Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

212 results found
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Fluid-fluid level containing bone lesions (mnemonic)

There is a handy mnemonic for fluid-fluid levels of bone lesions on MRI: GOATS CSF Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour O: osteoblastoma A: aneurysmal bone cyst T: telangiectatic osteosarcoma S: sarcomas C: chondroblastoma S: solitary bone cyst F: fibroxanthoma
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Focal pulmonary opacity (mnemonic)

Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic: 4 Fs Mnemonic F: 'fection (pulmonary infection) F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction) F: fluid (pulmonary oedema) F: f***ed (lung cancer)
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Focal sclerotic bony lesions (mnemonic)

A popular mnemonic to help remember causes of focal sclerotic bony lesions is: HOME LIFE Mnemonic H: healed NOF O: osteoma M: metastasis E: Ewing sarcoma L: lymphoma I: infection or infarct F: fibrous dysplasia E: enchondroma
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Foramen ovale contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is: OVALE Mnemonic O: otic ganglion (inferior) V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve) A: accessory meningeal artery L: lesser petrosal nerve E: emissary veins
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Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations (mnemonic)

There are several mnemonics for the difference between a Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation: GRIMUS MUGR (pronounced as mugger) FROG GRUesome MURder It is useful to note that it is the head of the non-fractured bone that is dislocated. Mnemonics GRIMUS GRIMUS helps to remember...
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Generalised colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of generalised colitis is: I3NR Mnemonic I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, cytomegalovirus I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischaemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
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Gracile bones (mnemonic)

The causes of gracile bones can be recalled with the following mnemonic: Mnemonic NIMROD N: neurofibromatosis I: immobilisation/paralysis M: muscular dystrophy, e.g. Duchenne muscular dystrophy R: rheumatoid arthritis (juvenile RA) O: osteogenesis imperfecta D: dysplasia, e.g. Marfan syn...
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Gynaecomastia causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for the causes of gynaecomastia: CODES Mnemonic C: cirrhosis O: obesity D: digitalis E: estrogen S: spironolactone
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Haemorrhagic metastases (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is: MR CT BB Mnemonic M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain R: renal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma B: bronchogenic carcinoma B: breast carcinoma
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Hair on end sign (mnemonic)

The hair on end sign refers to a radiographic appearance of the diploic space of the skull vault which results from a thickening of trabeculae as the diploic space expands. These trabeculae are perpendicular in orientation, interspersed by radiolucent marrow hyperplasia along the skull vault. I...
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Hand intrinsic muscles innervated by the median nerve (mnemonic)

All the intrinsic muscles of the hand are innervated by the ulnar nerve, except four muscles which are supplied by the median nerve and are easily recalled with the mnemonic: FOAL or LOAF Mnemonic F: flexor pollicis brevis O: opponens pollicis A: abductor pollicis brevis L: lateral two lum...
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Hepatic capsular retraction (mnemonic)

The following mnemonics can be used as reminders of the causes of hepatic capsular retraction: CT CHIEF FILTH E Mnemonics CT CHIEF C: cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic) T: treated hepatic metastasis or hepatocellular carcinoma C: cirrhosis with confluent hepatic fibrosis H: haemangioma (e...
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Hyperintense on T1-weighted images (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for bright or hyperintense T1-weighted lesions include: My Best Friend is Pretty Cool 3 Fs and 4 Ms Mnemonic My Best Friend is Pretty Cool: M: melanin B: blood (i.e. methaemoglobin in subacute haemorrhage) F: fat and slow flow P: protein; paramagnetic substances (e.g. manganese...
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Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (ultrasound measurements mnemonic)

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis can be characterised in ultrasound studies by the measurements of the hypertrophic muscle. Although the criteria can vary from publication to publication, an easy way to keep in mind those values is remembering the first digits of the number "pi", also represented b...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
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Increased bone density (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic for causes of generalised increased bone density: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Fun, Happening and Lovely Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: metastasis (osteoblastic) O: osteopetrosis  P: pyknodysostosis; Paget's disease M: my...
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Inguinal canal walls (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember inguinal canal walls is: MALT (2M, 2A, 2L, 2T) Mnemonic Starting from superior, moving anticlockwise in order to posterior: Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles internal oblique Muscle transverse abdominus Muscle Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses Aponeurosis of exter...
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Innervation of the muscles of the middle ear (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember innervation of the muscles of the middle ear is: S for Stapedius T for Tensor Tympani Mnemonic S: stapedius is supplied by a branch of the facial nerve - the Seventh cranial nerve. It is also the Smallest muscle in the body, and inserts onto the neck of Stapes. ...
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Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up, Coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular n...
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Internal carotid artery segments (mnemonic)

The internal carotid artery segments, according to the Bouthillier classification, can be recalled by the following mnemonic: C'mon Please Learn Carotid Clinical Organizing Classification Mnemonic C: cervical segment P: petrous segment L: lacerum segment C: cavernous segment C: clinoid se...
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Internal jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal jugular vein is: Medical Schools Let Fun People In Mnemonic From inferior to superior: M: middle thyroid vein S: superior thyroid vein L: lingual vein F: facial vein P: pharyngeal vein I: inferior petrosal sinus
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Intrinsic muscles of the hand (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to recall the intrinsic muscles of the hand and some of their features include: All For One And One For All PAd DAb FOAL Mnemonics All For One And One For All This mnemonic recalls the intrinsic muscles of the hand in their relative palmar anatomical position from lateral ...
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Layers of the scalp (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the layers of the scalp is: SCALP This is particularly helpful when considering the location of a scalp haematoma. Mnemonic S: skin C: connective tissue A: (galea) aponeurosis L: loose connective tissue P: periosteum
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Layers of the scrotum (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the layers of the scrotum is: Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testes Mnemonic S: skin D: dartos fascia and muscle E: external spermatic fascia C: cremasteric fascia I: internal spermatic fascia T: tunica vaginalis T: tunica albuginea 
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Lichen aureus (mnemonic)

The skin changes of lichen aureus can be remembered with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of lichen aureus Mnemonic pigmented purpuric papules in peripheral patches
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Lichen planus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to describe the skin lesions associated with lichen planus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: planar P: polygonal P: pruritic P: purple P: papular
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Low signal masses in synovium (mnemonic)

Mnemonic for masses in the synovium which show low signal on all pulse sequences: PACS Mnemonic P: pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) A: amyloid C: chronic bleeding disorders, e.g. haemophilia S: synovial osteochondromatosis
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Lucent/lytic bone lesion, differential diagnosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions include: FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive lists, but are a good start for remembering a differential for a lucent/lytic bone...
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Lucent/lytic rib lesion (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lucent/lytic rib lesions include: FAME FEMALE These are just short lists for the possible causes of a lucent/lytic rib lesion. The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is far longer.  Mnemonics FAME F: fibrous dysplasia A: aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) M: metastasis to bone / mul...
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Lucent/lytic skull lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of lucent/lytic skull lesions is: MEL TORME Mnemonic MEL TORME M: metastasis E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/Langerhans cell histiocytosis T: tuberculosis O: osteomyelitis R: radiation M: multiple myeloma E: epidermoid
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Lumbar plexus (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the branches of the lumbar plexus are:​ Indecent Ian Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily Itchy Igor Gets Laid On Fridays Luckily (ItcHy - iliohypogastric, IGor - ilioinguinal) IIGLO For aLl IIGLO is used in place of an igloo Mnemonic I: iliohypogastric nerve I: ilioing...
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Lumbar plexus roots (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the roots of the lumbar plexus is: 2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3 Mnemonic 2 nerves from 1 root: ilioinguinal (L1), iliohypogastric (L1) 2 nerves from 2 roots: genitofemoral (L1/L2), lateral femoral cutaneous (L2/L3) 2 nerves from 3 roots: obturator (L2/L3/L4), femo...
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Lung consolidation (mnemonic)

A commonly used mnemonic for recalling the features of consolidation is: A2BC3 Mnemonic A2BC3 A: acinar rosettes A: air bronchogram/alveologram B: bat-wing distribution C: coalescent/confluent ill-defined "fluffy" appearnce C: consolidation: diffuse, perihilar/bibasilar, lobar/segmental,...
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Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of lymphangitic carcinomatosis is: Certain Cancers Spread By Plugging The Lymphatics Mnemonic C: cervix C: colon S: stomach B: breast P: pancreas T: thyroid L: larynx and lung
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Lytic bone lesion surrounded by marked sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for lytic bone lesions surrounded by marked sclerosis include: BOOST Mnemonics BOOST B: brodie abscess O: osteoblastoma O: osteoid osteoma S: stress fracture T: tuberculosis
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Madelung deformity associations (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the associations of Madelung deformity include: HITDOC Mnemonic HITDOC H: Hurler syndrome I: infection T: trauma D: dyschondrosteosis O: osteochondroma (multiple hereditary exostoses)  C: congenital, e.g. Turner syndrome
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Male urethral segments (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the 4 segments of the male urethra from proximal to distal. Pet My Big Penis P: prostatic M: membranous B: bulbous P: penile Posterior urethra equates to the prostatic and membranous urethras.  Anterior urethra equates to the bulbous and penile urethras. Rel...
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Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularisation, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
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Medial wall of the orbit (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the bones forming the medial wall of the orbit is: My Little Eye Sits (in the orbit) Mnemonic M: maxilla (frontal process) L: lacrimal E: ethmoid (lamina papyracea) S: sphenoid (body)
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Medullary nephrocalcinosis (mnemonic)

A common mnemonic used to remember the aetiology of medullary nephrocalcinosis is: HAM HOP Mnemonic H: hyperparathyroidism A: (renal tubular) acidosis M: medullary sponge kidney H: hypercalcemia / hypercalciuria O: oxalosis P: papillary necrosis See also renal papillary necrosis mnemon...
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Meniscofemoral ligament (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for how the meniscofemoral ligaments course in relation to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is: the ligament of Wrisberg rides the PCL (i.e. is posterosuperior) the ligament of Humphrey is humped by the PCL (i.e. is anteroinferior)
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Multiple benign lucent bone lesions (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of multiple benign lucent bone lesions can be recalled with the following mnemonics: Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City CHEF JOHN P Mnemonics Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City N: neurofibromatosis (type 1) P: Paget disease O: Ollier dise...
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Multiple lucent/lytic bone lesions (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for multiple lucent/lytic bones lesions include: FFEMHI The list of lucent/lytic bone lesions is huge. However, where there are multiple lesions, the potential list of differentials is considerably shorter and FFEMHI, while not exhaustive, is a good place to start. Mnemonics FEEMHI...
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Muscular attachments of the hyoid bone (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscle attachments of the hyoid bone. The first sentence is for six muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for three muscles attaching inferiorly. Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial: Christopher, He Didn't Screw Girls Much. That's Obv...
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Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugarwater Lemonade or Say Nothing  Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma (NHL)
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Nasopharyngeal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of nasopharyngeal masses is: SAIL Mnemonic S: squamous cell carcinoma A: antrachoanal polyp I: inverted papilloma L: lethal midline granuloma
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Neurofibromatosis type 2 (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is: MISME Mnemonic M: multiple I: inherited S: schwannomas M: meningiomas and E: ependymomas In fact, labelling this disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 is a misnomer, because neurofibromas are not a part of its constellation of abnorma...
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Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary oedema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary o...
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Normal pressure hydrocephalus (mnenomic)

The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic: wet, wacky, wobbly Mnemonic wet: urinary incontinence wacky: dementia (memory disturbance) wobbly: gait disturbance
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Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: post-viral/post-atypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/haematopoetic stem cell transpl...
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Oesophageal mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of an oesophageal mass is: CALL the MVP Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma L: lymphoma L: leiomyoma M: metastasis V: varices P: papilloma/polyp
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Order of structures in the porta hepatis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to help remember the order of structures in the porta hepatis from anterior to posterior is: DAVE D: ducts (right and left hepatic duct branches) A: arteries (right and left hepatic artery branches) V: vein (portal vein) E: epiploic foramen (of Winslow)  
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Osteoarthritis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the main signs of osteoarthritis on plain radiography include: LOSS Mnemonic L: loss of joint space O: osteophytes S: subchondral cysts S: subchondral sclerosis mnemonic for Heberden nodes and Bouchard nodes Heberden- Distal interphalangeal joint (H-D) (High Defini...
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Osteochondroma malignant transformation (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for listing the radiological and clinical features suggestive of osteochondroma malignant (sarcomatous) transformation is 1 GLAD PaST Mnemonic G: growth after skeletal maturity L: lucency (new) A: additional scintigraphic activity D: destruction (cortical) P: pain after ...
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Osteolysis of distal clavicle (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic when you see tapered osteolysis of the distal clavicle is:  SHIRT Pocket Mnemonic S: scleroderma  H: hyperparathyroidism  I: infection (osteomyelitis)  R: rheumatoid arthritis  T: trauma  P: progeria
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Osteosclerosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of osteosclerosis is: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: myelofibrosis O: osteopetrosis P: pyknodysostosis M: metastases M: mastocytosis P: Paget disease A: a...
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Ostiomeatal complex parts (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the five parts of the ostiomeatal complex is: HI EMU Mnemonic H: hiatus semilunaris I: infundibulum E: ethmoidal bulla M: maxillary ostium U: uncinate process Emus have large beaks, and hence could have large ostiomeatal complexes (if they had paranasal sinu...
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Paediatric posterior fossa tumours (mnemonic)

Tumours of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic: BEAM Mnemonic The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common. B: brainstem glioma E: ependymoma A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%) M: medulloblastoma
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Paralytic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of paralytic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic The classic "5 Ps" are: P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition However, there are a few further Ps that can be include...
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Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) U: usual interstitial pneumon...
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Permeative process in bone (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for permeative processes in bone is: FIRE MD Mnemonic F: fibrosarcoma I: infection R: round cell tumours (Ewing sarcoma) E: eosinophilic granuloma M: metastases/myeloma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma D: desmoid tumour See also permeative process in bone pseudo-permeative pr...
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Persistent communications between the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is: HOT Pepper Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery. Mnemonic H: hypoglo...
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Pituitary region mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for remembering the differentials for pituitary region masses is: SATCHMO 1-2 MOuSTACHE Mnemonic SATCHMO S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma) A: aneurysm T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)  C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), ...
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Pneumatosis intestinalis (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the causes of pneumatosis intestinalis is: ChIPS Mnemonic C: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I:  ischaemia P: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis S: scleroderma/steroids
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Pneumobilia vs portal venous gas (mnemonic)

Pneumobilia and portal venous gas are two causes of an intrahepatic branching gas pattern. The two have different causes and implications and need to be distinguished on imaging. Mnemonic A simple mnemonic for remembering the difference in appearance is: portal venous gas: peripheral common ...
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Popliteal fossa anatomy (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember popliteal fossa anatomy (medial-to-lateral arrangement) is: Serve And Volley Next Ball Mnemonic S: semimembranosus and semitendinosus (superior medial border) A: artery (popliteal artery) V: vein (popliteal vein) N: nerve (tibial nerve) B: biceps femoris (su...
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Posterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

Mnemonics that can be used to remember the anatomy of the ankle tendons from anterior to posterior as they pass posteriorly to the medial malleolus under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel include: Tom, Dick and Harry Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry Mnemonic Tom, Dick and Harry T:...
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Posterior vertebral element lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for posterior vertebral element lesions is: GO TAPE Mnemonic G: giant cell tumour  O: osteoblastoma T: tuberculosis A: aneurysmal bone cyst P: Paget disease E: eosinophilic granuloma
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Potter syndrome (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the common clinical features of Potter syndrome: POTTER P: pulmonary hypoplasia O: oligohydramnios T: twisted skin (wrinkly skin) T: twisted face (Potter facies: low set ears, retrognathia, hypertelorism) E: extremity deformities (limb deformities: club hands...
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
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Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Protrusio acetabuli (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the causes of protrusio acetabuli include: PROTrusio acetabuli My PROTRUSIO Mnemonics PROTrusio acetabuli Includes the most common causes P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis (and other arthritides such as osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idio...
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Pubic symphysis widening (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for widening of the pubic symphysis is: EPOCH Mnemonic EPOCH E: bladder exstrophy P: prune belly syndrome O: osteogenesis imperfecta C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism Note that this mnemonic does not include pubic diastasis secondary to trauma, a common cause of p...
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Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  bronchogenic carcinoma: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  Wegener granulomatosis (granulomatos...
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Pulmonary upper zone involvement (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for pulmonary predominantly upper zone involvement (infiltration/shadowing/fibrosis) causes include: BREASTS Mnemonic B: berylliosis R: radiation E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis A: ankylosing spondylitis / aspergillus  S: sarcoidosis T: tuberculosis S: silicosis
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Renal papillary necrosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of renal papillary necrosis are plentiful and include: NSAID postcards AD SPORT C The latter is a list of causes in order of incidence. Mnemonics NSAID Most common causes: N: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) S: sickle cell disease A: analgesic abu...
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Retroperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful for mnemonic to remember which organs are retroperitoneal is: SAD PUCKER Mnemonic S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part) P: pancreas (except tail) U: ureters C: colon (ascending and descending) K: kidneys E: (o)esophagus R: rectum
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Rickets (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of rickets is: RICKETS Mnemonic(s) Reaction of the periosteum Indistinct cortex Coarse trabeculation Knees, wrists and ankles mainly Epiphyseal plates widened and irregular  Tremendous metaphysis Spur (metaphyseal) See also rickets
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Rotator cuff (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscles of the rotator cuff is: SITS Mnemonic S: supraspinatus I: infraspinatus T: teres minor S: subscapularis Recalling this order also helps remembering the insertions of these muscles, with the order being superior, middle and inferior facets of the grea...
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5cm) long are 2 feet (60cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  and...
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Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
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Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
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Sacral plexus branches (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is: Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension) Mnemonic Six Ps nerve to piriformis (S1-S2) perforating cutane...
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Salter-Harris fracture classification (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the Salter-Harris classification system are: SALTR SMACK Fortunately, this is also the order of prognosis (from best to worse) Mnemonics SALTR S: slipped (type I) A: above (type II) L: lower (type III) T: through or transverse or together (type IV) R: r...
Article

Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
Article

Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC PEN Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseduohypoparathyroidism
Article

Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
Article

Skull bones (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the six skull bones is: STEP OF 6 Mnemonic S: sphenoid T: temporal E: ethmoid P: parietal O: occipital F: frontal 6: number of skull bones
Article

Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonic  My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue disease T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T: ...
Article

Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
Article

Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life Protection Doesn't Contribute To A Good Sex Life 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things Mnemonic Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life Protection Doesn't Contribute To A Good Sex L...

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