Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

13 results found
Article

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
Article

Irreversible electroporation

Irreversible electroporation (IRE), also known as non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE), is a non-invasive soft-tissue ablation technique used for tumour ablation in regions that require very high precision and preservation of surrounding structures. Mechanism In IRE electrodes are ...
Article

Liver and biliary interventional procedures

There is a wide range of liver and biliary interventional procedures, both diagnostic and therapeutic, most commonly using CT-guidance or ultrasound-guidance.   Percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) percutaneous transhepatic biliary dr...
Article

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique to visualize intra and extrahepatic biliary tree and pancreatic ductal system. It can provide the diagnostic range equivalent to the ERCP and so it can replace the ERCP in high risk patient to avoid significa...
Article

Percutaneous cholecystostomy

Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an image-guided placement of drainage catheter into gallbladder lumen. This minimally invasive procedure can aid stabilisation of a patient to enable a more measured surgical approach with time for therapeutic planning. Indications poor surgical candidate/high r...
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an interventional radiology procedure undertaken for those with biliary obstruction. It is almost exclusively performed in those with malignant obstruction, such as cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary and pancreatic malignancies when retrograde access via...
Article

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a radiographic technique employed in visualisation of the biliary tree and can be used as the first step in a number of percutaneous biliary interventions (e.g. percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent placement) Indications Purely diagnostic p...
Article

Portal vein embolisation

Portal vein embolisation (PVE) is a technique used to selectively occlude the blood supply to one of the liver lobes diverting portal blood flow to the other lobe, allowing this future liver remnant (FLR). This will increase the size of the post hepatectomy future liver remnant (FLR) and improve...
Article

T tube cholangiogram

T-tube cholangiograms are a fluroscopic study performed in the setting of hepatobiliary disease.  This technique has been largely superseded by MRCP and ERCP. Typically a T-shaped tube is left in the common bile duct at the time of surgery (e.g. cholecystectomy) and allows for exploration of th...
Article

TIPS evaluation

TIPS evaluation is useful to ensure that the shunt is working properly and that no stenosis has occurred within the stent. Ultrasound is often used as a first-line modality. Radiographic features Ultrasound The normal TIPS should show colour Doppler flow throughout its length. The in-stent ve...
Article

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation

Transarterial chemoembolisation therapy (TACE) is a localised method of administrating chemotherapy directly to the liver tumor via a catheter study. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) (i.e. without a chemotherapy agent added) is also used and there is evidence that this may be just as effective ...
Article

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a treatment for portal hypertension in which direct communication is formed between a hepatic vein and a branch of the portal vein, thus allowing some proportion of portal flow to bypass the liver. The target portosystemic gradient after TI...
Article

Ultrasound guided biopsy

Ultrasound guided biopsy is one form of image guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist.  It is the most common form of image guided biopsy, offering convenience and real time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be ...

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