The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic:
C: cerebritis / cranial nerve lesion
V: ventriculitis / vasculopathy
E: extra-axial collection: empyema and hygroma
Ageing blood on MRI is dependent on the varying MR signal characteristics of haemorrhagic collections with time and can be very useful in correlating the imaging findings with the clinical picture. However, as it can be complicated to recall the MRI features of ageing blood through the five stag...
A mnemonic to help recall the cases of basilar invagination is:
P: Paget disease of bone
F: fibrous dysplasia
R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets
O: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia
C: Chiari I and Chiari II, cleidocranial dysostosis
Mnemonics for brachial plexus root order include:
Red Tits Don't Come Back
Robbie T Drinks Cold Beer
Rugby Teams Drink Cold Beers
Read That Damn Cadaver Book
Really Tired, Don't Care Now (nerve instead of branch)
Where the first letter of each word represents subdivisions of the brachial p...
A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly include:
How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited
D: drug effects
E: electrolyte imbalance
The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative position can be recalled with the following mnemonic:
O TOM CAT
Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus.
'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, fro...
Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include:
AMEN or MEAN
A: acoustic schwannoma (~80%)
M: meningioma (~10%)
E: ependymoma (~5%)
N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid) (~5%)
acoustic schwannoma much more common tha...
Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are:
MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC
DR MAGIC L
MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC
I: infarct (subacute phase)
D: demyelinating disease
R: radiation necrosis or re...
A useful mnemonic to remember the causes of corpus callosum hyperintensity is:
I MADE A PHD
I: infections (e.g. tuberculosis , varicella, rotavirus, HSV)
M: Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome
A: AIDS encephalopathy
D: diffuse axonal injury and diffuse vascular injury
A useful mnemonic to help remember the parts of the corpus callosum, from anterior to posterior, is:
Remember Genu Before Splenium
Remember G Before S (as G comes before S alphabetically)
3. Body (trunk)
A handy mnemonic to recall cortically-based brain tumours is:
P: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
D: dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET); desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG)
There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor or both.
Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I through to CN XII:
A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is:
Blood Can Be Very Bad
Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed.
look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is:
I: inferior rectus
M: medial rectus
S: superior rectus
L: lateral rectus
There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rect...
There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include:
Tall Zulus Bear Many Children
Two Zulus Bit My Cat
Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx
Ten Zebras Buggered My Car
To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
A helpful mnemonic for remembering the segments of the facial nerve is:
I Love Going To Makeover Parties 1
I Love Grinning, Then Making Pouts
both grinning and pouting are performed by muscles which are innervated by the facial nerve
I: intracranial (cisternal)/intracanalicular
A mnemonic for primary malignancies responsible for haemorrhagic metastases is:
MR CT BB
M: melanoma: metastatic melanoma to brain
R: renal cell carcinoma
T: thyroid carcinoma, teratoma
B: bronchogenic carcinoma
B: breast carcinoma
A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is:
Seven up coke down
Four nerves pass through the IAC:
facial nerve (CN VII)
three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)
cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc)
superior vestibular ne...
A useful mnemonic for neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is:
M: meningiomas and
In fact, labelling this disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 is a misnomer, because neurofibromas are not a part of its constellation of abnorma...
The symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) can be recalled with this mnemonic:
wet: urinary incontinence
wacky: dementia (memory disturbance)
wobbly: gait disturbance
Tumours of the posterior fossa in children can be remembered using the mnemonic:
The mnemonic is not in order of prevalence; pilocytic astrocytomas are most common.
B: brainstem glioma
A: astrocytoma (pilocytic) (85%)
A mnemonic to recall the persistent communications between the anterior (carotid) and posterior (vertebrobasilar) systems is:
Knowledge of these anatomical variants is important to avoid confusion with pathology and to prevent inadvertent injury during surgery.
A useful mnemonic for remembering the differential for pituitary region masses is:
S: sarcoid, sellar tumour (pituitary adenoma)
T: teratoma or tuberculosis (and other granulomatous diseases)
C: craniopharyngioma, cleft cyst (Rathke), chordoma
The primitive arteries in the brain can be remembered by the following useful mnemonic:
P: posterior inferior cerebellar
A: anterior choroidal
A handy mnemonic to recall the branches of the sacral plexus prior to its division is:
Six Ps: as all of the nerves start with the letter P
SLIP, DSP: if you slip over, you may need to go on the DSP (Disability Support Pension)
nerve to piriformis (S1-S2)
A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is:
like cats catching dogs for the party up north
C: central lobule
Mnemonics for the nerves passing though the superior orbital fissure include:
Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation
Live Frankly To See Absolutely No Insult
Live Free To See No Insult At All
Lazy French Tarts Sit Nakedly In Anticipation
The order of the nerves passing t...
A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is:
N: neurodegenerative conditions
For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article.
The commonest causes of basal ganglia T2 hypointensity can be recalled using the following mnemonic:
Ch: childhood hypoxia
O: old age
M: multiple sclerosis
P: Parkinson's disease, more in globus pallidus
A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is:
Standing Room Only
standing: superior orbital fissure (frontal branch of trigeminal nerve)
room: foramen rotundum (maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve)