Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

96 results found
Article

Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
Article

Adrenal calcification

Adrenal calcification is not a rare finding in healthy asymptomatic people and is usually the result of previous haemorrhage or tuberculosis. Addison disease patients only occasionally develop calcification.  Pathology Aetiology Haemorrhage sepsis: Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome blunt abd...
Article

Adrenal cyst

Adrenal cysts are rare lesions and are commonly incidental findings.  Epidemiology Adrenal cysts are reported to be rare with an incidence of <1% 1.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain or swelling, although a significant portion (~40%) are incidental findings 1,3.  Patholo...
Article

Adrenal gland tumours

Despite its small size, the adrenal gland is affected by a relatively large number of neoplastic entities: adrenal adenoma adrenal myelolipoma adrenal cortical carcinoma adrenal pheochromocytoma adrenal neuroblastoma adrenal metastases See also adrenal lesions: for a more general list of...
Article

Adrenal haemorrhage

Adrenal haemorrhage can result from a variety of traumatic and non-traumatic causes. When unilateral, it is often clinically silent. In contrast, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage can lead to catastrophic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical presentation The large majority of patients with unilateral a...
Article

Adrenal lesions (differential)

Adrenal lesions cover a broad spectrum from benign to neoplastic entities. Due to increased use of cross-sectional imaging they are frequently detected as incidental lesions ("incidentalomas"). If found incidentally, please refer to the Management of incidental adrenal masses: American College o...
Article

Asbestos related diseases

Asbestos related disease, in particular affecting the lung, comprise of a broad spectrum of entities related to the inhalational exposure to asbestos fibres. They can be divided into benign and malignant changes 1-3. Benign pleural and parenchymal lung disease asbestos related benign pleural d...
Article

Bilateral adrenal gland enlargement

The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited: adrenal hyperplasia micronodular adrenal hyperplasia macronodular adrenal hyperplasia adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) 2 adrenal metastases adrenal haemorrh...
Article

Bilateral renal enlargement

Bilateral renal enlargement can arise from a number of causes which include 1: diabetic nephropathy (common) renal involvement with lymphoma adult dominant polycystic kidneys (ADPKD) von-Hippel-Lindau disease nephroblastomatosis tuberous sclerosis bilateral renal cell carcinoma
Article

Bilateral testicular lesions

Bilateral testicular lesions have a relatively limited differential diagnosis.  Differential diagnosis Neoplastic  lymphoblastic leukemia (acute or chronic) lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's) primary testicular lymphoma is rare but the testes are often the site of lymphoma/leukemia recurrence due to ...
Article

Bladder outlet obstruction

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) can arise from a number of conditions affecting the urethra and/or bladder outlet.  Clinical presentation Patients often present with difficulty in urination, retention and urinary discomfort 2. Pathophysiology Obstruction can be caused by multiple etiologies...
Article

Bladder wall thickening (differential)

Differential diagnosis for bladder wall thickening depends on whether the bladder is adequately distended. The bladder wall may be thickened if: >3 mm when distended >5 mm when nondistended If the bladder is not distended, then it is difficult to exclude artifactual thickening from a collapse...
Article

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat localised prostate cancer, breast c...
Article

Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
Article

Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency

Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency has a number of causes. Primary adrenal insufficiency is termed Addison disease. Pathology Causes idiopathic atrophy: autoimmune adrenalitis 1 tuberculosis 1: 25% calcify fungal disease 1 histioplasmosis blastomycosis coccidioidomycosis AIDS 1 sarc...
Article

COL4A1-related disorders

COL4A1-related disorders are a group of autosomal dominant disorders caused by a mutation in the COL4A1 gene. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, but the group of disorders is considered to be under-recognised, especially asymptomatic variants 1. Clinical presentation The clinical ...
Article

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a form of adrenal hyperplasia related to a variety of autosomal recessive disorders in adrenal steroidogenesis; characterized by low cortisol, low aldosterone and androgen excess.  Clinical presentation virilization/genital ambiguity of female fetuses (d...
Article

Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

Congenital anomalies of the male urethra include various anomalies due to complex development of urethra. These anomalies can be isolated or in association with other coexisting anomalies. They can be categorised as following: congenital valves  posterior urethral valve anterior urethral valv...
Article

Congenital renal anomalies

Congenital renal anomalies comprise of vast spectrum of pathologies and include: renal agenesis renal dysgenesis congenital renal hypoplasia congenital megacalyectasis congenital cystic renal disease infantile polycystic renal disease: autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD):...
Article

Cortical nephrocalcinosis

Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis is ~20 times less common than medullary nephrocalcinosis. Pathology Aetiology renal cortical necrosis: common 2 renal infarction/ischaemia sepsis toxaemia of pregnancy drugs snake bites arsenic poisoning extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) haem...
Article

Cystic lesions around vagina and female urethra

There several cystic lesions around the vagina and female urethra; some of the imaging differential considerations would include: urethral diverticulum Gartner duct cyst: at or above the level of the pubic symphysis anterior to the vaginal wall Bartholin gland cyst: posterolateral to distal v...
Article

Cystic lesions of the testes

Testicular cystic lesions are a relatively common occurrence on testicular ultrasound. They result from widely variable pathological entities ranging from benign to malignant. These entities include: simple testicular cyst tunica albuginea cyst (mesothelial cyst) cystic transformation of rete...
Article

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

A cystic retroperitoneal lesion can carry a relatively broad differenital which includes: retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal muc...
Article

Echogenic renal pyramids (differential)

Echogenic renal pyramids in children can be due to many different causes.  Differential diagnosis Nephrocalcinosis Iatrogenic (most common cause) furosemide (frusemide) vitamin D steroids Non-iatrogenic idiopathic hypercalcemia Williams syndrome hyperparathyroidism milk-alkali syndrom...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. They are similar to abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there are variou...
Article

Epidermoid cyst

The term epidermoid cyst can refer to a: epidermal inclusion cyst intracranial epidermoid cyst splenic epidermoid cyst spinal epidermoid cyst testicular epidermoid cyst
Article

Epididymal calcification

Epididymal calcification can be seen on ultrasound as hyperechoic foci with shadows within the epididymal head and usually implies chronic epididymitis. Other conditions to be considered in the differential are: chronic epididymitis: e.g. bacterial, granulomatous (TB) or genital filariasis  tr...
Article

Epididymal cyst

Epididymal cysts are the most common of epididymal masses. Epidemiology Epididymal cysts have been reported in ~30% (range 20-40%) of asymptomatic individuals 5. Pathology They are usually of lymphatic origin 2. Cysts contain clear serous fluid, lymphocytes, spermatozoa and debris. Clinical...
Article

Epididymal masses

Epididymal masses are most commonly seen in routine ultrasonography. Most of the masses are benign, with malignant lesions are rare. Pathology Aetiology Benign adenomatoid tumour of the scrotum (most common epididymal mass 4) epididymal cyst spermatocele inflammatory changes sperm granul...
Article

Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3: an irregular bulge in capsule obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour focal capsular retraction and or thicken...
Article

Extratesticular scrotal mass (differential)

Extratesticular scrotal masses (non-testicle and non-epididymis) are mostly mesenchymal in origin and benign 1.  Benign lesions lipoma (most common) leiomyoma of the scrotum neurofibroma granular cell tumor angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor fibrous pseudotumor fibrous hamartoma of infancy...
Article

Fat containing renal lesions

There are numerous fat containing renal lesions, including: renal angiomyolipoma renal cell carcinoma Wilms tumour renal oncocytoma renal or perirenal lipoma Non-mass lesions may also occasionally contain fat: renal junction line fat in a renal scar renal sinus lipomatosis xanthogranul...
Article

Fetal pyelectasis

Fetal pyelectasis refers to a prominence of the renal pelvis in utero that is a relatively common finding, which in the majority of cases resolves spontaneously.  Please refer to the article on fetal hydronephrosis for a continued discussion on this matter.  Terminology  Although there is an ...
Article

Gas in the urinary bladder

There numerous causes of gas in the bladder. In the hospital setting by far the most common is the recent placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. Other causes include: iatrogenic IDC by far the most common cause cystoscopy, etc emphysematous cystitis intraluminal and intramural gas mo...
Article

Haematospermia

Haematospermia refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety to patients despite commonly being of benign aetiology. Pathology Aetiology urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease commonest cause in <40 years of ...
Article

Hereditary renal cancer syndromes

Despite the vast majority of renal cancers being sporadic, there are a number of hereditary renal cancer syndromes: von Hippel Lindau syndrome: predominantly clear cell type tuberous sclerosis: predominantly clear cell type hereditary leiomyomata renal cell cancer syndrome: described in ISUP ...
Article

HIV/AIDS (genitourinary manifestations)

Genitourinary manifestations of HIV/AIDS are protean and can be divided into: HIV-associated nephropathy renal diseases related to opportunistic infections: CMV, tuberculosis and MAC infections, fungal infections, pneumocystis carinii infection drug-related renal diseases: indinavir-induced ...
Article

HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
Article

Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis is defined as dilatation of the urinary collecting system of the kidney (the calyces, the infundibula, and the pelvis) 1. The term hydroureteronephrosis is used when the dilatation also involves the ureter.  Hydronephrosis in fetuses and newborns has specific causes that are cove...
Article

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension (differential)

Hyper-reninaemic hypertension may have many causes including: renal artery stenosis renal secreting tumour, e.g. renal cell carcinoma, reninoma renal compression: large renal mass, subcapsular haemorrhage (Page kidney)
Article

Infertility

Infertility is common, affecting 15-20% of couples, and is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle 3. It can be due to a variety of both female and male factors, and these are discussed in separate articles: fema...
Article

Intra-abdominal calcification (neonatal)

Intra-abdominal calcification in a neonate can be caused by a number of pathologies that cause calcification within the peritoneal space or within organs. Pathology Aetiology Meconium peritonitis The commonest cause is meconium peritonitis which is the result of aseptic peritonitis secondary...
Article

Low signal intensity renal parenchyma

There are relatively few of causes of low signal intensity renal parenchyma. Causes include: haemolysis paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea. mechanical: malfunctioning prosthetic cardiac valve sickle cell disease infection hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) vascular disease ac...
Article

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
Article

Medullary nephrocalcinosis

Renal medullary nephrocalcinosis is the commonest form of nephrocalcinosis and refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the medulla of the kidney. Due to the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle, and the biochemical milieu of the medulla, compared to the cortex, it is 20 times more co...
Article

Metallic ureteral stents

Patients with malignant ureteric obstruction and poor life expectancy usually require placement of ureteral stents to relieve the urinary obstruction and as a palliative measure to reduce pain and avoid major operation. Metallic ureteric stents have recently been developed to try and offer bett...
Article

Metastases to testis

Metastases to testis are a rare cause of a testicular mass and may be bilateral in up to 15% of patients.  Epidemiology Metastases to the testes are apparent in ~0.04% of autopsy studies in patients with known malignancy. The average age is 57 years, much older than the primary age for primary...
Article

Milk of calcium

Milk of calcium (MOC) is a term given to dependent, sedimented calcification within a cystic structure or hollow organ. This sort of colloidal calcium suspension layering can occur in various regions: renal cysts: milk of calcium in renal cyst (most common) breast cysts: milk of calcium in bre...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a collection of syndromes characterised by the presence of, as the name would suggest, multiple endocrine tumours. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) MEN2 (multiple endocrine adenomatosis) MEN2a (Sipple syndrome)...
Article

Multiple filling defects of the ureter (differential)

Multiple filling defects within a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU, have a relatively small differential including: spreading or multifocal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) vascular indentations multiple ureteral stones (steinstrasse) blood clots ureteritis cystica Stevens-Jo...
Article

Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis, previous known as Anderson-Carr kidney or Albright's calcinosis, refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the parenchyma of the kidney. It is divided into several types, with differing aetiologies, based on the distribution: medullary nephrocalcinosis: 95% cortical nephro...
Article

Neuroblastoma vs Wilms tumour

Both neuroblastoma and Wilms tumour occur in early childhood and typically present as large abdominal masses closely related to the kidneys. Distinguishing between the two is important, and a number of features are helpful. Neuroblastoma calcification very common: 90% encases vascular structu...
Article

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours

Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is one of the main groups of germ cell tumours (the other being seminoma). Although they are made up of distinct histological entities, in general, they have similar radiographic appearances. They can, however, be found widely in the body, with variable...
Article

Obstructive uropathy

An obstructive uropathy is a catch-all term encompassing any cause of complete or partial, congenital or acquired and permanent or intermittent obstruction to the urinary tract. Depending on the severity of obstruction and extent, it may result in permanent change in both the collecting system p...
Article

Oxalosis

Oxalosis results in supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Cal...
Article

Paediatric renal tumours and masses

Paediatric renal tumours and masses are another group of diseases (just like cystic renal diseases in both the adult and child) that are bewildering in their number, nomenclature and overlapping findings. Commoner lesions Wilms tumour: common in older children 1-8 years old mesoblastic nephro...
Article

Paratesticular lesions

Paratesticular lesions have a large list of differential diagnosis: epididymal cyst (most common epididymal mass) adenomatoid tumour (most common epididymal tumour) scrotal tunica cysts tunica vaginalis cyst tunica albuginea cyst hydrocoele scrotal haematocoele varicocoele scrotolith (s...
Article

Paratesticular tumours

A paratesticular mass may derive from a number of structures that surround the testicle within the scrotum; most commonly, they derive from the spermatic cord.  Pathology The masses can be categorised as benign (70%) or malignant (30%). Aetiology Benign spermatic cord lipoma (most common pa...
Article

Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or tear-drop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder i...
Article

Perinephric fluid collection post renal transplant

Perinephric fluid collections are commonly seen after renal transplantation. The appearance of a perinephric fluid collection is often nonspecific, and generating a differential often relies on when the transplant occurred. Radiographic features Early post-transplant period haematoma ultraso...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). F-18 is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-life of approx...
Article

Prostate biopsy

Transrectal ultrasound–guided biopsy is considered the standard approach for prostate biopsy and is most commonly performed on an outpatient with a positive screening for prostate cancer.  Nowadays, with the MRI capacity for depicting abnormal areas of the prostate, is possible to obtain target...
Article

Prostate cystic disease

Prostate cystic disease encompasses a wide variety of pathologies that all result in cyst formation within the prostate. midline cystic lesions / cyst like lesions Mullerian duct cyst prostatic utricle cyst ejaculatory duct cyst (tends to be more paramidline 6) cystadenoma of prostate duct...
Article

Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity

Prostate peripheral zone T2 hypointensity is a common finding in pelvic MRIs that needs to be differentiated. A prostate directed MRI is usually performed using a multi-parametric technique to differentiate prostate cancer from more benign changes. This includes T2 weighted images, dynamic contr...
Article

Prostatic utricle cyst

Prostatic utricle cyst (PUC) is an area of focal dilatation that occurs within the prostatic utricle. They are midline cystic masses in the male pelvis and can be very difficult or impossible to distinguish from a Mullerian duct cyst. Epidemiology Utricle cysts are most often detected in the ...
Article

Prostatomegaly

Prostatomegaly is a term used to generally describe enlargement of the prostate gland from whatever cause. Usually the prostate is considered enlarged on imaging when it measures beyond 30 cc (30 grams) in size.  Terminology The term prostatomegaly is often used interchangeably with benign pro...
Article

Pseudobladder

Pseudobladder refers to a pelvic cystic mass that simulates the urinary bladder. The location of the lesion should allow differentiation from the bladder but if doubt exists and clinical necessity arises, a delayed phase CT or MRI with excreted contrast or IDC-administered retrograde contrast f...
Article

Pseudohydronephrosis

Pseudohydronephrosis refers to normal anatomy or non-significant pathologies that may mimic hydronephrosis. There is usually fluid-density material within a dilated of a part of the urinary tract, but without other signs of obstruction such as retroperitoneal fat stranding, renal perfusion abnor...
Article

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis refers to an upper urinary (renal) tract infection with associated renal pelvis, renal calyceal and renal parenchymal inflammation, and comprises a heterogeneous group of conditions. bacterial pyelonephritis chronic pyelonephritis renal tuberculosis emphysematous pyelitis emp...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
Article

Renal amyloidosis

Renal amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity but can be associated with systemic amyloidosis. Renal involvement from amyloidosis in pathological specimens is quite common. However, renal function compromise is rare. Clinical presentation It usually manifests as nephrotic syndrome: fever a...
Article

Renal artery dissection

Renal artery dissection may occur as a result of the following processes 1: aortic dissection extending to involve the renal artery iatrogenic (e.g. catheterisation) trauma atherosclerosis fibromuscular dysplasia
Article

Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) refers to a narrowing of a renal artery. When the process occurs slowly, it leads to secondary hypertension. Acute renal artery stenosis does not lead to hypersecretion of renin. Pathology When the stenosis occurs slowly, collateral vessels form and supply the kidne...
Article

Renal cortical defect

Renal cortical defects have a variety of causes, and present on imaging as an area of focal cortical thinning or absence of renal cortex, sometimes accompanied by focal caliectasis.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for a renal cortical defect includes 1,2: renal scarring re...
Article

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal papillary necrosis refers to ischemic necrosis of the renal papillae. Necrosis also occurs in the medullary pyramids. Clinical features Patients can present with both acute episodes or chronic renal papillary necrosis. Calyceal or ureteral obstruction by sloughed papillae manifest with f...
Article

Renal pseudotumour

A renal pseudotumour is a mass that will simulate a tumour on imaging but is composed of non-neoplastic tissue. There are many examples 1: Developmental prominent column of Bertin persistent fetal lobulation dromedary hump splenorenal fusion cross-fused renal ectopia renal hilar lip Infe...
Article

Renal transplant

Renal transplantation is one, if not the most, common transplant procedures undertaken worldwide. Consequently, purposeful and incidental imaging of renal transplants and renal transplant-related complications are increasingly common. These include acute renal transplant rejection and chronic re...
Article

Renal vein varices

Renal vein varices develop for various reasons and are usually asymptomatic. Clinical presentation Renal vein varices are usually asymptomatic. Some patients may present with flank pain and/or haematuria. Pathology Aetiology chronic renal vein thrombosis nutcracker syndrome retroaortic ...
Article

Renovascular hypertension

Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a type of secondary hypertension, where high blood pressure develops secondary to renal artery disease.  Epidemiology Approximately 2.5% (range 0.5-5%) of hypertensive patients will have RVH as a cause 2,3.  Pathology Aetiology There are a number of condit...
Article

Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileocaec...
Article

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours (GCT) include: Caucasians at higher risk than African Americans (9:1) undescended testis 10-40x increased risk  around 10% of all tumours are associated with undescended testis higher risk if intra-abdominal testis compared with intra-inguinal ...
Article

Sciatic hernia

Sciatic hernia is a rare type of pelvic floor hernia, which occurs through either the greater or lesser sciatic foramina. See also curlicue ureter sign
Article

Scrotal infections

The scrotum and its content are subject to a number of infective processes including:  scrotal cellulitis scrotal abscess Fournier gangrene epididymitis epididymo-orchitis orchitis testicular abscess
Article

Scrotal tunica cyst

Scrotal tunica cysts are paratesticular cystic lesions. They include: tunica vaginalis cysts tunica albuginea cysts Radiographic features Ultrasound  Typically seen as a simple appearing paratesticular cystic lesion not in the region of the epididymis. See also paratesticular lesions
Article

Solitary filling defect of the ureter (differential)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has some differentials, including: within the lumen calculus sloughed papilla blood clot benign polyp within the wall transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tuberculosis  metastasis endometriosis When multiple fi...
Article

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34. Epidemiology Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2. The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour. Over ...
Article

Testicular microlithiasis

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes.  The diagnosis is only made with more than five calcifications are detected. In the vast majority of cases testicular microlithiasis is bilatera...
Article

Testicular trauma

Testicular trauma is the third most-common cause of acute scrotal pain and may result in various degree of damage to the testes. Testicular rupture and testicular ischaemia/infarct are two severe complications which need to be ruled out. Other injuries that can occur include 1: testicular frac...
Article

Tuberculous adrenalitis

Tuberculous adrenalitis is the result of adrenal mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. Its incidence has decreased in the western world with the declining incidence of tuberculosis. Pathology As the tuberculous infection causes destruction of the adrenal cortex, primary adrenal insufficie...
Article

Tumours of the male urethra

Tumours of the male urethra are uncommon. They can be categorised both on the grounds of histology and location. Histology squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra: 80% urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra: 15% (predominantly posterior urethra) adenocarcinoma of the urethra: 5...
Article

Urethral stricture

Urethral strictures are relatively common, and typically occur either in the setting of trauma or infection. Epidemiology The demographics of the affected population is dictated by the aetiology, but in general it is safe to say that adult males make up the vast majority of cases. Clinical pr...
Article

Urinary bladder diverticula (causes)

There are numerous causes of Urinary bladder diverticula:  Primary (congenital or idiopathic) Hutch diverticulum (in paraureteral region) Secondary Bladder outlet obstruction bladder neck stenosis neurogenic bladder posterior urethral valve prostatic enlargement (hypertrophy; carcinoma) ...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.