory, antrochoanal papilloma post-intubation tr...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Article

Periosteal reaction

Periosteal reaction, also known as periostitis or periosteitis, is a non specific radiographic finding that occurs with periosteal irritation. Periosteal reactions may be broadly characterised as benign or aggressive, or more specifically broken down by pattern. Classification Benign versus ag...
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Peritoneal calcification

Peritoneal calcification is seen in a limited number of conditions that result in calcification of peritoneal structures. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is small: psammoma bodies in malignancy (most frequently cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary): fine sand-like calcification pseudomyxoma p...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Post surgical breast scar

Post surgical breast scar is a benign complication that usually occurs following  surgical intervention to breast tissue. It can however be a strong and potentially very confusing mimicker of breast malignancy. Radiographic features Review of the patient's past history and previous mammography...
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Primary benign cardiac tumours

Primary benign cardiac tumours are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumours include 1-2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary be...
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Primary malignancy of the nasopharynx

There are a number of primary malignancies of the nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma): 70% lymphoma (sinonasal lymphoma): 20% other nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma mucosal melanoma extramedullary plasmacytoma carcinosarcoma fi...
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Pseudocirrhosis

Pseudocirrhosis is a radiological term used to recapitulate imaging findings of cirrhosis, but occurring in the setting of hepatic metastases. It is most commonly reported following chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer metastases, although has also been reported before treatment, and with...
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Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases are common and the result of metastatic spread from a variety of primary tumours via blood or lymphatics. This article describes haematogenous pulmonary metastases with lymphangitis carcinomatosis discussed separately. Epidemiology The epidemiology will match that of the ...
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Pure ground glass nodules

Pure ground glass lung nodules are a subtype of ground glass lung nodules where there is no associated solid component. They have been shown to represent various pathologies such as 1,3 adenocarcinoma in situ of lung minimally-invasive adenocarcinoma of lung invasive adenocarcinoma of lung ...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
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Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours

Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours or RECIST refers to a set of published rules used to assess tumour burden in order to provide an objective assessment of response to therapy. They were initially introduced in 2000 and have undergone subsequent revision in 2009 (RECIST 1.1). For the ...
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Salivary gland tumours

Salivary gland tumours are variable in location, origin and malignant potential.  Pathology In general, the ratio of benign to malignant tumours is proportional to the gland size; i.e. the parotid gland tends to have benign neoplasms, the submandibular gland 50:50, and the sublingual glands an...
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Secondary organising pneumonia

Secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) refers to organising pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP). Pathology Aetiology SOP can be attributed to the following causes 1: Prior infection bacteria atypical pneumonias (e.g. Leg...
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Skeletal metastasis

Skeletal metastases are common and result in significant morbidity in patients with metastatic disease. Although the diagnosis is often straightforward, especially as in many cases there is a well-documented history of metastatic malignancy, sometimes they may mimic benign disease or other prima...
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Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
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Solid and enhancing pituitary region mass

Solid lesions with enhancement are by far the most commonly encountered appearance of pituitary region masses. Differential diagnosis macroadenoma by far the most common entity typically enhances less vividly than other entities elevates the dura of the diaphragma sella (as the origin is wi...
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Solid periosteal reaction

Solid periosteal pattern is thought to evolve from single layer and multilayered periosteal reactions, forming a solid layer of new bone adjacent to the cortex. It can be seen in: osteoid osteoma osteomyelitis osteosarcoma chondrosarcoma fibrous dysplasia non-ossifying fibroma osteoblast...
Article

Solitary sclerotic bone lesion

The differential diagnosis of a solitary sclerotic bone lesion is heavily influenced by the age of the patient, and includes: sclerotic metastasis solitary either because no others are present or no others have been imaged enostosis (bone island) osteosarcoma calcifying enchondroma osteobl...
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Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedullary metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly refers to enlargement of the spleen. The upper limit of normal adult splenic length is traditionally cited at 12 cm, but lengths upwards of 14 cm can be seen in normal, taller males 7. Massive splenomegaly is variably defined, including when the spleen is 5 standard deviations abov...
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Sunburst appearance (bone)

Sunburst appearance is a type of periosteal reaction giving the appearance of a sunburst secondary to an aggressive periostitis. It should not be confused with the sunburst sign of meningioma vascularity.  The sunburst appearance occurs when the lesion grows too fast and the periosteum does not...
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Superscan

Superscan is intense symmetric activity in the bones with diminished renal and soft tissue activity on a Tc99m diphosphonate bone scan. Pathology This appearance can result from a range of aetiological factors: diffuse metastatic disease prostatic carcinoma breast cancer transitional cell ...
Article

Terminal ileitis (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a terminal ileitis is quite extensive, and includes: inflammatory bowel disease Crohn disease (most common) backwash ileitis due to ulcerative colitis infectious colitis Yersinia spp.  Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Salmonella spp. ​Sa...
Article

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour....
Article

Thyroid malignancies

Thyroid malignancies are most commonly primary thyroid cancers but can rarely be metastatic deposits. Pathology Classification Thyroid malignancies can be categorised into the following key subtypes: primary thyroid cancers ​papillary thyroid carcinoma: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular thyr...
Article

Tracheal masses

The differential for tracheal masses can be rather wide. For a single mass consider: metastasis  direct invasion from adjacent organ (lung, thyroid, oesophagus and larynx) distant metastasis (e.g. melanoma, breast, renal and colon cancer)  primary neoplasms: squamous cell carcinoma: common...
Article

Tuberculosis (intracranial manifestations)

Tuberculosis of the central nervous system can result from either haematogenous spread from distant systemic infection (e.g. pulmonary tuberculosis) or direct extension from local infection (e.g. tuberculous otomastoiditis). Intracranial manifestations of tuberculosis are protean and can affect...
Article

Tumour ablation

Tumour ablation, or image-guided tumour ablation, is the direct application of chemical or energy-based (i.e. thermal and nonthermal) treatments to cause local tumour destruction. Techniques include: energy-based techniques thermal ablation radiofrequency ablation (RFA) microwave ablation (M...
Article

Tumours of the male urethra

Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorised both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
Article

Ultrasound appearances of liver metastases

Ultrasound appearance of liver metastases can have bewildering variation, and the presence of hepatic steatosis can affect the sonographic appearance of liver lesions. Radiographic features Ultrasound Patterns do exist between ultrasound appearance of the liver metastases and the likely prima...
Article

Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (differential)

Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy while being more concerning than bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy can still arise from a variety of benign, as well as malignant, causes. Benign mastitis other regional infective causes tuberculosis ipsilateral arm infection, e.g. cellulitis silicone i...
Article

Unilateral testicular lesions

The differential diagnosis for unilateral testicular lesions is wide-ranging.  Neoplastic Common seminoma (40-50% of testicular malignancies) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours: testicular teratoma testicular epidermoid (teratoma with ectodermal elements only) testicular choriocarcinoma ...
Article

Vertebra plana

Vertebra plana (pleural: vertebrae planae), also known as the pancake or silver dollar or coin-on-edge vertebra, is the term given when a vertebral body has lost almost its entire height anteriorly and posteriorly, representing a very advanced compression fracture. Pathology It can occur in a ...
Article

Vulval neoplasms

Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Pathology Squamous neoplastic lesions  Premalignant  classic vulvar...
Article

Weight loss

A clinical presentation of weight loss is extremely common and often a source of marked anxiety for the patient. The commonest cause of unintentional weight loss (UWI) is gastrointestinal tract disease, and not malignancy. Terminology The published literature lacks a consistent definition of w...
Article

Well-defined breast cancers (differential)

Certain well-defined breast cancers tend to lack the characteristic spiculation and can give false reassurance of more benign entities on both ultrasound and mammography. These include: certain high grade invasive ductal carcinomas: not enough time for a desmoplastic reaction to form spiculatio...
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WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue

The World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumours is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2013 and is reflected in the article below 1. Classification ...

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