HALF PRICE OFFER ENDS TODAY! New Elbow X-ray Interpretation Course by Andrew Murphy REGISTER NOW

Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

277 results found
Article

Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugar Lemonade or say Nothing Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis (now known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis) C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy N: non-Hodgkin T-c...
Article

Nasopharyngeal masses (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of nasopharyngeal masses is: SAIL Mnemonic S: squamous cell carcinoma A: antrochoanal polyp (extending from sinonasal cavity) I: inverted papilloma (extending from sinonasal cavity) L: lymphoma
Article

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (mnemonic)

Clinical diagnosis requires the presence of at least two criteria to confirm the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) 1. These diagnostic criteria can be remembered with the mnemonic: CAFE SPOT Mnemonic C: café-au-lait spots (greater than six seen during one year) A: axillary or ingui...
Article

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are: MISME rule of 2s Mnemonics MISME M: multiple I: inherited S: schwannomas M: meningiomas and E: ependymomas In fact, labeling this disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 is a misnomer, because neurofibromas are not a part of its cons...
Article

Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary edema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary ede...
Article

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with the following mnemonics: wet, wacky, wobbly AID Mnemonics wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance   A: ataxic gait I: incontinence D: dementia
Article

Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
Article

Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: postviral/postatypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/hematopoietic stem cell transplan...
Article

Esophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an esophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
Article

Order of structures in the porta hepatis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the order of structures in the porta hepatis from anterior to posterior is: DAVE Mnemonic D: ducts (right and left hepatic duct branches) A: arteries (right and left hepatic artery branches) V: vein (portal vein) E: epiploic foramen (of Winslow)
Article

Osteoarthritis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main signs of osteoarthritis on plain radiography is: LOSS Mnemonic L: loss of joint space O: osteophytes S: subchondral cysts S: subchondral sclerosis Mnemonics for Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes: Heberden- Distal interphalangeal joint (H-D) (High Definitio...
Article

Osteochondroma malignant transformation (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1: GLAD PaST Mnemonic G: growth after skeletal maturity L: lucency (new) A: additional scintigraphic activity D: destruction (cortical) P: pain after...
Article

Osteolysis of distal clavicle (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic when you see tapered osteolysis of the distal clavicle is:  SHIRT Pocket Mnemonic S: scleroderma H: hyperparathyroidism  I: infection (osteomyelitis)  R: rheumatoid arthritis T: trauma  P: progeria
Article

Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
Article

Pediatric posterior fossa tumors (mnemonic)

Tumors of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
Article

Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: organizing pneumonia (including COP) U: usual interstitial pneumonit...
Article

Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumors (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumor See also permeative process in bone pseudopermeative proce...
Article

Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
Article

Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses (in addition to macroadenoma) are: SATCHMO 1,2 MOuSTACHE SOME ACTH HORMONE Mnemonics SATCHMO S: sarcoid A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft ...
Article

Pneumatosis intestinalis (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the causes of pneumatosis intestinalis is: ChIPS Mnemonic C: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I:  ischemia P: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis S: scleroderma/steroids
Article

Pneumobilia vs portal venous gas (mnemonic)

Pneumobilia and portal venous gas are two causes of an intrahepatic branching gas pattern. The two have different causes and implications and need to be distinguished on imaging, and a simple mnemonic can help. Mnemonic A simple mnemonic for remembering the difference in appearance is: portal...
Article

Popliteal fossa anatomy (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember popliteal fossa anatomy (medial-to-lateral arrangement) is: Serve And Volley Next Ball Mnemonic S: semimembranosus and semitendinosus (superomedial border) A: artery (popliteal artery) V: vein (popliteal vein) N: nerve (tibial nerve) B: biceps femoris (super...
Article

Posterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

Mnemonics that can be used to remember the anatomy of the ankle tendons from anterior to posterior as they pass posteriorly to the medial malleolus of the tibia under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel include: Tom, Dick and Harry Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry Mnemonic Tom, Dick ...
Article

Posterior vertebral element lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for posterior vertebral element lesions is: GO TAPE Mnemonic G: giant cell tumor  O: osteoid osteoma / osteoblastoma T: tuberculosis A: aneurysmal bone cyst P: Paget disease E: eosinophilic granuloma
Article

Posterior vertebral scalloping (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses for posterior vertebral scalloping is: SALMON Mnemonic S: spinal cord tumor (e.g. astrocytoma, ependymoma, schwannoma) A: achondroplasia, acromegaly L: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (and other connective tissue disorders) M: Marfan's syndrome...
Article

Post renal transplant fluid collections (mnemonic)

Following renal transplant, different perinephric fluid collections tend to present at different times in the postoperative period. These can be remembered in order using the mnemonic: HEAL Mnemonic H: hematoma (immediate) E: encapsulated urine collections/urinomas (1-2 weeks) A: abscess (3...
Article

Potter syndrome (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the common clinical features of Potter syndrome is: POTTER Mnemonic P: pulmonary hypoplasia O: oligohydramnios T: twisted skin (wrinkly skin) T: twisted face (Potter facies: low set ears, retrognathia, hypertelorism) E: extremity deformities (limb deformitie...
Article

Primary and secondary hemochromatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of hemochromatosis is: P's for primary and S's for secondary Mnemonic Primary hemochromatosis P: parenchymal (liver, myocardium, thyroid and synovium) P: pancreas P: pituitary P: poor liver (organ dysfunction and malignancy) Secondary hemo...
Article

Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MAP Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior i...
Article

Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
Article

Protrusio acetabuli (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the causes of protrusio acetabuli include: PROTrusio acetabuli My PROTRUSIO Mnemonics PROTrusio acetabuli Includes the most common causes P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis (and other arthritides such as osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idio...
Article

Pubic symphysis widening (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for widening of the pubic symphysis is: EPOCH Mnemonic E: bladder exstrophy P: prune belly syndrome O: osteogenesis imperfecta C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism Note that this mnemonic does not include pubic diastasis secondary to trauma, a common cause of pubic sy...
Article

Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  lung cancer: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  granulomatosis with polyangiitis rheumatoid ar...
Article

Pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms is: OBALLS Mnemonic OBALLS O: organizing pneumonia B: bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) A: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) L: lymphoma L: lipoid pneumonia S: sarcoidosis Another consideration i...
Article

Radiographic features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonics: 5 Ds or 6 Ds (separating disorganization and dislocation) Mnemonic Density change (subchondral osteopenia or sclerosis) Destruction (osseous fragmentation and resorption) Debris (intra-articula...
Article

Radiolucent stones (mnemonic)

Lucent stones in the urinary tract can be remembered using this  mnemonic : ICU Mnemonic I: indinavir stones C: cystine stones U: uric acid stones
Article

Renal papillary necrosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of renal papillary necrosis are plentiful and include: NSAID POSTCARDS AD SPORT C: a list of causes in decreasing order of incidence DINASOR Mnemonics NSAID Most common causes: N: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) S: sickle cell disease A: acetamin...
Article

Retroperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember which organs are retroperitoneal is: SAD PUCKER Mnemonic S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part) P: pancreas (except tail) U: ureters C: colon (ascending and descending) K: kidneys E: (o)esophagus R: rectum
Article

Rickets (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of rickets is: RICKETS Mnemonic R: reaction of the periosteum I: indistinct cortex C: coarse trabeculation K: knees, wrists and ankles mainly E: epiphyseal plates widened and irregular  T: tremendous metaphysis S: spur (metaphyseal)​
Article

Right-to-left shunt (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses associated with right-to-left cardiovascular shunts is: 1-5 Mnemonic 1: a combination vessel; truncus arteriosus 2: number of arteries involved; transposition of the great arteries 3: "tri-" means 3, the number of leaflets involved; t...
Article

Rotator cuff (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the muscles of the rotator cuff are: SITS TISS Mnemonic S: supraspinatus I: infraspinatus T: teres minor S: subscapularis With 'SITS', recalling this order also helps remember the insertions of these muscles, with the order being superior, middle, and inferior facets ...
Article

Rule of 10s (Wilms tumor)

Wilms tumor classically follows a "rule of 10s" 1,2: up to 10% may have unfavorable histology 10% are bilateral 10% have vascular invasion 10% have calcifications on CT 10% have pulmonary metastases at presentation See also Wilms tumor
Article

Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for the features of Meckel diverticulum, although the figures do have a broad range: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5 cm) long are 2 feet (60 cm) from the ileocecal valve 2/3 have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present ...
Article

Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
Article

Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
Article

Sacral plexus branches (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is: Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension) Mnemonic Six Ps nerve to piriformis (S1-S2) perforating cutane...
Article

Salter-Harris fracture classification (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the Salter-Harris classification system are: SALTR SMACK Fortunately, this is also the order of prognosis (from best to worse) Mnemonics SALTR S: slipped (type I) A: above or away from joint (type II) L: lower (type III) T: through or transverse or toget...
Article

Sclerotic bone metastasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering which tumors may lead to sclerotic bone metastases is: 6 Bees Lick Pollen Mnemonic B: bone (osteogenic carcinoma) B: breast  B: bronchus (carcinoid) B: bladder (TCC) B: brain (medulloblastoma) B: bowel (mucinous) L: lymphoma P: prostate
Article

Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows: SMALL P (feel free to make the "P" into its own word) Sometimes My Animals Love Petting Mnemonics S: superior (B6)  M: medial basal (B7) A: anteri...
Article

Seronegative spondyloarthritis (mnemonic)

 A useful mnemonic to remember the subgroups of seronegative spondyloarthritides is:  PEARU Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis E: enteropathic arthritis (i.e. extraintestinal manifestation of IBD) A: ankylosing spondylitis R: reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome) U: undifferentiated spondyloa...
Article

Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC Pen Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism
Article

Sinonasal polyposis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of sinonasal polyposis is:  KIC AAAN Mnemonic K: Kartagener syndrome I: infectious rhinosinusitis  C: cystic fibrosis                         A: aspirin sensitivity A: allergic fungal sinusitis  A: asthma  N: nickel exposure
Article

Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paresthesia P: peeling
Article

Skull vault bones (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the six skull vault bones is: STEP OF 6 Mnemonic S: sphenoid T: temporal E: ethmoid P: parietal O: occipital F: frontal 6: number of skull bones
Article

Small placenta (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of small placenta is: PCI 2 It can be read as percutaneous coronary intervention i.e. PCI 2 Mnemonic P: pre-eclampsia C: chromosomal anomaly e.g. Down syndrome I: intrauterine infection I: intrauterine growth retardation
Article

Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonics My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue diseases T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T:...
Article

Soft tissue nodules in arthropathy (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for soft tissue nodules in arthropathy are: RAGS "-oids" Mnemonics RAGS R: rheumatoid arthritis A: amyloid G: gout S: sarcoidosis "-oids" The aforementioned differential diagnoses end in "-oid": rheumat-oid amyl-oid sarc-oid g...
Article

Solitary filling defect in ureters (mnemonic)

Solitary filling defect with a ureter, as seen on conventional IVU or CT IVU has a few differentials which can be remembered using this mnemonic: CUPS MET Mnemonic C: clot U: ureteric stone P: polyp S: sloughed papilla   M: metastasis E: endometriosis T: tuberculosis, transitional cell...
Article

Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...
Article

Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 fascias, 3 other things Mnemonics Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level P: pampiniform plexus D: ductus deferens C: cremasteric artery ...
Article

Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumor (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, hematoma (e.g. postoperative, post biops...
Article

Sternoclavicular sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for sternoclavicular sclerosis include: STOP SPOT Mnemonic S: SAPHO syndrome T: traumatic osteolysis O: osteomyelitis/osteosarcoma P: Paget disease
Article

Sturge-Weber syndrome (mnemonic)

Some key findings pertaining to Sturge-Weber syndrome may be recalled using the following mnemonic: STURGE CAPS Mnemonic S: seizures, sporadic T: tram track gyriform calcification; trigeminal territory port-wine stain U: unilateral weakness (hemiparesis - contralateral to facial nevus) R: ...
Article

Subchondral cysts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of subchondral cysts is: COORS Mnemonic C: CPPD  O: osteoarthritis  O: osteonecrosis R: rheumatoid arthritis S: synovial-based tumors See also Geode
Article

Subclavian artery branches (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the branches of the subclavian artery include: Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily VIT C, D (as in vitamins C and D) Mnemonics Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily V: vertebral artery I: inte...
Article

Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
Article

Superior orbital fissure (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for all structures passing through the superior orbital fissure (superior to inferior) include: Long Fissures Seem To Store Only Nerves, Instead Of Arteries, Including Ophthalmic Veins Mnemonics for the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure include: Lazy French Tarts Si...
Article

Surgically-created cardiac shunts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for surgically-created cardiac shunts for congenital heart disease is: Great Flow Really Would Be Perfect​ The mnemonic is ordered by the position of the shunt antegrade to normal blood flow through the heart, proceeding from the systemic venous system into the right heart, and then...
Article

Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that prompts the user to consider various types of pathologies systematically. A surgical sieve does not need to be a mnemonic 2, although many find it easier to remember it when a mnemonic is used. Various versions of this mnemonic exist...
Article

T2 hyperintense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is: LINT Mnemonic L: lymphoma I: ischemia N: neurodegenerative conditions T: toxins See also For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article. 
Article

Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorizing the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
Article

Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
Article

Tendons of pes anserinus (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the three conjoined tendons that make up the pes anserinus include: Say Grace before Tea SerGeanT Sui Gas Supply Mnemonics From anterior to posterior, the tendons are: Say Grace before Tea S: sartorius G: gracilis T: semitendinosus SerGeanT S: sartorius G: g...
Article

Tetralogy of fallot (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the underlying anatomic defects in tetralogy of Fallot is: PROVe Mnemonic P: pulmonary stenosis R: right ventricular hypertrophy O: overriding aorta V: ventricular septal defect
Article

Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
Article

Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
Article

Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
Article

Toxic leukoencephalopathy (mnemonic)

Toxic leukoencephalopathy has myriad causes, the more common of which can be remembered with an acronymic mnemonic: CHOICES​ 1 See the main article for details: toxic leukoencephalopathy. Mnemonic C: chemotherapy H: heroin O: other opioids I: immunosuppressant medication or imidazole C: ...
Article

Trauma CT thorax review areas (mnemonic)

Trauma CT thorax review areas are useful to reduce the potential for error, which is higher than usual given the larger number of images requiring review, and the often present time pressures and the potential presence of numerous concurrent injuries (see CT polytrauma).  Using some standard re...
Article

Tributaries of the inferior vena cava (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the tributaries of the inferior vena cava is: I Like To Rise So High Mnemonic I: common iliac veins L: lumbar veins T: right testicular (gonadal) vein R: renal veins S: suprarenal veins H: hepatic veins
Article

Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic S: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) R: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve) O: fora...
Article

Tuberous sclerosis (mnemonic)

The findings of tuberous sclerosis can be remembered with the help of the following mnemonic: HAMARTOMAS Mnemonic H: hamartomas (CNS, retinal and skin) A: angiofibroma (facial) or adenoma sebaceum M: mitral regurgitation A: ash-leaf spots R: rhabdomyoma (cardiac) T: tubers (cortical, sub...
Article

Tumors that metastasize to bone (mnemonic)

Tumors that metastasize to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "lead kettle" spelled PBKTL (lead is Pb on the Periodic Table). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers th...
Article

Typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma (mnemonic)

The typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma can be recalled using the mnemonic: CRAB Mnemonic C: hypercalcemia R: renal failure A: anemia B: bone disease The CRAB mnemonic can help differentiate multiple myeloma from its precursor diseases - monoclonal gammopathy of undetermin...
Article

Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
Article

Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...
Article

Vertebra plana (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of vertebra plana include: I MELT FETISH Mnemonics I MELT I: infection M: metastasis/myeloma E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/leukemia T: trauma/tuberculosis FETISH F: fracture (trauma) E: eosinophilic granuloma T: tumor (e.g. metastases, myelom...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic H: hemangioblastoma I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: pheochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma) E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma), endolymphati...
Article

Wernicke's Korsakoff (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall some of the important features of Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome is: COMBAT Mnemonic C: confusion, confabulatory amnesia O: ophthalmoplegia M: mamillary bodies B: B1(vitamin), bariatric surgery A: alcoholics T: thalami, tectal plate, third ventricle
Article

Wormian bones (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember ten of the numerous conditions associated with Wormian bones is: PORKCHOPS Mnemonic P: pyknodysostosis O: osteogenesis imperfecta R: rickets K: kinky hair syndrome C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism/hypophosphatasia O: otopalatodigital syndrome P: prim...
Article

Z deformity (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the features of Z deformity of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis is: WRD UPP Mnemonic Consider mnemonic to be pronounced "word up" to help remember it. WR: wrist radial deviation  DU: digits ulnar deviation PP: proximal phalanges palmar subluxation See also Z deform...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.