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17 results found

Adrenal vein sampling

Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is a procedure where blood is collected from the adrenal veins via catheter to confirm autonomous hormone production, if it is unilateral or bilateral, and to guide further treatment. Indication AVS is commonly performed in primary aldosteronism, being indicated to ...


Brachytherapy, also known as sealed source radiotherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed, under the guidance of imaging, within or next to the area requiring treatment. Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat localised prostate cancer, breast c...

CT guided adrenal biopsy

CT guided adrenal biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal nodules or tumours. This procedure has declined in recent years due to improvements in, and validation of, non-invasive CT and MR techniques that can now diagnose benign adrenal lesions with a high degree of...


Nephrostomy is a common urologic or interventional radiology procedure in which a tube/catheter is introduced into the renal collecting system (usually the renal pelvis). Nephrostomies can either be "open" nephrostomy: after a urological surgical procedure, such as a UPJ stone removal these t...

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a surgical procedure for the extraction of large renal calculi. It is usually performed in the operating theatre either by a urologist or combined urologist-radiologist team. Indication PCNL is used to destroy and remove renal calculi, typically over 2 cm...

Percutaneous nephrostomy

Percutaneous nephrostomy is a technique in which percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved under radiological guidance. The access is then often maintained with the use of an indwelling catheter. Indications urinary tract obstruction urinary diversion (e.g. ureteric injury; urine leak) a...

Percutaneous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange

Percutaenous nephrostomy salvage and tube exchange are two procedures undertaken in those with long term nephrostomies. These patients are often either unsuitable or do not wish to have ureteric stenting to relieve their urinary tract obstruction. Nephrostomy salvage Nephrostomy salvage is und...

Percutaneous renal biopsy

Percutaneous renal biopsy, utilising either ultrasound or CT, allows for an accurate, reliable method of acquiring renal tissue for histopathological assessment. The biopsy may be of a native or transplant kidney. It is divided into two types: non-focal or non-targeted focal or targeted (i.e....

Prostatic artery embolisation

Prostatic artery embolisation (PAE) is a minimally invasive procedure option utilised to treat the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  Indications PAE has been used for controlling prostatic haemorrhage (such as those associated prostate cancer) since 1970. However, its use in the treatment o...

Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are uncommon vascular finding, with the majority occuring after a renal intervention. Pathology A renal artery pseudoaneurysm differs from a renal artery true aneurysm (as might occur in fibromuscular dysplasia) in that it does not involve all three layers of the a...

Renal sympathetic denervation

Renal sympathetic denervation (RSDN), also known as renal denervation, is an interventional procedure that uses radiofrequency ablation to destroy the nerve endings in the wall of the renal arteries. Endovascular (trans-catheter) techniques are an alternative to surgical sympathectomy.  Indicat...

Retroaortic left renal vein

Retroaortic left renal vein (RLRV) is a normal anatomical variant where the left renal vein is located between the aorta and the vertebra, and drains into the inferior vena cava. Its recognition is important in order to avoid complications during retroperitoneal surgery or interventional proced...

Sunburst sign (renal angiomyolipoma)

The sunburst sign refers to the appearance of arterial blush seen at selective arterial DSA angiography of a renal angiomyolipoma. Angiomyolipoma is a hypervascular renal mass that shows dense early arterial vascular network of tortuous irregular vessels with micro- or macro-aneurysms.

Transjugular renal biopsy

Transjugular renal biopsy can be performed to obtain an adequate tissue sample for histopathologic diagnosis on renal dysfunctions. It is usually performed in high-risk patients in whom percutaneous renal biopsy is not feasible or is contraindicated. This is also useful in morbidly obese patient...

Ureteric stent

Ureteric stents, also known as double J stents or retrograde ureteric stents, is a urological catheter that has two "J-shaped" (curled) ends, where one is anchored in the renal pelvis and the other inside the bladder. Stents are used for the free passage of urine from the kidney to the bladder,...

Urethral clamps

Various radiological and surgical instruments, including urethral clamps, have been developed to try to improve retrograde/ascending urethrogram (RUG/ASU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) technique in males. These are very rarely (if ever) used anymore. Brodny clamp This device has a metall...


Urethrography refers to the radiographic study of the urethra using iodinated contrast media and is generally carried out in males.  Terminology When the urethra is studied with instillation of contrast into the distal/anterior urethra it has been referred to as retrograde urethrography (RUG)...

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