Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

242 results found
Article

Emergency CT head (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is: Blood Can Be Very Bad Mnemonic Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed. B: blood look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
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Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic K: Kaposi sarcoma M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobronchi...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME APC(de)FGH Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: hemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher dise...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques muscles (superior oblique and inferior oblique) There is some deba...
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Extrinsic muscles of the tongue (mnemonic)

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic: Paris St Germain's Hour Mnemonic Paris St. Germain's Hour P: palatoglossus S: styloglossus G: genioglossus H: hyoglossus
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car Two Zombies Buggered...
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Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
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Fallopian tube segments (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the order of the five segments of the Fallopian tube, from lateral to medial, the direction an ovum would pass following ovulation, is: Four INches Across IS IMpossible Four inches (10 cm) is the approximate length of the Fallopian tube. ​Mnemonic F: fimbriae I...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
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Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonics NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts" (i.e. the midline) It shoul...
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FIGO classification system for the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women of reproductive age (mnemonic)

The FIGO classification system for the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in non-gravid women of reproductive age has a mnemonic at its core 1: PALM-COEIN The "PALM" causes are considered structural and the "COEIN" (coin) causes are considered non-structural. Mnemonic PALM-COEIN P: polyp ...
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Finger clubbing (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember most of the causes of finger clubbing is: CLUBBING Mnemonic C: cardiac subacute infective endocarditis cyanotic heart disease atrial myxoma L: lungs lung abscess empyema cystic fibrosis idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis tuberculosis bronchiectasis mesothel...
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Fingertip lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for fingertip lesions is: GEMS Mnemonic G: glomus tumor  E: epidermoid/enchondroma/subungual exostosis  M: metastasis (almost exclusively from lung) S: sarcoidosis
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Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions (mnemonic)

There is a handy mnemonic for fluid-fluid levels of bone lesions on MRI: GOATS CSF Mnemonic G: giant cell tumor O: osteoblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst T: telangiectatic osteosarcoma S: sarcomas C: chondroblastoma S: solitary bone cyst F: fibroxanthoma
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Focal pulmonary opacity (mnemonic)

Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic: 4 Fs Mnemonic F: 'fection (pulmonary infection) F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction) F: fluid (pulmonary edema) F: f***ed (lung cancer)
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Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
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Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins
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Functional endoscopic sinus surgery preoperative variants (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the potential anatomic variants to report on pre-functional endoscopic sinus surgery studies is 1: CLOSE Mnemonic C: cribriform plate L: lamina papyracea O: Onodi cell S: sphenoid sinus pneumatization E: ethmoidal artery (anterior) See also ostiomeatal complex nar...
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Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics for the difference between a Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation: GRIMUS MUGR (pronounced as mugger) FROG GRUesome MURder Manchester United / Glasgow Rangers It is useful to note that it is the head of the non-fractured bone that is dislocated. Mnemon...
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Generalized colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of generalized colitis is: I3NR Mnemonic I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, cytomegalovirus I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
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Generalized increased bone density (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic for causes of generalized increased bone density / osteosclerosis: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Fun, Happening and Lovely Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: metastasis (osteoblastic) O: osteopetrosis  P: pyknodysostosis; Paget...
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Germ cell tumors (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the differential diagnosis for germ cell tumors is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor)
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Gracile bones (mnemonic)

The causes of gracile bones can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NIMROD Mnemonic NIMROD N: neurofibromatosis I: immobilization/paralysis M: muscular dystrophy, e.g. Duchenne muscular dystrophy R: rheumatoid arthritis (juvenile RA) O: osteogenesis imperfecta D: dysplasia, e.g. Ma...
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Gynecomastia causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for the causes of gynecomastia: CODES Mnemonic C: cirrhosis O: obesity D: digoxin E: estrogen S: spironolactone
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Hemorrhagic intracranial metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for hemorrhagic intracranial metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
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Hair on end sign (mnemonic)

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. I...
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Hand intrinsic muscles innervated by the median nerve (mnemonic)

All the intrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by the ulnar nerve, except four muscles which are supplied by the median nerve and are easily recalled with the mnemonic: FOAL or LOAF Mnemonic F: flexor pollicis brevis O: opponens pollicis A: abductor pollicis brevis L: lateral two lum...
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Hepatic capsular retraction (mnemonic)

The following mnemonics can be used as reminders of the causes of hepatic capsular retraction: CT CHIEF FILTH E Mnemonics CT CHIEF C: cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic) T: treated hepatic metastasis or hepatocellular carcinoma C: cirrhosis with confluent hepatic fibrosis H: hemangioma (es...
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Hyperintense on T1-weighted images (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for hyperintense T1-weighted lesions include: My Best Friend is Pretty Cool 3 Fs and 4 Ms Mnemonic My Best Friend is Pretty Cool: M: melanin B: blood (i.e. methemoglobin in subacute hemorrhage) F: fat and slow flow P: protein; paramagnetic substances (e.g. manganese, copper); p...
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Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (ultrasound measurements mnemonic)

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis can be characterized on ultrasound by the measurements of the hypertrophic muscle. Although the criteria can vary from publication to publication, an easy way to keep in mind the values is using a mnemonic which relies upon remembering the first digits of the number...
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Hypervascular metastases (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the tumors which cause hypervascular metastases is: MR CT PET Mnemonic M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma PET: (pancreatic) neuroendocrine tumor
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
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Inguinal canal walls (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the walls of the inguinal canal is: MALT: (2M, 2A, 2L, 2T) Mnemonic Starting from superior, moving counterclockwise in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles internal oblique Muscle transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses Apone...
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Inguinal region masses (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of an inguinal region mass is: L SHAPE Mnemonic L: lymphadenopathy or lipoma S: saphena varix H: hernia A: aneurysm P: psoas abscess E: ectopic testis
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Innervation of the muscles of the middle ear (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember innervation of the muscles of the middle ear is: S for Stapedius T for Tensor Tympani Mnemonic S: stapedius is supplied by a branch of the facial nerve - the Seventh cranial nerve. It is also the Smallest muscle in the body, and inserts onto the neck of Stapes. ...
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Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up, Coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular n...
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Internal carotid artery segments (mnemonic)

The internal carotid artery segments, according to the Bouthillier classification, can be recalled by the following mnemonic: C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organizing Classification Mnemonic C: cervical segment P: petrous segment L: lacerum segment C: cavernous segment C: clinoid se...
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Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
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Interstitial lung disease without volume loss (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of interstitial lung diseases which do not cause volume loss is: LENT Mnemonic L: lymphangioleiomyomatosis E: eosinophilic granuloma (pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) N: neurofibromatosis type 1 T: tuberous sclerosis
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Intracranial hypotension (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the features of intracranial hypotension is: SEEPS Mnemonic S: subdural fluid collections E: enhancement of the pachymeninges E: engorgement of the venous sinuses P: pituitary hyperemia S: sagging brain See also intracranial hypotension
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Intradural extramedullary spinal tumors (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for intradural extramedullary spinal neoplasms include the following: No More Spinal Masses MnM Mnemonics No More Spinal Masses N: neurofibroma M: meningioma S: schwannoma M: metastasis MnM This simplified mnemonic, as in M&M cand...
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Intramedullary spinal masses (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of intramedullary spinal masses is: I HEAL Mnemonic I: infarction H: hemangioblastoma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma L: lipoma
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Intrinsic muscles of the hand (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to recall the intrinsic muscles of the hand and some of their features include: All For One And One For All PAd DAb FOAL/LOAF Mnemonics All For One And One For All This mnemonic recalls the intrinsic muscles of the hand in their relative palmar anatomical position from lat...
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Layers of the scalp (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the layers of the scalp is: SCALP This is particularly helpful when considering the location of a scalp hematoma. Mnemonic S: skin C: connective tissue A: (galea) aponeurosis L: loose connective tissue P: periosteum
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Layers of the scrotum (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the layers of the scrotum is: Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testes Mnemonic S: skin D: dartos fascia and muscle E: external spermatic fascia C: cremasteric fascia I: internal spermatic fascia T: tunica vaginalis T: tunica albuginea
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Lichen aureus (mnemonic)

The skin changes of lichen aureus can be remembered with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of lichen aureus Mnemonic pigmented purpuric papules in peripheral patches
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Lichen planus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to describe the skin lesions associated with lichen planus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: planar P: polygonal P: pruritic P: purple P: papular
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Low signal masses in synovium (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for masses in the synovium which show low signal on all pulse sequences: PACS Mnemonic P: pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) A: amyloid C: chronic bleeding disorders, e.g. hemophilia S: synovial osteochondromatosis
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Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
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Lucent/lytic rib lesion (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lucent/lytic rib lesions include: FAME FEMALE These are just short lists for the possible causes of a lucent/lytic rib lesion. The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is far longer.  Mnemonics FAME F: fibrous dysplasia A: aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) M: metastasis to bone/multi...
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Lucent/lytic skull lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of lucent/lytic skull lesions is: MEL TORME Mnemonic MEL TORME M: metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/Langerhans cell histiocytosis T: tuberculosis O: osteomyelitis R: radiation M: multiple myeloma E: epidermoid
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Lucent transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the causes of lucent transverse metaphyseal lines include: CAMEL LINING Mnemonics CAMEL C: congenital infection (e.g. TORCHS) A: anatomical variation M: metastatic neuroblastoma E: earlier systemic illness (rickets, scurvy) L: leukemia, lymphoma LINING L: ...
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Lumbar plexus (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the branches of the lumbar plexus are:​ Indecent Ian Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily Itchy Igor Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily (ItcHy - iliohypogastric, IGor - ilioinguinal) IIGLO For aLl IIGLO is used in place of an igloo Mnemonic I: iliohypogastric nerve I: ilioing...
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Lumbar plexus roots (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the roots of the lumbar plexus is: 2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3 Mnemonic 2 nerves from 1 root: ilioinguinal (L1), iliohypogastric (L1) 2 nerves from 2 roots: genitofemoral (L1/L2), lateral femoral cutaneous (L2/L3) 2 nerves from 3 roots: obturator (L2/L3/L4), femo...
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Lung consolidation (mnemonic)

A commonly used mnemonic for recalling the features of consolidation is: A2BC3 Mnemonic A2BC3 A: acinar rosettes A: air bronchogram/alveologram B: bat-wing distribution C: coalescent/confluent ill-defined "fluffy" appearance C: consolidation: diffuse, perihilar/bibasilar, lobar/segmental...
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Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: prostate and pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
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Lytic bone lesion surrounded by marked sclerosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for lytic bone lesions surrounded by marked sclerosis is: BOOST Mnemonic BOOST B: brodie abscess O: osteoblastoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture T: tuberculosis
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Madelung deformity associations (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the associations of Madelung deformity include: HITDOC Mnemonic HITDOC H: Hurler syndrome I: infection T: trauma D: dyschondrosteosis O: osteochondroma (multiple hereditary exostoses)  C: congenital, e.g. Turner syndrome
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Male urethral segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the 4 segments of the male urethra from proximal to distal. Pet My Beautiful Pig Mnemonic P: prostatic M: membranous B: bulbous P: penile Posterior urethra equates to the prostatic and membranous urethras.  Anterior urethra equates to the bulbous and penile ...
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Malunited fractures - most common (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the most common malunited fractures is:  CSI - Miami Mnemonic C: Colles fracture S: scaphoid fracture I: intertrochanteric femoral neck fracture Miami: malunion
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Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularization, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
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Medial ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the medial ankle tendons that pass under the flexor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase To...
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Medial wall of the orbit (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bones forming the medial wall of the orbit is: My Little Eye Sits (in the orbit) Mnemonic M: maxilla (frontal process) L: lacrimal E: ethmoid (lamina papyracea) S: sphenoid (body)
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Medullary nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic used to remember the etiology of medullary nephrocalcinosis is: HAM HOP Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism A: (renal tubular) acidosis M: medullary sponge kidney H: hypercalcemia/hypercalciuria O: oxalosis P: papillary necrosis See also renal papillary necrosis mnemonic ...
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Meniscofemoral ligament (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for how the meniscofemoral ligaments course in relation to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is: the ligament of Wrisberg rides the PCL (i.e. is posterosuperior) the ligament of Humphrey is humped by the PCL (i.e. is anteroinferior)
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Multiple benign lucent bone lesions (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of multiple benign lucent bone lesions can be recalled with the following mnemonics: Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City CHEF JOHN P Mnemonics Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City N: neurofibromatosis (type 1) P: Paget disease O: Ollier dise...
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Multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering multiple lucent/lytic bones lesions is: FEEMHI The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is huge. However, where there are multiple lesions, the potential list of differentials is considerably shorter and FFEMHI, while not exhaustive, is a good place to start. Mnemonic ...
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Muscular attachments of the hyoid bone (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscle attachments of the hyoid bone. The first sentence is for six muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for three muscles attaching inferiorly. Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Christopher, He Didn't See Girls Much. That's Obvio...
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Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugar Lemonade or say Nothing Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis (now known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis) C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: non-Hod...
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Nasopharyngeal masses (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of nasopharyngeal masses is: SAIL Mnemonic S: squamous cell carcinoma A: antrochoanal polyp (extending from sinonasal cavity) I: inverted papilloma (extending from sinonasal cavity) L: lymphoma
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (mnemonic)

Clinical diagnosis requires the presence of at least two criteria to confirm the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) 1. These diagnostic criteria can be remembered with the mnemonic: CAFE SPOT Mnemonic C: café-au-lait spots (greater than six seen during one year) A: axillary or ingui...
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Neurofibromatosis type 2 (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are: MISME rule of 2s Mnemonics MISME M: multiple I: inherited S: schwannomas M: meningiomas and E: ependymomas In fact, labeling this disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 is a misnomer, because neurofibromas are not a part of its cons...
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Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary edema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary ede...
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Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic: wet, wacky, wobbly Mnemonic wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance
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Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: postviral/postatypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/hematopoietic stem cell transplan...
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Esophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an esophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
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Order of structures in the porta hepatis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the order of structures in the porta hepatis from anterior to posterior is: DAVE Mnemonic D: ducts (right and left hepatic duct branches) A: arteries (right and left hepatic artery branches) V: vein (portal vein) E: epiploic foramen (of Winslow)
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Osteoarthritis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main signs of osteoarthritis on plain radiography is: LOSS Mnemonic L: loss of joint space O: osteophytes S: subchondral cysts S: subchondral sclerosis Mnemonics for Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes: Heberden- Distal interphalangeal joint (H-D) (High Definitio...
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Osteochondroma malignant transformation (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1 GLAD PaST Mnemonic G: growth after skeletal maturity L: lucency (new) A: additional scintigraphic activity D: destruction (cortical) P: pain after ...
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Osteolysis of distal clavicle (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic when you see tapered osteolysis of the distal clavicle is:  SHIRT Pocket Mnemonic S: scleroderma H: hyperparathyroidism  I: infection (osteomyelitis)  R: rheumatoid arthritis T: trauma  P: progeria
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Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
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Pediatric posterior fossa tumors (mnemonic)

Tumors of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
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Paralytic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of paralytic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic The classic "5 Ps" are: P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition However, there are a few further Ps that can be include...
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Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: organizing pneumonia (including COP) U: usual interstitial pneumonit...
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Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumors (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumor See also permeative process in bone pseudopermeative proce...
Article

Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
Article

Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1,2 MOuSTACHE Mnemonics SATCHMO S: sarcoid, sellar tumor (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), ...
Article

Pneumatosis intestinalis (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the causes of pneumatosis intestinalis is: ChIPS Mnemonic C: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I:  ischemia P: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis S: scleroderma/steroids
Article

Pneumobilia vs portal venous gas (mnemonic)

Pneumobilia and portal venous gas are two causes of an intrahepatic branching gas pattern. The two have different causes and implications and need to be distinguished on imaging, and a simple mnemonic can help. Mnemonic A simple mnemonic for remembering the difference in appearance is: portal...
Article

Popliteal fossa anatomy (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember popliteal fossa anatomy (medial-to-lateral arrangement) is: Serve And Volley Next Ball Mnemonic S: semimembranosus and semitendinosus (superior medial border) A: artery (popliteal artery) V: vein (popliteal vein) N: nerve (tibial nerve) B: biceps femoris (su...

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