Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

227 results found
Article

Rotator cuff (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscles of the rotator cuff is: SITS Mnemonic S: supraspinatus I: infraspinatus T: teres minor S: subscapularis Recalling this order also helps remembering the insertions of these muscles, with the order being superior, middle and inferior facets of the grea...
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5 cm) long are 2 feet (60 cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  a...
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Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
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Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
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Sacral plexus branches (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is: Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension) Mnemonic Six Ps nerve to piriformis (S1-S2) perforating cutane...
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Salter-Harris fracture classification (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the Salter-Harris classification system are: SALTR SMACK Fortunately, this is also the order of prognosis (from best to worse) Mnemonics SALTR S: slipped (type I) A: above (type II) L: lower (type III) T: through or transverse or together (type IV) R: r...
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Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
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Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC PEN Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseduohypoparathyroidism
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Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
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Skull bones (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the six skull bones is: STEP OF 6 Mnemonic S: sphenoid T: temporal E: ethmoid P: parietal O: occipital F: frontal 6: number of skull bones
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Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonic  My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue disease T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T: ...
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Soft tissue nodules in arthropathy (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for soft tissue nodules or swelling in the setting of an arthropathy are: RAGS the "-oids" Mnemonics RAGS R: rheumatoid arthritis A: amyloid G: gout S: sarcoidosis "-oids" The aforementioned differential diagnoses end in "-oid": ...
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Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule o...
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Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things Mnemonic Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level P: pampiniform plexus D: ductus deferens C: cremasteric artery T: testicul...
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Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumour (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, haematoma (e.g. postoperative, post bio...
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Sternoclavicular sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for sternoclavicular sclerosis include: STOP SPOT Mnemonic S: SAPHO syndrome T: traumatic osteolysis O: osteomyelitis/osteosarcoma P: Paget disease
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Subchondral cysts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of subchondral cysts is: COORS Mnemonic C: CPPD  O: osteoarthritis  O: osteonecrosis R: rheumatoid arthritis S: synovial-based tumours
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Subclavian artery branches (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the branches of the subclavian artery include: Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily VIT C, D (as in vitamins C and D). Mnemonic Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily V: vertebral artery I: inte...
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Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
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Superior orbital fissure nerves (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include: Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult Live Free To See No Insult At All Mnemonics Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  The order of the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure from superio...
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Surgically-created cardiac shunts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for surgically-created cardiac shunts for congenital heart disease is: great flow really would be perfect​ The mnemonic is ordered by the position of the shunt antegrade to normal blood flow through the heart, proceeding from the systemic venous system into the right heart, and then...
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Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that helps, especially when under the pressure of the exam situation. Differentials from the sections of the sieve can be considered in turn, helping to extend the list in a structured way. They include: 5I 3-Scotland VITAMIN VITAMIN C...
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T2 hyperintense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is: LINT Mnemonic L: lymphoma I: ischaemia N: neurodegenerative conditions T: toxins See also For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article. 
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T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
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Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
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Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. haematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ex...
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Tendons of pes anserinus (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the three conjoined tendons that make up the pes anserinus include: Say Grace before Tea SerGeanT  Mnemonics From anterior to posterior, the tendons are: Say Grace before Tea S: sartorius G: gracilis T: semitendinosus SerGeanT S: sartorius G: gracilis T: sem...
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Tetralogy of fallot (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the underlying anatomic defects in tetralogy of Fallot is: PROVe Mnemonic P: pulmonary stenosis R: right ventricular hypertrophy O: overriding aorta V: ventricular septal defect
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Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
Article

Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
Article

Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma  T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
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Transverse metaphyseal lines (mnemonic)

Common causes of transverse metaphyseal lines can be remembered using the mnemonic: DENSE LINES PRINCES Mnemonic DENSE LINES D: D-vitamin intoxication E: elemental arsenic and heavy metals (lead, bismuth, phosphorus) N: normal variation S: systemic illness E: estrogen to mother during p...
Article

Trauma CT thorax review areas (mnemonic)

Trauma CT thorax review areas are useful to reduce the potential for error, which is higher than usual given the larger number of images requiring review, and the often present time pressures and the potential presence of numerous concurrent injuries (see CT polytrauma).  Using some standard re...
Article

Tributaries of the inferior vena cava (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the tributaries of the inferior vena cava is: I Like To Rise So High Mnemonic I: common iliac veins L: lumbar veins T: right testicular (gonadal) vein R: renal veins S: suprarenal veins H: hepatic veins
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Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...
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Tumours that metastasise to bone (mnemonic)

Tumours that metastasise to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "lead kettle" spelled PBKTL (lead is Pb on the Periodic Table). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers t...
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Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
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Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP  lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...
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Vertebra plana (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of vertebra plana include: IMELT FETISH Mnemonics IMELT I: infection M: metastasis/myeloma E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/leukaemia T: trauma; tuberculosis FETISH F: fracture (trauma) E: eosinophilic granuloma T: tumour (e.g. metastases, myelo...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic H: haemangioblastoma I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: phaeochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma) E: eye dysfunction (retinal haemangioblastoma) L: liver,...
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Wormian bones (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember ten of the numerous conditions associated with Wormian bones is: PORKCHOPS Mnemonic P - pyknodysostosis O - osteogenesis imperfecta R - rickets K - kinky hair syndrome C - cleidocranial dysostosis H - hypothyroidism/hypophosphatasia O - otopalatodigital syndrome ...

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