Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

219 results found
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Fallopian tube segments (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the order of the 5 segments of the Fallopian tube, from lateral to medial, the direction an ovum would pass following ovulation, is: Four INches Across IS IMpossible Four inches (10 cm) is the approximate length of the Fallopian tube. ​Mnemonic F: fimbriae IN: ...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
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Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C - capitellum R - radial head I - internal epicondyle T - trochlea O - olecranon E - external ...
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Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artefacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
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Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy and early learnt mnemonic for recalling some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids  M: mumps (and other infections) / malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/spider bites H: hyperlip...
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Carpal tunnel syndrome causes (mnemonic)

Carpal tunnel syndrome results from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Its causes are numerous and varied. A useful mnemonic to remember the various pathologies is MEDIAN TRAP: M: myxoedema E: (o)edema D: diabetes mellitus I: idiopathic A: acromegaly N: neoplasm ​T...
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (vaginal in female...
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta (type II) D: descending aorta (type III)
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Layers of the scrotum (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the layers of the scrotum is: Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testes Mnemonic S: skin D: dartos fascia and muscle E: external spermatic fascia C: cremasteric fascia I: internal spermatic fascia T: tunica vaginalis T: tunica albuginea
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Pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms

A helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms is: OBALLS Mnemonic OBALLS O: organising pneumonia B: bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) A: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) L: lymphoma L: lipoid pneumonia S: sarcoidosis Another consideration i...
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Renal papillary necrosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of renal papillary necrosis are plentiful and include: NSAID postcards AD SPORT C The latter is a list of causes in order of incidence. Mnemonics NSAID Most common causes: N: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) S: sickle cell disease A: acetaminophen...
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Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP  lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...
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Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: organizing pneumonia (including COP) U: usual interstitial pneumonit...
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Bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis (Williams-Campbell syndrome) A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (gra...
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Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  bronchogenic carcinoma: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  granulomatosis with polyangiitis rh...
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Facial nerve branches (mnemonic)

There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include: Tall Zulus Bear Many Children Two Zulus Bit My Cat Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx Ten Zebras Buggered My Car To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
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Cortical nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for common causes of cortical nephrocalcinosis is: COAG Mnemonic C: cortical necrosis O: oxalosis A: Alport syndrome G: (chronic) glomerulonephritis See also nephrocalcinosis cortical nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis medullary nephrocalcinosis mnemonic
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, fr...
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Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugarwater Lemonade or say Nothing  Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis (now known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis) C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: no...
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Functional endoscopic sinus surgery preoperative variants (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the variants to report on pre-functional endoscopic sinus surgery studies is 1: CLOSE Mnemonic Cribriform plate Lamina papyracea Onodi cell Sphenoid sinus pneumatisation Ethmoidal artery (anterior) See also ostiomeatal complex narrowing due to anatomical variations
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME APC(de)FGH Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher dis...
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Male urethral segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the 4 segments of the male urethra from proximal to distal. Pet My Beautiful Pig P: prostatic M: membranous B: bulbous P: penile Posterior urethra equates to the prostatic and membranous urethras.  Anterior urethra equates to the bulbous and penile urethras. ...
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Superior orbital fissure nerves (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include: Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult Live Free To See No Insult At All Mnemonics Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  The order of the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure from superio...
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Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I to CN XII: On ol...
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Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things Mnemonic Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level P: pampiniform plexus D: ductus deferens C: cremasteric artery T: testicul...
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Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
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Muscular attachments of the hyoid bone (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscle attachments of the hyoid bone. The first sentence is for six muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for three muscles attaching inferiorly. Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Christopher, He Didn't See Girls Much. That's Obvio...
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Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of the bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from lateral to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard She Looks Too Pretty Try To Cat...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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Ejaculatory pathway of sperm (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the ejaculatory pathway of sperm is: SEVEN UP Mnemonic S: seminiferous tubules of the testes E: epididymis V: vas (ductus) deferens E: ejaculatory duct N: nothing U: urethra P: penis
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Benign lytic bone lesions that rarely occur in patients over 30 (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember five benign lytic lesions that rarely occur in patients over 30 years of age.  SCAN Everything Mnemonic S - simple bone cyst C - chondroblastoma A - aneurysmal bone cyst N - non-ossifying fibroma E - eosinophilic granuloma In a patient older than 30 years of age th...
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Contents of the cubital fossa (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the contents of the cubital fossa is, from medial to lateral: My Brother Throws Rad Parties Mnemonic M: median nerve B: brachial artery T: tendon of biceps R: radial nerve P: posterior interosseous branch of radial nerve
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Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
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Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (thoracoacromial) artery (from 2nd part) L: lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part) S: subsca...
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Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that corresponds to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: late...
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Lung consolidation (mnemonic)

A commonly used mnemonic for recalling the features of consolidation is: A2BC3 Mnemonic A2BC3 A: acinar rosettes A: air bronchogram/alveologram B: bat-wing distribution C: coalescent/confluent ill-defined "fluffy" appearance C: consolidation: diffuse, perihilar/bibasilar, lobar/segmental...
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Causes of air trapping on high-resolution CT chest (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of air trapping on HRCT chest is: Once with HSBC, you are trapped with HSBC H: hypersensitivity pneumonitisS: sarcoidosisB: bronchiolitis obliteransC: cystic fibrosis / bronchiectasis
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Main differentials in musculoskeletal imaging

Here is a list of some of the most useful differential diagnoses in musculoskeletal imaging. By process lucent/lytic bone lesions (FEGNOMASHIC) multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions benign lytic bone lesions in patients under 30 diffuse bony sclerosis permeative process in bone pseudo-permea...
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Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
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Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the extensor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Di...
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Rickets (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of rickets is: RICKETS Mnemonic Reaction of the periosteum Indistinct cortex Coarse trabeculation Knees, wrists and ankles mainly Epiphyseal plates widened and irregular  Tremendous metaphysis Spur (metaphyseal)​
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Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers  or Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Red Tits Don't Come Back (red-headed ti...
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Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
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Tendons of pes anserinus (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the three conjoined tendons that make up the pes anserinus include: Say Grace before Tea SerGeanT  Mnemonics From anterior to posterior, the tendons are: Say Grace before Tea S: sartorius G: gracilis T: semitendinosus SerGeanT S: sartorius G: gracilis T: sem...
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Branches of ophthalmic artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the ophthalmic artery is: DR MCLESSI Mnemonic D: dorsal nasal artery R: (central) retinal artery M: muscular artery C: ciliary arteries (long, short and anterior) L: lacrimal artery E: ethmoidal arteries (anterior and posterior) S: supraorbi...
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Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonic NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts"...
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Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
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Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
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Brachial plexus terminal branches (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus terminal branches includes: Most Alcoholics Must Really Urinate Where the first letter of each word represents the terminal branches of the brachial plexus:M: musculocutaneous nerveA: axillary nerveM: median nerveR: radial nerveU: ulnar nerve
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Inguinal canal walls (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember inguinal canal walls is: MALT (2M, 2A, 2L, 2T) Mnemonic Starting from superior, moving anticlockwise in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles internal oblique Muscle transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses Aponeurosis of exter...
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Bone within a bone appearance (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the possible aetiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is: GHOST DRAGON Mnemonic G: growth arrest lines H: heavy metal, hypoparathryoid, hypothyroid O: osteopetrosis S: sickle cell anaemia, scurvy, syphilis T: thalassamia, tuberculosis D: disease of Caf...
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Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
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Paralytic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of paralytic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic The classic "5 Ps" are: P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition However, there are a few further Ps that can be include...
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Hair on end sign (mnemonic)

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. I...
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Causes of dementia (mnemonic)

The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic: VANISHED Mnemonic V: vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate A: autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia I: infection: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, herpes simplex enc...
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Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA Calming voices make intra operative surgery pleasurable and almost memorable.  Mnemonic A VIP'S COMMA A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterio...
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T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
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Hepatic capsular retraction (mnemonic)

The following mnemonics can be used as reminders of the causes of hepatic capsular retraction: CT CHIEF FILTH E Mnemonics CT CHIEF C: cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic) T: treated hepatic metastasis or hepatocellular carcinoma C: cirrhosis with confluent hepatic fibrosis H: haemangioma (e...
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Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1-2 MOuSTACHE Mnemonic SATCHMO S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), ...
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Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic: wet, wacky, wobbly Mnemonic wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance
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Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
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Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rectu...
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Cortically-based brain tumours (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumours is: PDOG Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
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Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) Mnemonics R: rostrum G: genu B: body (trunk) S: splenium
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Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: a...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more commo...
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Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumour (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, haematoma (e.g. postoperative, post bio...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
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Causes of breast oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of breast oedema can be remembered using the mnemonic: VIRALS Mnemonic V: venous obstruction I: inflammatory breast cancer R: radiotherapy A: abscess L: lymphatic obstruction S: surgery (recent)
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Breast lesion localisation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localisation when given a set of mammograms (MLO and CC) is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localise the lesion into the quadrant (e.g. upper, outer) to make ultrasound correlation easier. Mnemonic muffins rise: if the lesion is located me...
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Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
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Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
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Pneumatosis intestinalis (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the causes of pneumatosis intestinalis is: ChIPS Mnemonic C: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I:  ischaemia P: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis S: scleroderma/steroids
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Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
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Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
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Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that helps, especially when under the pressure of the exam situation. Differentials from the sections of the sieve can be considered in turn, helping to extend the list in a structured way. They include: 5I 3-Scotland VITAMIN VITAMIN C...
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Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
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Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
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Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC PEN Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseduohypoparathyroidism
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Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5cm) long are 2 feet (60cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  and...
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Pulmonary upper zone involvement (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for pulmonary predominantly upper zone involvement (infiltration/shadowing/fibrosis) causes include: BREASTS Mnemonic B: berylliosis R: radiation E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis A: ankylosing spondylitis / aspergillus  S: sarcoidosis T: tuberculosis S: silicosis
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Pneumobilia vs portal venous gas (mnemonic)

Pneumobilia and portal venous gas are two causes of an intrahepatic branching gas pattern. The two have different causes and implications and need to be distinguished on imaging. Mnemonic A simple mnemonic for remembering the difference in appearance is: portal venous gas: peripheral common ...
Article

Osteosclerosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of osteosclerosis is: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: myelofibrosis O: osteopetrosis P: pyknodysostosis M: metastases M: mastocytosis P: Paget disease A: a...
Article

Osteochondroma malignant transformation (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1 GLAD PaST Mnemonic G: growth after skeletal maturity L: lucency (new) A: additional scintigraphic activity D: destruction (cortical) P: pain after ...
Article

Osteoarthritis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main signs of osteoarthritis on plain radiography include: LOSS Mnemonic L: loss of joint space O: osteophytes S: subchondral cysts S: subchondral sclerosis mnemonic for Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes Heberden- Distal interphalangeal joint (H-D) (High Defini...
Article

Pubic symphysis widening (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for widening of the pubic symphysis is: EPOCH Mnemonic EPOCH E: bladder exstrophy P: prune belly syndrome O: osteogenesis imperfecta C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism Note that this mnemonic does not include pubic diastasis secondary to trauma, a common cause of p...
Article

Protrusio acetabuli (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the causes of protrusio acetabuli include: PROTrusio acetabuli My PROTRUSIO Mnemonics PROTrusio acetabuli Includes the most common causes P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis (and other arthritides such as osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idio...
Article

Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...

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