Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

212 results found
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Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
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Brachial plexus root subdivisions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus root subdivisions include: Red Tits Don't Come Back Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers  or Rad Techs Drink Cold Beer Reach To Drink Cold Beer Read That Damn Cadaver Book Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch) Where the fir...
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Brachial plexus terminal branches (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for brachial plexus terminal branches includes: Most Alcoholics Must Really Urinate Where the first letter of each word represents the terminal branches of the brachial plexus:M: musculocutaneous nerveA: axillary nerveM: median nerveR: radial nerveU: ulnar nerve
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Inguinal canal walls (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember inguinal canal walls is: MALT (2M, 2A, 2L, 2T) Mnemonic Starting from superior, moving anticlockwise in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles internal oblique Muscle transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses Aponeurosis of exter...
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Bone within a bone appearance (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the possible aetiologies of a bone within a bone appearance is: GHOST DRAGON Mnemonic G: growth arrest lines H: heavy metal, hypoparathryoid, hypothyroid O: osteopetrosis S: sickle cell anaemia, scurvy, syphilis T: thalassamia, tuberculosis D: disease of Caf...
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Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
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Paralytic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of paralytic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic The classic "5 Ps" are: P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition However, there are a few further Ps that can be include...
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Hair on end sign (mnemonic)

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. I...
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Causes of dementia (mnemonic)

The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic: VANISHED Mnemonic V: vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate A: autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia I: infection: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, herpes simplex enc...
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Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: SET CAP  lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics SET CAP S: silicosis/sarcoidosis E: EG/extrinsic allergic alv...
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Branches of internal carotid artery (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIP'S COMMA Calming voices make intra operative surgery pleasurable and almost memorable.  Mnemonic A VIP'S COMMA A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian artery (C2) I: inferolateral trunk (C4) P: posterio...
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T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
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Hepatic capsular retraction (mnemonic)

The following mnemonics can be used as reminders of the causes of hepatic capsular retraction: CT CHIEF FILTH E Mnemonics CT CHIEF C: cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic) T: treated hepatic metastasis or hepatocellular carcinoma C: cirrhosis with confluent hepatic fibrosis H: haemangioma (e...
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Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1-2 MOuSTACHE Mnemonic SATCHMO S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), ...
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Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic: wet, wacky, wobbly Mnemonic wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance
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Facial nerve segments (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics for remembering the segments of the facial nerve include: I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1 I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve I Must Learn To Make (facial) Expressions Mnemonics ...
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Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rectu...
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Cortically-based brain tumours (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumours is: PDOG Mnemonic P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET); desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma O: oligodendroglioma G: ganglioglioma
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Corpus callosum parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is: Remember Genu Before Splenium Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically) Mnemonics R: rostrum G: genu B: body (trunk) S: splenium
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Corpus callosum hyperintensity (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is: I MADE A PHD Mnemonic I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis, varicella, rotavirus, HSV)  M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A: AIDS encephalopathy D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury E: epilepsy  A: a...
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Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more commo...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, fr...
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Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumour (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, haematoma (e.g. postoperative, post bio...
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Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
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Acute bacterial meningitis complications (mnemonic)

The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE Mnemonic H: hydrocephalus A: abscess C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion T: thrombosis I: infarct V: ventriculitis/vasculopathy E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma Related articles...
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Causes of breast oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of breast oedema can be remembered using the mnemonic: VIRALS Mnemonic V: venous obstruction I: inflammatory breast cancer R: radiotherapy A: abscess L: lymphatic obstruction S: surgery (recent)
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Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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Breast lesion localisation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help remember breast lesion localisation when given a set of mammograms (MLO and CC) is: muffins rise and lead falls This can help localise the lesion into the quadrant (e.g. upper, outer) to make ultrasound correlation easier. Mnemonic muffins rise: if the lesion is located me...
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Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
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Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
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Axillary artery branches (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the axillary artery are: S AL SAP Screw the lawyer, save a patient! Mnemonics S AL SAP S: superior thoracic artery (from 1st part) A: acromiothoracic (thoracoacromial) artery (from 2nd part) L: lateral thoracic artery (from 2nd part) S: subsca...
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Pneumatosis intestinalis (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the causes of pneumatosis intestinalis is: ChIPS Mnemonic C: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I:  ischaemia P: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis S: scleroderma/steroids
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Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
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Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
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Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that helps, especially when under the pressure of the exam situation. Differentials from the sections of the sieve can be considered in turn, helping to extend the list in a structured way. They include: 5I 3-Scotland VITAMIN VITAMIN C...
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Superior orbital fissure nerves (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include: Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult Live Free To See No Insult At All Mnemonics Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  The order of the nerves passing t...
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Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life Protection Doesn't Contribute To A Good Sex Life 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things Mnemonic Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life Protection Doesn't Contribute To A Good Sex L...
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Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
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Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
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Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC PEN Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseduohypoparathyroidism
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Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5cm) long are 2 feet (60cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  and...
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Muscular attachments of the hyoid bone (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscle attachments of the hyoid bone. The first sentence is for six muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for three muscles attaching inferiorly. Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Christopher, He Didn't Screw Girls Much. That's Obv...
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Pulmonary upper zone involvement (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for pulmonary predominantly upper zone involvement (infiltration/shadowing/fibrosis) causes include: BREASTS Mnemonic B: berylliosis R: radiation E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis A: ankylosing spondylitis / aspergillus  S: sarcoidosis T: tuberculosis S: silicosis
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Pneumobilia vs portal venous gas (mnemonic)

Pneumobilia and portal venous gas are two causes of an intrahepatic branching gas pattern. The two have different causes and implications and need to be distinguished on imaging. Mnemonic A simple mnemonic for remembering the difference in appearance is: portal venous gas: peripheral common ...
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Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) U: usual interstitial pneumon...
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Osteosclerosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of osteosclerosis is: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: myelofibrosis O: osteopetrosis P: pyknodysostosis M: metastases M: mastocytosis P: Paget disease A: a...
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Osteochondroma malignant transformation (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1 GLAD PaST Mnemonic G: growth after skeletal maturity L: lucency (new) A: additional scintigraphic activity D: destruction (cortical) P: pain after ...
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Osteoarthritis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main signs of osteoarthritis on plain radiography include: LOSS Mnemonic L: loss of joint space O: osteophytes S: subchondral cysts S: subchondral sclerosis mnemonic for Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes Heberden- Distal interphalangeal joint (H-D) (High Defini...
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Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  bronchogenic carcinoma: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  Wegener granulomatosis (granulomatos...
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Pubic symphysis widening (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for widening of the pubic symphysis is: EPOCH Mnemonic EPOCH E: bladder exstrophy P: prune belly syndrome O: osteogenesis imperfecta C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism Note that this mnemonic does not include pubic diastasis secondary to trauma, a common cause of p...
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Protrusio acetabuli (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the causes of protrusio acetabuli include: PROTrusio acetabuli My PROTRUSIO Mnemonics PROTrusio acetabuli Includes the most common causes P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis (and other arthritides such as osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idio...
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Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Posterior vertebral element lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for posterior vertebral element lesions is: GO TAPE Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour  O: osteoblastoma T: tuberculosis A: aneurysmal bone cyst P: Paget disease E: eosinophilic granuloma
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Posterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

Mnemonics that can be used to remember the anatomy of the ankle tendons from anterior to posterior as they pass posteriorly to the medial malleolus under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel include: Tom, Dick and Harry Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry Mnemonic Tom, Dick and Harry T:...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: post-viral/post-atypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/haematopoetic stem cell transpl...
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Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
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Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary oedema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary o...
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Nasopharyngeal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of nasopharyngeal masses is: SAIL Mnemonic S: squamous cell carcinoma A: antrachoanal polyp I: inverted papilloma L: lethal midline granuloma
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Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugarwater Lemonade or Say Nothing  Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma (NHL)
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Multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for multiple lucent/lytic bones lesions include: FFEMHI The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is huge. However, where there are multiple lesions, the potential list of differentials is considerably shorter and FFEMHI, while not exhaustive, is a good place to start. Mnemonics FEEMHI...
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Meniscofemoral ligament (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for how the meniscofemoral ligaments course in relation to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is: the ligament of Wrisberg rides the PCL (i.e. is posterosuperior) the ligament of Humphrey is humped by the PCL (i.e. is anteroinferior)
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Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularisation, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
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Male urethral segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the 4 segments of the male urethra from proximal to distal. Pet My Big Penis P: prostatic M: membranous B: bulbous P: penile Posterior urethra equates to the prostatic and membranous urethras.  Anterior urethra equates to the bulbous and penile urethras. Rel...
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Madelung deformity associations (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the associations of Madelung deformity include: HITDOC Mnemonic HITDOC H: Hurler syndrome I: infection T: trauma D: dyschondrosteosis O: osteochondroma (multiple hereditary exostoses)  C: congenital, e.g. Turner syndrome
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Lucent/lytic skull lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of lucent/lytic skull lesions is: MEL TORME Mnemonic MEL TORME M: metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/Langerhans cell histiocytosis T: tuberculosis O: osteomyelitis R: radiation M: multiple myeloma E: epidermoid
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Lytic bone lesion surrounded by marked sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lytic bone lesions surrounded by marked sclerosis include: BOOST Mnemonics BOOST B: brodie abscess O: osteoblastoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture T: tuberculosis
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Lucent/lytic rib lesion (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lucent/lytic rib lesions include: FAME FEMALE These are just short lists for the possible causes of a lucent/lytic rib lesion. The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is far longer.  Mnemonics FAME F: fibrous dysplasia A: aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) M: metastasis to bone / mul...
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Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
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Internal carotid artery segments (mnemonic)

The internal carotid artery segments, according to the Bouthillier classification, can be recalled by the following mnemonic: C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organizing Classification Mnemonic C: cervical segment P: petrous segment L: lacerum segment C: cavernous segment C: clinoid se...
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Layers of the scrotum (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the layers of the scrotum is: Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testes Mnemonic S: skin D: dartos fascia and muscle E: external spermatic fascia C: cremasteric fascia I: internal spermatic fascia T: tunica vaginalis T: tunica albuginea 
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Lichen aureus (mnemonic)

The skin changes of lichen aureus can be remembered with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of lichen aureus Mnemonic pigmented purpuric papules in peripheral patches
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Lichen planus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to describe the skin lesions associated with lichen planus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: planar P: polygonal P: pruritic P: purple P: papular
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Low signal masses in synovium (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for masses in the synovium which show low signal on all pulse sequences: PACS Mnemonic P: pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) A: amyloid C: chronic bleeding disorders, e.g. haemophilia S: synovial osteochondromatosis
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Lumbar plexus (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the branches of the lumbar plexus are:​ Indecent Ian Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily Itchy Igor Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily (ItcHy - iliohypogastric, IGor - ilioinguinal) IIGLO For aLl IIGLO is used in place of an igloo Mnemonic I: iliohypogastric nerve I: ilioing...
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Lumbar plexus roots (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the roots of the lumbar plexus is: 2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3 Mnemonic 2 nerves from 1 root: ilioinguinal (L1), iliohypogastric (L1) 2 nerves from 2 roots: genitofemoral (L1/L2), lateral femoral cutaneous (L2/L3) 2 nerves from 3 roots: obturator (L2/L3/L4), femo...
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Innervation of the muscles of the middle ear (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember innervation of the muscles of the middle ear is: S for Stapedius T for Tensor Tympani Mnemonic S: stapedius is supplied by a branch of the facial nerve - the Seventh cranial nerve. It is also the Smallest muscle in the body, and inserts onto the neck of Stapes. ...
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Increased bone density (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic for causes of generalised increased bone density: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Fun, Happening and Lovely Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: metastasis (osteoblastic) O: osteopetrosis  P: pyknodysostosis; Paget's disease M: my...
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Hyperintense on T1-weighted images (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for bright or hyperintense T1-weighted lesions include: My Best Friend is Pretty Cool 3 Fs and 4 Ms Mnemonic My Best Friend is Pretty Cool: M: melanin B: blood (i.e. methaemoglobin in subacute haemorrhage) F: fat and slow flow P: protein; paramagnetic substances (e.g. manganese...
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Hand intrinsic muscles innervated by the median nerve (mnemonic)

All the intrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by the ulnar nerve, except four muscles which are supplied by the median nerve and are easily recalled with the mnemonic: FOAL or LOAF Mnemonic F: flexor pollicis brevis O: opponens pollicis A: abductor pollicis brevis L: lateral two lum...
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Generalised colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of generalised colitis is: I3NR Mnemonic I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, cytomegalovirus I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischaemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
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Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (ultrasound measurements mnemonic)

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis can be characterised in ultrasound studies by the measurements of the hypertrophic muscle. Although the criteria can vary from publication to publication, an easy way to keep in mind those values is remembering the first digits of the number "pi", also represented b...
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Erector spinae muscles (mnemonic)

There are multiple handy mnemonics to recall the erector spinae muscles. They usually describe the position from lateral to medial.  I Like Standing I Love Sex I Long for Spinach I Like Siri Mnemonic I: iliocostalis L: longissimus S: spinalis
Article

Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: CHONG Lead GNOME Mnemonics CHONG C: craniometaphyseal dysplasias H: haemoglobinopathies thalassemia sickle cell disease O: osteopetrosis N: Niemann-Pick disease G: Gaucher disease Lead G...
Article

Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament
Article

Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions (mnemonic)

There is a handy mnemonic for fluid-fluid levels of bone lesions on MRI: GOATS CSF Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour O: osteoblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst T: telangiectatic osteosarcoma S: sarcomas C: chondroblastoma S: solitary bone cyst F: fibroxanthoma
Article

Femoral triangle contents (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to recall the order of the femoral vessels and nerve as they emerge from beneath the inguinal ligament into the femoral triangle are: NAVY NAVEL Mnemonic NAVY From lateral to medial: N: femoral nerve A: femoral artery V: femoral vein Y: "Y-fronts" (i.e. the midline) It should...
Article

Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed NOF O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
Article

Features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonic: 6 Ds of Charcot joint Mnemonic increased Density (subchondral sclerosis) Destruction Debris (intra-articular loose bodies) Dislocation Distention Disorganisation The causes of Charcot arthrop...
Article

Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins

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