Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

210 results found
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5-F risk factors for cholelithiasis (mnemonic)

The 5-F rule refers to risk factors for the development of cholelithiasis in the event of upper abdominal pain: fair: more prevalent in the Caucasian population 1 fat: BMI >30 female fertile: one or more children forty: age ≥40 cholelithiasis can occur in young patients with a positive fam...
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Abdominal organ echogenicity (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps to remember the relative echogenicity of abdominal organs on ultrasound: Darling Parents So Love Kids Mnemonic From most to least echogenic: D: diaphragm P: pancreas S: spleen L: liver K: kidneys (cortex)
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Abnormal collection of barium anywhere (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used for abnormal collection of barium anywhere in the body : FEDUP Mnemonic F: fistula E: extravasation D: diverticulum U: ulcer P: perforation
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Accessory ossicles of the wrist (mnemonic)

Accessory ossicles of the wrist can be easily recalled with the mnemonic: LOTTEO 1 HOTELS Mnemonic   L: lunula O: os styloideum (carpal boss) T: (os) triangulare T: (os) trapezium secondarium E: (os) epilunate O: os hamuli propriu Another useful mnemonic is HOTELS H: (os) hamuli propr...
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Acro-osteolysis (mnemonic)

The causes of acro-osteolysis can be remembered using the mnemonic: PINCH FO Mnemonic P: psoriasis/pyknodysostosis I: injury, e.g. thermal burn, frost bite N: neuropathy, e.g. diabetes, leprosy C: collagen vascular disease, e.g. scleroderma, Raynaud disease H: hyperparathyroidism F: fami...
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Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
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Ageing blood on MRI (mnemonic)

Ageing blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MRI signal characteristics of haemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of ageing blood through the five sta...
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Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the flexor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Dick...
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Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: thymus T: thyroid T: thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and germ cell tumours - see mediastinal germ cell tumours Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a si...
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Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
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Apical lung disease (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember common apical lung diseases is: SET CARP or CARPETS Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
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Articular cartilage calcification (mnemonic)

An easy to remember mnemonic for the causes of articular cartilage calcification is: HOGWASH Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis G: gout W: Wilson disease A: arthritis S: pseudogout H: haemochromatosis
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Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that corresponds to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: late...
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Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture) A: alcohol abuse R: radiation S: sickle cell dise...
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Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (thoracoacromial) artery (from 2nd part) L: lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part) S: subsca...
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Basilar invagination (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall the causes of basilar invagination is: PF ROACH Mnemonic P: Paget disease of bone F: fibrous dysplasia R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia A: achondroplasia C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis H: hyperparath...
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Behavioural changes in obstructive sleep apnoea (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the behavioural changes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is: APRIL Mnemonic A: aggression P: poor school performance R: restlessness I: irritability L: lack of concentration
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Bladder calcification (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall the common causes of bladder calcification is: SCRITT Mnemonic S: schistosomiasis C: cytotoxic: see radiation- and chemotherapy-induced cystitis R: radiation: see radiation- and chemotherapy-induced cystitis I: interstitial cystitis T: tuberculosis T: transiti...
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Bladder wall calcification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of bladder wall calcification is: CREST Mnemonic C: cystitis post radiation therapy / chemotherapy / chronic infection R: radiation E: eosinophilic cystitis S: schistosomiasis T: tuberculosis
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Bochdalek hernia features (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the features of a Bochdalek hernia is: BBBBB Mnemonic B: Bochdalek B: big B: back and medial, usually on the left side B: baby B: bad (associated with pulmonary hypoplasia)
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Bone cortical lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for bony cortical lesions is: MOFOS Mnemonic M: metastasis O: osteomyelitis F: fibrosarcoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture
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Bone within a bone appearance

Bone within a bone is a descriptive term applied to bones that appear to have another bone within them. There are numerous causes including: normal thoracic and lumbar vertebrae (neonates and infants) growth recovery lines (after infancy) cortical splitting and new periostitis sickle cell d...
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Bony lesions without periostitis or pain (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember bony lesions that have no pain or periostitis is: E FUN Mnemonic E: enchondroma F: fibrous dysplasia U: unicameral bone cyst N: non-ossifying fibroma If periostitis or pain is present (assuming no trauma, which can be a foolhardy assumption), you can exclude E-...
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Bony sequestrum (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to help remember common causes of bony sequestrum include: E-FILM LIFE FILE Mnemonics E-FILM E: eosinophilic granuloma  F: fibrosarcoma I: infection (Brodie abscess) L: lymphoma (skeletal)  M: malignant fibrous histiocytoma or metastasis (especially from breast carcinoma) LI...
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Bowel sacculation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember causes of bowel sacculation is: MISC Mnemonic M: metastasis I: ischaemia S: scleroderma C: Crohn disease
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Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Red Tits Don't Come Back Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers  or Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Where the first letter of each word rep...
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Branches of anterior and posterior divisions of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the anterior and posterior divisions of the internal iliac artery is: I <3 U SUMO SIL which reads as "I love you sumo Sil" Mnemonic I: internal pudendal artery I: inferior vesical artery *  I: inferior gluteal artery U: uterine artery (in femal...
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Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA Mnemonic A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterior communicating artery (C7) S: superior hypophyseal artery (C6) C: caroticotympanic artery (...
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (uterine in female...
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Branches of maxillary artery (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is: DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous Mnemonic D: deep auricular artery A: anterior tympanic artery M: middle meningeal artery I: inferior alveolar artery A: accessory meningeal ar...
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Branches of ophthalmic artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the ophthalmic artery is: DR MCLESSI Mnemonic D: dorsal nasal artery R: (central) retinal artery M: muscular artery C: ciliary arteries (long, short and anterior) L: lacrimal artery E: ethmoidal arteries (anterior and posterior) S: supraorbi...
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Branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery are: SOI VU MR PIG (it can be remembered as SO fourth (IV) U MR PIG) Oranges Under Some Ice Might Peel Instantly Mnemonics SOI VU MR PIG S: superior vesical artery O: obturator artery IV: inferior ves...
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Branches of the external carotid artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the branches of the external carotid artery abound. A few colourful examples include:  Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students She Always Likes Friends Over Papa, Sister, and Mama There are many many many...
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Branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery include: I Love Sex PILLS G Mnemonic I Love Sex I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery S: superior gluteal artery PILLS G P: posterior division of the internal iliac artery IL: iliolu...
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Branches of the thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are: ABCD CAlifornia Police Department Cadavers Are Dead People PACkeD Mnemonics ABCD A: acromial B: breast (pectoral) C: clavicular D: deltoid CAlifornia Police Department C: clavicular A: acromial  P: pe...
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Breast lesion localisation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localisation when given a set of mammograms (MLO and CC) is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localise the lesion into the quadrant (e.g. upper, outer) to make ultrasound correlation easier. Mnemonic muffins rise: if the lesion is located me...
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Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artefacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
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Bronchial fracture (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the features of a bronchial fracture on a chest radiograph is: PPP Mnemonic P: progressive or P: persistent pneumothorax or P: pneumomediastinum
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Bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (granulomatous disease) K: Karta...
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Bronchopulmonary segments (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the bronchopulmonary segments are: A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm (right lung) ASIA ALPS (left lung) Mnemonic 'A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm' right upper lobe A: apical segment P: posterior segment A: anterior segment middle lobe L: lateral segment ...
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Bronchovascular spread (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember diseases that undergo bronchovascular spread is: SKILL Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis K: Kaposi sarcoma I: infection: pneumocystis pneumonia/tuberculosis L: lymphoma L: lymphangitis carcinomatosis
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Calcaneal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for calcaneal lesions is: BIG G Mnemonic B: bone cyst (unicameral) I: intraosseous lipoma G: ganglion (intraosseous) G: giant cell tumour
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Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Carbolic acid poisoning symptoms (mnemonic)

The symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning can be recalled using the mnemonic: 5 Cs Mnemonic C: CNS depression C: constricted pupil C: carboluria (smoky urine) C: cartilage C: corneal deposition
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Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy (lymph nodes) D: diaphragmatic hernia
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Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location carpal bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from latera to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catc...
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Causes and complications of oligohydramnios (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering some causes and complications of oligohydramnios is: DRIPPC Mnemonic D: demise R: renal abnormalities (decreased urine output) I:  IUGR P: premature rupture of membranes P: post-dates C: chromosomal anomalies Related articles oligohydramnios oligohyd...
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly include: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited  Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
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Causes of breast oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of breast oedema can be remembered using the mnemonic: VIRALS Mnemonic V: venous obstruction I: inflammatory breast cancer R: radiotherapy A: abscess L: lymphatic obstruction S: surgery (recent)
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy and early learnt mnemonic for recalling some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids  M: mumps (and other infections) / malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/spider bites H: hyperlip...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
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Causes of sacroiliitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the symmetric vs. asymmetric causes of sacroiliitis is: PAIR Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis A: ankylosing spondylitis I: inflammatory bowel related R: reactive (e.g. Reiter syndrome) The outside letters P & R (letters are far apart) are the asymmetric causes an...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, fr...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more commo...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
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Cervical incompetence morphological changes of the internal os (mnemonic)

Sequential morphological ultrasound changes of the endocervical canal with cervical incompetence can be remembered using the mnemonic: Trust Your Vaginal Ultrasound Mnemonic T-shaped (normal internal cervical os) Y-shaped V-shaped  U-shaped Related article cervical incompetence funnelin...
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Charcot joint causes (mnemonic)

The causes of a Charcot joint can be remembered, with a little poetic license, as they (all) start with the letter S. Mnemonic sugar (diabetes) syphilis steroid use syringomyelia spinal cord injury spina bifida scleroderma (leprosy) The features of Charcot arthropathy can be remembered...
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Chest radiograph pre-interpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph pre-interpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA or AP? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetration? I: inspiration, poor or optimal ins...
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Chondrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for chondrocalcinosis include: 3 Cs WHIP A DOG HOGWASH Mnemonics 3 Cs  C: crystals e.g. CPPD, sodium urate (gout) C: cations e.g. calcium (any cause of hypercalcemia), copper, iron C: cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis, acromegaly, ochronosis) WHIP A DOG W: Wilson di...
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Complications of petrous temporal bone fracture (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the complications of transverse and longitudinal petrous temporal bone fractures is: listen carefully to something funny Mnemonic listen carefully = longitudinal / conductive hearing loss to something funny = transverse / sensorineural hearing loss and facial nerve...
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Conditions with lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA BADAS RASCO Mnemonic CIA C: collagen vascular disease I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BADAS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumonia ...
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Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

STEP UP: Sarcoidosis, Silicosis Tuberculosis Eosinophilic Pneumonia Pneumoconiosis UP
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Congenital hypothyroidism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypothyroidism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of congenital hypothyroidism Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue
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Contents of the cubital fossa (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the contents of the cubital fossa is, from medial to lateral: My Brother Throws Rad Parties Mnemonic M: median nerve B: brachial artery T: tendon of biceps R: radial nerve P: posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve
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Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: a...
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Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) Mnemonics R: rostrum G: genu B: body (trunk) S: splenium
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Cortical nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic for cortical nephrocalcinosis is: COAG Mnemonic C: cortical necrosis O: oxalosis A: Alport syndrome G: (chronic) glomerulonephritis See also nephrocalcinosis cortical nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis mnemonic
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Cortically-based brain tumours (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumours is: PDOG Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
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Couinaud classification of hepatic segments (mnemonic)

Pauli et al published a "handy" way to remember the Couinaud classification of hepatic segments 1. Make a fist with your right hand. The fingers should be wrapped around the flexed thumb and the fist should face you. The segments are represented by the following: segment I (caudate): the thumb...
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Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I to CN XII: On ol...
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Cystic lesions of the spleen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of cystic lesions in the spleen is: TEAM Mnemonic T: trauma E: echinococcal A: abscess M: metastasis
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta(type II) D: descending aorta (type III)
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragm is: I ate (8) 10 eggs at 12 Mnemonic I ate (8): inferior vena cava at T8 10 eggs: (o)esophagus at T10 at 12: aorta at T12
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Diaphyseal lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for a short list of diaphyseal lesions is: CEMENT Mnemonic C: bone cysts E: enchondroma/Ewing sarcoma M: bone metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma N: non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) T: tuberculosis/osteomyelitis
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Diffuse bony sclerosis (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering causes of diffuse bony sclerosis include: 3 M's PROOF Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic 1   Mnemonics 3 M's PROOF M: malignancy metastases (osteoblastic metastases) lymphoma leukaemia M: myelofibrosis M: mastoc...
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Eggshell calcification in thorax and mediastinum (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for major causes of eggshell calcification in the thorax and mediastinum is:  A Silly Cool Sergeant Likes His Tubercular Blast Mnemonic A: amyloidosis S: silicosis C: coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) S: sarcoidosis L: lymphoma: (postirradiation Hodgkin disease) H: hi...
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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
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Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C - capitellum R - radial head I - internal epicondyle T - trochlea O ...
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Emergency CT head (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is: Blood Can Be Very Bad Mnemonic Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed. B: blood look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
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Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic Kiss: Kaposi sarcoma My: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobro...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher disease Lead G...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rectu...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

 The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonics Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
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Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
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Features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonic: 6 Ds of Charcot joint Mnemonic increased Density (subchondral sclerosis) Destruction Debris (intra-articular loose bodies) Dislocation Distention Disorganisation The causes of Charcot arthrop...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
Article

Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonic NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts" (i.e. the midline) It should...
Article

Finger tip lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for finger tip lesions is: GEMS Mnemonic G: glomus tumour  E: epidermoid/enchondroma/subungual exostosis  M: metastasis (almost exclusively lung) S: sarcoidosis
Article

Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions (mnemonic)

There is a handy mnemonic for fluid-fluid levels of bone lesions on MRI: GOATS CSF Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour O: osteoblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst T: telangiectatic osteosarcoma S: sarcomas C: chondroblastoma S: solitary bone cyst F: fibroxanthoma
Article

Focal pulmonary opacity (mnemonic)

Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic: 4 Fs Mnemonic F: 'fection (pulmonary infection) F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction) F: fluid (pulmonary oedema) F: f***ed (lung cancer)

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