Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

243 results found
Article

Posterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

Mnemonics that can be used to remember the anatomy of the ankle tendons from anterior to posterior as they pass posteriorly to the medial malleolus under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel include: Tom, Dick and Harry Tom, Dick And Very Nervous Harry Mnemonic Tom, Dick and Harry T:...
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Posterior vertebral element lesions (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for posterior vertebral element lesions is: GO TAPE Mnemonic G: giant cell tumor  O: osteoblastoma T: tuberculosis A: aneurysmal bone cyst P: Paget disease E: eosinophilic granuloma
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Posterior vertebral scalloping (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses for posterior vertebral scalloping is: SALMON Mnemonic S: spinal cord tumor (e.g. astrocytoma, ependymoma, schwannoma) A: achondroplasia, acromegaly L: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (and other connective tissue disorders) M: Marfan's syndrome...
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Potter syndrome (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the common clinical features of Potter syndrome: POTTER P: pulmonary hypoplasia O: oligohydramnios T: twisted skin (wrinkly skin) T: twisted face (Potter facies: low set ears, retrognathia, hypertelorism) E: extremity deformities (limb deformities: club hands...
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Primitive arteries in the brain (mnemonic)

The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following mnemonic: HOT MOPA Mnemonic H: hypoglossal O: otic T: trigeminal M: meningohypophyseal P: posterior inferior cerebellar (PICA) A: anterior choroidal The meningohypophyseal trunk and anterior choroidal and posterior ...
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Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Protrusio acetabuli (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the causes of protrusio acetabuli include: PROTrusio acetabuli My PROTRUSIO Mnemonics PROTrusio acetabuli Includes the most common causes P: Paget disease R: rheumatoid arthritis (and other arthritides such as osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idio...
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Pubic symphysis widening (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for widening of the pubic symphysis is: EPOCH Mnemonic EPOCH E: bladder exstrophy P: prune belly syndrome O: osteogenesis imperfecta C: cleidocranial dysostosis H: hypothyroidism Note that this mnemonic does not include pubic diastasis secondary to trauma, a common cause of p...
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Pulmonary cavity (mnemonic)

A particularly helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary cavities is: CAVITY Mnemonic C: cancer  bronchogenic carcinoma: most frequently squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cavitary pulmonary metastasis(es): most frequently SCC A: autoimmune; granulomas from  granulomatosis with polyangiitis rh...
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Pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms

A helpful mnemonic for causes of pulmonary nodules with air bronchograms is: OBALLS Mnemonic OBALLS O: organising pneumonia B: bronchoalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) A: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) L: lymphoma L: lipoid pneumonia S: sarcoidosis Another consideration i...
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Pulmonary upper zone involvement (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic for pulmonary predominantly upper zone involvement (infiltration/shadowing/fibrosis) causes include: BREASTS Mnemonic B: berylliosis R: radiation E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis A: ankylosing spondylitis / aspergillus  S: sarcoidosis T: tuberculosis S: silicosis
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Radiographic features of a Charcot joint (mnemonic)

The radiographic features of a Charcot joint can be remembered by using the following mnemonics: 5 Ds of Charcot joint, or 6 Ds of Charcot joint (separating disorganization and dislocation) Mnemonic Density change (subchondral osteopenia or sclerosis) Destruction (osseous fragmentation and ...
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Renal papillary necrosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of renal papillary necrosis are plentiful and include: NSAID postcards AD SPORT C The latter is a list of causes in order of incidence. Mnemonics NSAID Most common causes: N: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) S: sickle cell disease A: acetaminophen...
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Retroperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful for mnemonic to remember which organs are retroperitoneal is: SAD PUCKER Mnemonic S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part) P: pancreas (except tail) U: ureters C: colon (ascending and descending) K: kidneys E: (o)esophagus R: rectum
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Rickets (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of rickets is: RICKETS Mnemonic R: reaction of the periosteum I: indistinct cortex C: coarse trabeculation K: knees, wrists and ankles mainly E: epiphyseal plates widened and irregular  T: tremendous metaphysis S: spur (metaphyseal)​
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Right-to-left shunt (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses associated with right-to-left cardiovascular shunts is: 1-5 Mnemonic 1: a combination vessel; truncus arteriosus 2: number of arteries involved; transposition of the great arteries 3: "tri-" means 3, the number of leaflets involved; t...
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Rotator cuff (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the muscles of the rotator cuff is: SITS Mnemonic S: supraspinatus I: infraspinatus T: teres minor S: subscapularis Recalling this order also helps remembering the insertions of these muscles, with the order being superior, middle and inferior facets of the grea...
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5 cm) long are 2 feet (60 cm) from the ileocecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  an...
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Sacral nerve plexus - anterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the anterior components of the sacral plexus is: too much sex in the quad Mnemonic tibial portion (L4-S2) of the sciatic nerve (L4-S3) nerve to internal obturator and superior gemellus muscles (L5-S2) nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles (L4-S1)
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Sacral nerve plexus - posterior components (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the posterior components of the sacral plexus is: Clean Guys Floss Mnemonic C: common peroneal nerve G: gluteal (superior and inferior) nerves F: femoral cutaneous (posterior) nerve
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Sacral plexus branches (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is: Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension) Mnemonic Six Ps nerve to piriformis (S1-S2) perforating cutane...
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Salter-Harris fracture classification (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics for remembering the Salter-Harris classification system are: SALTR SMACK Fortunately, this is also the order of prognosis (from best to worse) Mnemonics SALTR S: slipped (type I) A: above (type II) L: lower (type III) T: through or transverse or together (type IV) R: r...
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Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
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Seronegative spondyloarthritis (mnemonic)

 A useful mnemonic to remember the subgroups of seronegative spondyloarthritides is:  PEARU Mnemonic P: psoriatic arthritis E: enteropathic arthritis (i.e. extraintestinal manifestation of IBD) A: ankylosing spondylitis R: reactive arthritis (Reiter syndrome) U: undifferentiated spondyloa...
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Short metacarpals (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the causes of short metacarpals is: BIC PEN Mnemonic B: basal cell nevus syndrome I: idiopathic C: chromosomal: Turner syndrome P: pseudohypoparathyroidism/pseudopseduohypoparathyroidism
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Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
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Skull bones (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the six skull bones is: STEP OF 6 Mnemonic S: sphenoid T: temporal E: ethmoid P: parietal O: occipital F: frontal 6: number of skull bones
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Soft tissue calcification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of soft tissue calcification include: My GHOSTS 1 TIC MTV 2 Mnemonic  My GHOSTS My: myositis ossificans G: gout H: hyperparathyroidism O: ochronosis S: scleroderma/connective tissue disease T: tumoral calcinosis S: sarcoma (synovial cell) TIC MTV T: ...
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Soft tissue nodules in arthropathy (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember the differential diagnoses for soft tissue nodules or swelling in the setting of an arthropathy are: RAGS the "-oids" Mnemonics RAGS R: rheumatoid arthritis A: amyloid G: gout S: sarcoidosis "-oids" The aforementioned differential diagnoses end in "-oid": ...
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Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...
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Spermatic cord contents (mnemonic)

Handy mnemonics to recall the contents of the spermatic cord are: Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level 3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things Mnemonic Papers Don't Contribute To A Good Specialist Level P: pampiniform plexus D: ductus deferens C: cremasteric artery T: testicul...
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Stellate breast lesions: causes (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to recall the causes of a stellate breast lesion is: STARFACE Mnemonic S: summation shadow T: tumor (i.e. invasive breast cancer) A: abscess R: radial scar F: fibroadenoma / fat necrosis A: adenosis (sclerosing) CE: other causes, hematoma (e.g. postoperative, post biops...
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Sternoclavicular sclerosis (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for sternoclavicular sclerosis include: STOP SPOT Mnemonic S: SAPHO syndrome T: traumatic osteolysis O: osteomyelitis/osteosarcoma P: Paget disease
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Subchondral cysts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of subchondral cysts is: COORS Mnemonic C: CPPD  O: osteoarthritis  O: osteonecrosis R: rheumatoid arthritis S: synovial-based tumors
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Subclavian artery branches (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the branches of the subclavian artery include: Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily VIT C, D (as in vitamins C and D). Mnemonic Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Double Daily V: vertebral artery I: inte...
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Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
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Superior orbital fissure nerves (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include: Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult Live Free To See No Insult At All Mnemonics Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation  The order of the nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure from superio...
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Surgically-created cardiac shunts (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for surgically-created cardiac shunts for congenital heart disease is: great flow really would be perfect​ The mnemonic is ordered by the position of the shunt antegrade to normal blood flow through the heart, proceeding from the systemic venous system into the right heart, and then...
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Surgical sieve (mnemonic)

A surgical sieve is an approach to differential diagnosis that prompts the user to consider various types of pathologies systematically. Various versions of this memory aid exist: 5I 3-Scotland MIDNIT VINDICATE VITAMIN CDEF Mnemonics 5I 3-Scotland Where "3-Scotland" relates to the three t...
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T2 hyperintense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is: LINT Mnemonic L: lymphoma I: ischemia N: neurodegenerative conditions T: toxins See also For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article. 
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T2 hypointense basal ganglia (mnemonic)

The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic: ChOMP Mnemonic Ch: childhood hypoxia O: old age M: multiple sclerosis P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
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Tarsal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the tarsal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of tarsal bones. They usually describe the position of the tarsal bones from superior to inferior, medial to lateral in a right foot: The Cab in New Mexico Is Land Cruiser The Cure of Nemaline Myopathy I...
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Temporal bone fracture complications (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the complications of temporal bone fractures that may require early intervention is:  CLONE Mnemonic C: carotid artery injury L: leakage of CSF O: other intracranial complications, e.g. hematoma N: nerve injury leading to complete facial paralysis E: ext...
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Tendons of pes anserinus (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for remembering the three conjoined tendons that make up the pes anserinus include: Say Grace before Tea SerGeanT  Mnemonics From anterior to posterior, the tendons are: Say Grace before Tea S: sartorius G: gracilis T: semitendinosus SerGeanT S: sartorius G: gracilis T: sem...
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Tetralogy of fallot (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the underlying anatomic defects in tetralogy of Fallot is: PROVe Mnemonic P: pulmonary stenosis R: right ventricular hypertrophy O: overriding aorta V: ventricular septal defect
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Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
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Thoracoacromial artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the thoracoacromial artery is: PACkeD Mnemonics PACkeD P: pectoral A: acromial C: clavicular D: deltoid
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Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma  T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
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Trauma CT thorax review areas (mnemonic)

Trauma CT thorax review areas are useful to reduce the potential for error, which is higher than usual given the larger number of images requiring review, and the often present time pressures and the potential presence of numerous concurrent injuries (see CT polytrauma).  Using some standard re...
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Tributaries of the inferior vena cava (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the tributaries of the inferior vena cava is: I Like To Rise So High Mnemonic I: common iliac veins L: lumbar veins T: right testicular (gonadal) vein R: renal veins S: suprarenal veins H: hepatic veins
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Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...
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Tumors that metastasise to bone (mnemonic)

Tumors that metastasise to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "lead kettle" spelled PBKTL (lead is Pb on the Periodic Table). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers th...
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Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for a unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax include: CRAWLS SAFE POEM ACROSSS Mnemonics CRAWLS C: contralateral lung increased density, e.g. supine pleural effusion R: rotation A: air, e.g. pneumothorax W: wall, e.g. chest wall mass, mastectomy, polio, Poland syndrome, surgical re...
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Upper and lower lobe distribution of bilateral pulmonary pathologies (mnemonic)

The upper and lower lobe distribution of certain bilateral pulmonary pathologies can be recalled using the following mnemonics: upper lobe or apical predominance: CASSET HPP or SET CAP  lower lobe or bibasilar predominance: BAD RASH Mnemonics CASSET HPP C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spo...
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Vertebra plana (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the causes of vertebra plana include: IMELT FETISH Mnemonics IMELT I: infection M: metastasis/myeloma E: eosinophilic granuloma L: lymphoma/leukemia T: trauma; tuberculosis FETISH F: fracture (trauma) E: eosinophilic granuloma T: tumor (e.g. metastases, myeloma...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease (mnemonic)

Features of von Hippel-Lindau disease can be remembered by the mnemonic: HIPPEL Mnemonic H: hemangioblastoma I: increased risk of renal cell cancer P: phaeochromocytoma P: pancreatic lesions (cyst, cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma) E: eye dysfunction (retinal hemangioblastoma) L: liver, r...
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Wormian bones (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember ten of the numerous conditions associated with Wormian bones is: PORKCHOPS Mnemonic P - pyknodysostosis O - osteogenesis imperfecta R - rickets K - kinky hair syndrome C - cleidocranial dysostosis H - hypothyroidism/hypophosphatasia O - otopalatodigital syndrome ...

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